History of Computers, Computer
Graphics and Virtual Reality
Brief History of Computers
• Abacus, adding machine with gears (Pascal-17th c),
Leibniz (early 18th c), Jacquard (loom, early 19th c)
• Babbage’s Difference Engine and Analytical Engine
(programmable- 19th c), Ada Lovelace
• Boole’s system of logic (1854)
• Hollerith (1890 census – punchcards in 1928-IBM)
• Turing – On Computable Numbers (1937)
• World War II Colossus – all electronic- vacuum tubes
• Aiken’s Mark I (1944 – mechanical relays)
• Atanasoff-Berry vacuum tubes (early 1940’s)
• Mauchly-Eckert ENIAC
• Von Neumann – stored program (late 1945)
• Hopper – first computer bug
Brief History of computers (con’t)
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IBM 650 – first mass produced computer – 500K RAM (1953)
Texas Instruments- silicon transistors (1954)
McCarthy and Minsky AI (1956)
DEC PDP- first minicomputer - monitor and screen (1960)
First video game (1962)
ARPANET (adv res proj agency – 1962)
Engelbart’s mouse (1964)
Integrated circuits (chips) in computers - Burroughs(1968)invented in 1958
Brooks: kinesthetic interaction between protein molecules
(1967)
Bell Labs: UNIX (1970)
Floppy disks (1970)
Intel 4004- computer on a chip (1971)
Brief History of computers (con’t)
• First PC – Altair in a kit (1975)
• Jobs and Wozniak- Apple I – Apple Computer (1976,
1977)
• Gates and Allen – Microsoft (1977)
• IBM PC (1981)
• SGI (1981)
• Macintosh computer (1984)
• Boom HMD (1987)
• Spatialization of sound at NASA- Fisher and Wenzel
(1989)
• Polhemus position trackers (1988)
• Berners-Lee at CERN – World Wide Web (1989)
• Linux (1991)
• Python (1991)
Brief History of computers (con’t)
• Graphical user interface for Web navigation (Mosaic)
(1993)
• Netscape (1994)
• Yahoo founded (1994)
• Java, Internet Explorer (1995)
• Google founded (1998)
• iMac (1998)
• i-pod (2001)
• Processing computer language (2001)
• Gmail (2004)
• Facebook (2004)
• YouTube (2005)
• i-phone (2007)
• ipad (2010)
• Kinect (2010)
History of Computer Graphics,
Animation and Virtual Reality
• McCay’s Gertie the Dinosaur (1914 – cartoon with
10,000 drawings)
• Disney founded (1923)
• Steamboat Willie: sound animated film (1930)
• Helig’s Sensorama (1956)
• Boeing uses term “computer graphics” (1960)
• Head mounted displays (1960, 1961)
• First video game (Spacewars – 1961)
• Sutherland’s Sketchpad (1963 - MIT doctoral thesis –
computer graphics on a monitor- light pen- vision; later
The Ultimate Display, HMD ideas)
• Macintosh with graphical user interface (GUI) (1984)
Graphics and VR History (con’t)
• Furness’ display system for pilots (1966)
• SIGGRAPH formed (1969)
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Gouraud’s work on shading (1971)
Pong, interactive graphics game (Atari) (1972)
Phong’s work on illumination (1973)
HMD research by Clark (future founder of SGI)
(1974)
Sandin and Sayre bend-sensing glove (1977)
Polhemus tracking system (1979)
Furness’ virtual cockpit (1981)
SGI founded, Sun founded (1981)
Graphics and VR History (con’t)
• Zimmerman: data glove (1982)
• ILM (industrial Light Magic) develops computer graphics
images for “genesis effect” sequence in Star Trek II: The
Wrath of Khan (1982)
• Sonification (sound that represents data) (1982)
• Callahan’s see-through HMD (1983)
• Jaron Lanier: VPL Research- dataglove- coined term VR
(1984)
• Young Sherlock Homes movie (1985- first computer
animated character)
• Beginnings of motion capture (1985)
• Who Framed Roger Rabbit mixes actors and computer
generated (1985)
• Gif and jpeg (1986)
Graphics and VR History (con’t)
• Microsoft adds GUI to Windows (1990)
• Tactile feedback glove, Sense8 founded, first VR
systems (1990)
• CAVE at SIGGRAPH (1992)
• VR symposium (1993)
• Pixar and Disney release Toy Story, first fulllength computer animation (1994)
• mp3 (1993)
• Doom released (1993)
• VR Society formed (1994)
• Gall bladder removed with aid of HMD (1994)
• Graphics cards become popular
• Motion capture
• Kinect gesture capture
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History of Computers, Computer Graphics and Virtual …