Philippines
A Brief History
MIDN 1/C Connor
MIDN 1/C Teal
Origins of the Philippines
• Inhabited for more than 30,000 years
• Chinese settle islands in the 10th Century
• 14th Century Muslim traders bring their religion
•
•
and culture to the islands
Portuguese Explore Ferdinand Magellan arrives
March 15, 1521 and brings the first exposure to
Western culture
Magellan killed one month after arriving in a
dispute with a local tribe
Armed Forces of the Philippines
(AFP):
• Army
• Navy:
–Coast Guard
–Marine Corps
• Air Force
Military Power Today
• Military branches:
Army: 73,000
Navy (includes Marine Corps) 24,000
Air Force: 16,500
Paramilitary: 44,000 active
• Primary military equipment
65 tanks
42 combat aircraft
97 armed helicopters
Military Power Today
• Military expenditures: $995 million
• Military manpower
Age of service: 20
Military manpower, availability:
– Males ages 15-49
– 21,220,191
Philippines Today:
• Population: 87,857,473 (July 2005 est.)
• GDP: $451.3 billion (2005 est.)
• Industries:
– electronics assembly, garments,
footwear, pharmaceuticals,
chemicals, wood products,
food processing, petroleum
refining, fishing
• Naural Resources:
– timber, petroleum, nickel,
cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Religion
(2000 census)
• Roman Catholic 80.9%
• Evangelical 2.8%
• Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%
• Aglipayan 2%
• Other Christian 4.5%
• Muslim 5%, other 1.8%
• Unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1%
:
Languages:
• Two Official Languages:
• Filipino: eight major dialects – Tagalog, Cebuano,
Ilocano, Hiligaynon or
Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray,
Pampango, and Pangasinan
• English
Terrain of the Philippines
• mostly mountains with narrow to extensive
coastal lowlands
• The Climate is:
– tropical marine
– northeast monsoon
(Nov to Apr)
– southwest monsoon
(May to October)
Major Cities
of
Philippines
History
• The Philippine Islands became a Spanish
colony during the 16th century
• Given to the US in 1898 following the
Spanish-American War
Unrest among the Filipinos
• Revolutionary Filipino leader Emilio
Aguinaldo takes steps for independence
• June 12, 1898 Declaration of
Independence
• September 15, 1898 convening of a
revolutionary congress and proposal for a
new constitution
America takes control
• December 10, 1898 Treaty of Paris is
signed
• Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico are
given over to the United States
• Cuba was granted independence
• February 4, 1899 hostilities breakout as a
result of the actions of two American
privates
War
• Fighting broke out for more than 2 years
• Around 125,000 American soldiers
committed to the effort
• Estimated 16,000 Filipino casualties
• 4,234 American casualties
End of War
• Aguinaldo captured on March 23, 1901
• Forced to swear allegiance to the United
States
• Insurgent activities continued until 1903
• Replacement of the Sharia or Islamic law
with United States rule
• Non-Muslim curriculum schools established
th
20
Century
• In 1934, United States
Congress passed a law
granting Philippine
Independence
• In 1935 the Philippines
became a self-governing
commonwealth.
– Manuel QUEZON
was elected President
th
20
Century
• In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese
occupation during WWII
• US forces and Filipinos
fought together during
1944-45 to regain control
The Battle of Leyte Gulf
• October 23-26 1944
• Largest naval battle in history
• Last use of “ship of the line” tactics
• First appearance of kamikaze attacks
• Philippines a vital island chain maintaining
the supply line for the Japanese
The Battle of Leyte Gulf
• 4 Distinct engagements
• Battle of the Sibuyan Sea- carrier air attack
• Battle of Surigao Strait- Japanese Battleships
•
•
meet with American battlegroup
Battle off Cape Engaño- Carrier battle, Japan
loses 4 carriers
Battle off Samar- American destroyers used
torpedo and air attacks to run off the Japanese
World War II:
Fledgling Filipino
Navy
• It consisted highly maneuverable motor
torpedo boats known as Q-boats
• The squadron was nicknamed the
“Mosquito Fleet”
• 65% of its men were awarded the Silver
Star Medal and other awards
20th Century
• On 4 July 1946 the Philippines attained their
independence
• Newly elected President Quezon hired retired US Army
Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur to prepare the
Philippines’ Defense System
• The defense system was patterned so that there would
be:
– 200,000 citizen army
– 250 planes of the Philippine Army
Air Corps
– 50 Motor Torpedo Boats (MTB)
International security issues:
• The Philippines is involved in a dispute
over the Spratly Islands with:
– China
– Malaysia
– Taiwan
– Vietnam
– possibly Brunei
Sources of Instability:
• Separatist activities
• Moro Islamic Liberation Front
• Abu Sayyaf
• Moro National Liberation Front
• Human Rights
Current Status
• Democracy led by their 14th elected
president
• Constitution and government similar to
our own
• Muslim Separtist group, Abu Sayyaf,
operating out of the Southern Philippines
• American forces supporting the search and
capture of Abu Sayyaf members
So What?
• Vital shipping lanes
• Chain of Islands
• Exposed coast with mountainous interior
• Basis for Muslim extremist groups
• Unconstitutional for foreign militaries to
conduct operations on the islands
References
• http://www.msnbc.com/modules/new_battlefield/phi
•
•
•
•
•
•
lippines.asp?cp1=1
http://www.navy.mil.ph/gallery/ships/index5.html
http://www.gov.ph/
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/r
p.html#Military
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/philippine
s.htm
http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2002/02021
0-attack01.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Leyte_Gulf
Descargar

Document