MEDIEVAL
ACHIEVEMENTS
MEDIEVAL ACHIEVEMENTS
Life was very chaotic during the early
Dark Ages. People concentrated on
protecting themselves from invasions
and taking care of their own physical
needs.
After the onset of the Crusades, Europe
experienced greater prosperity and
security and a growing population. As a
result, in the 12th and 13th centuries,
medieval Europe had its golden age.
1. IMPROVEMENTS IN
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY
 Windmills
 Water Wheels
 Iron tools
 Iron heavy plow (could go much
deeper into the soil)
 Horse collar
 System of crop rotation
THE HEAVY PLOW
Farmers were able to open up
extensive new fields thanks to the
heavy plough, boosting crop yields and
population numbers.
WATER MILLS
Water mills were first
developed by the Greeks
before being used throughout
the Roman empire. Their
numbers exploded during this
time. By around 1000 A.D.
there were tens of thousands
of them. The technology
invented by the Greeks was
further refined during the
Middle Ages and was used to
power tanneries, blast
furnaces, forge mills, and
paper mills which evolved into
the machinery used in today's
factories and facilities.
2. BLAST FURNACE
The oldest
known blast
furnaces in
the West were
built in Dürstel
in Switzerland,
the Märkische
Sauerland in
Germany, and
Sweden at
Lapphyttan
where the
complex was
active
between 1150
and 1350.
3. CLOCKS:
THE HOUR GLASS
It was the first
dependable, reusable
and reasonably
accurate measure of
time, especially at sea.
During Ferdinand
Magellan’s voyage
around the globe, his
vessels kept 18
hourglasses per ship. It
was the job of a ship’s
page to turn the
hourglasses and thus
provide the times for the
ship’s log.
CLOCKS:
THE MECHANICAL CLOCK
The first mechanical
clocks to which clear
references exist were
large, weight-driven
machines fitted into
towers and known
today as turret clocks.
This clock was erected
at Rouen, France, in
1389.
4. EYEGLASSES
13th-century
Italians came up
with eyeglasses.
They were first
documented in the
early 1300s, with
early models made
to be held up by
hand or pinched on
the nose. It wasn't
until the 1700s that
designs featuring
arms that bent
around the nose
became widely
used.
5. UNIVERSITIES
 Influenced by contacts with Islamic scholarship during the
Crusades, Europe began to establish universities
 Led to translation of Aristotle and other Greek scholars, from
Arabic into Latin
 Universities taught mainly religious courses at first, but later
broadened scope to include medicine, law
6. SCHOLASTICISM
 A philosophical school of thought that tried to
reconcile faith and the teachings of the Church
with reason and the works of Aristotle.
 Thomas Aquinas was the most famous scholastic.
 He tried to use Aristotle’s methods of logic to
prove existence of God
 His teachings helped expand former ways of
thinking and understanding.
7. USE OF THE VERNACULAR IN
POETRY AND LITERATURE
 The language of scholars and the Church was still Latin
 The vernacular was the language of the common people.
… This included Spanish, French, English, and German.
 People began to produce literature in their own languages.
TROUBADOUR POETRY
The most popular form of vernacular literature in the 12th century was
troubadour poetry, which was mostly love stories about life at court
between knights and ladies of the court.
Troubadours were usually travelling poets and musicians who would go
from court to court telling their stories of courtly love.
LITERATURE
Each influenced the development of their respective languages.
Canterbury Tales
• Geoffrey Chaucer’s collection of
stories
• Group of pilgrims traveling to
Canterbury; each tells story to
entertain others
• Characters give insight into
what life was like in the Middle
Ages
The Divine Comedy
• Dante Alighieri’s story of his
imaginary trip through the
afterlife
• Composed in three parts.
• On journey, met people from own
life, as well as figures from
history
8. ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS
9. MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE
•
Originally buildings were built in a Basilica style which
consisted of a rectangular building with a flat wooden
roof.
•
Later, Romanesque architecture replaced this flat roof
with a rounded arch.
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
 Romanesque architecture had some specific traits.
… Rounded Arches
… Thick walls with small windows with stone roofs.
 The dark environment of the church was meant to suggest the
power and mystery of God.
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE:
GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT OF MIDDLE AGES
•
By the 12th century changes were made to the Romanesque style
which developed a new style known as Gothic Architecture.
•
Gothic architecture developed some distinct characteristics of its
own.
–
Vaulted Arches (Pointed)
–
Flying Buttresses
–
Thinner walls and stained glass windows
•
The advancements allowed thinner walls and larger windows,
which allowed for these new churches to have much more natural
light.
•
The Gothic style was much more serene and self-confident.
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris 1163-1250
FLYING BUTTRESSES
•Gothic designs possible through
advances in engineering
•New type of support, flying
buttress
•Supported walls from outside
•Flying buttresses allowed higher
ceilings, eliminated columns
•Larger windows possible
•Stained glass showed Biblical
scenes, saints
GARGOYLES
 A Gargoyle functioned as a grotesque. They were
meant to scare away evil spirits, but often also
acted as water spouts for the churches.
Descargar

Medieval Cultural Achievements