Lecture 8
Non-verbal Communication
and
Time in Culture
Nonverbal Communication Areas
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Body Movements (kinesics)
Space (proxemics)
Time (chronemics)
Touch (haptics)
Voice (paralanguage)
Artifacts
Physical qualities (appearance, etc.)
Social / Environmental Context
Overview of NVC
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10% to 45% of communication is verbal
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two people speaking same native language
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Everything else is NVC & context
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Not just gestures & body language
Characteristics of NVC
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Subconscious cultural differences
No dictionaries
Usually cannot ask someone to repeat
Generally difficult to hide
Time Orientations
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3 types in every culture but one dominates
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Past orientation
Present orientation
Future orientation
Past Orientation
 Tradition very important
 worship ancestors and strong family ties
 aristocracy is important
Present Orientation
 very
little attention to past or future
 past is unimportant and future is vague and unpredictable
Future Orientation
 Change
highly valued
 Future viewed as “bigger and better”
 Being “old-fashioned” is not a good thing
Time Patterns
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sleeping, eating, arriving for meetings, etc.,
how many things one can do at one time
Two ways of categorizing…
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Monochronic
Polychronic
Monochronic Time Pattern
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compartmentalization of time
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Schedule events, see or do things one at a time
Agendas during meetings
Must wait one’s turn
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Parties organized and planned to the minute
Order is important.
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Japan, America, Western Europe
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cultures with low levels of involvement among peopl
e
Polychronic Time Pattern
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No compartmentalization
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Several activities at the same time
Lack of schedules
Parties are unplanned
People come and go as they please
Afro-America, Latin America, Middle East, E
ast India, Malaysia, China
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cultures with high levels of involvement among peopl
e
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