INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Transferring and understanding of meaning
 Why?
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COMMUNICATION PROCESS
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Transferring and understanding of meaning
Noise
Medium
Person B
Person A
Senses
Decodes Information
Encodes Information
Noise
Noise
Noise
Medium
Email/Electronic Media
Tradeoffs
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Too Casual
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Richness—Often misunderstood
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Grammar; Heat of the moment
Emoticons?
Informational Overload
Blurred Boundaries
Relationships
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Conflict Spiral
Human Moment
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
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Language
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Different 1st languages
Jargon/semantics (Northern
exposure; sexual relations)
Literal?
Filtering
Selective perception
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Beliefs, values and
expectations influence how
we interpret meaning
4th of July; Noah vs. Moses
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
Physical location and
distractions
 Emotions
 Poor listening
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 Defensive/Evaluative
 Partial
 Assumptive
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(remember closure)
OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS
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ACTIVE LISTENING IS...
...The MOST effective way to overcome the
barriers to effective communication.
 ...NOT hearing.
 ...ESSENTIAL to managerial success.
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40% of workday
Most important skill in becoming an effective manager
...a skill we typically do not perform well.
ACTIVE LISTENING
INTERNAL
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Empathy
Suspend judgment
Resist distractions
Search for themes
Meta-talk
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Symbolic
Body language
Paralinguistics
EXTERNAL
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Paraphrase the message
Ask questions
Make eye contact
Take Notes
Avoid distracting/interrupting
Use nods & appropriate facial
expressions
Cross Gender & Cultural
Communication
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Cross gender
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Language
Physical Space
Greeting
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Women say 22-25,000 words a day
Men?
Direct vs. Indirect communication
Status/independence vs. connection/intimacy
Apologies
Cultural differences
Gender differences
Eye contact
Cross Cultural Communication
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Time
 Leisurely
vs. impatient
 Task vs. Relationship
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Monochronic vs. Polychronic
 Gender
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Direct/Indirect
 Gender
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and Cultural
and Cultural
High Context
Cross-Cultural Dialogs
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Only later do you realize there has been a
misunderstanding
Know the cultural norms and styles of
interaction/communication of key players
Don’t assume you understand
Verify that what you understood was what was
intended
Verify that what you intended is what was
understood
Listen to what’s not said
Avoid Yes/No questions
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COMMUNICATION