Introduction to Engineering
Drawing and Design
Learning Objectives
• Explain topics related to the history of
engineering drafting
• Define drafter and other related
• Identify categories and disciplines
related to drafting
• Describe the requirements for
becoming a drafter
Learning Objectives
• List and explain points to consider when
seeking employment
• Identify the professional organization that
is dedicated to the advancement of
design and drafting
• Explain workplace ethics and related
• Identify topics related to copyrights,
patents, and trademarks
Engineering Drawing
• Common language of engineering
• Process of creating drawings for any
engineering or architectural
Engineering Drawing
• Also known as:
• Drafting
• Engineering drafting
• Mechanical drawing
• Mechanical drafting
• Technical drawing
• Technical drafting
Engineering Drawings
• Effective and efficient way to
• Design intent
• Engineering requirements
• Instructions
• Proposals
• Typically not open to interpretation
Mechanical Drafting
• Used in the manufacturing industry, or
• Heating, ventilating, and airconditioning (HVAC) systems
Manual Drafting
• Traditional drafting practice using
pencil or ink on a medium such as
paper or polyester film
• Mostly replaced by computer-aided
drafting (CAD)
Computers in Design and Drafting
• Have revolutionized design and
drafting practices
• Used in several industries and most
engineering and architectural related
disciplines for design and drafting
Computers in Design and Drafting
• Computer-aided design and drafting
• Computer-aided design (CAD)
• Computer-aided drafting (CAD)
Early Drawing Practices
• Pictograms and petroglyphs
• Prehistoric graphic forms of
• Designers of ancient structures and
• Sketches, drawings, and documents
• 14th and 15th century
• Engineering drawings representing
machines and buildings
Early Engineering Drawing
• Leonardo da Vinci
• 1452-1519
• Italian artist, inventor, and mapmaker
• Created pictorial drawings generally
without dimensions
Leonardo da Vinci
Early Engineering Drawing
• Leon Battista Alberti
• 1404-1472
• Italian architecture and engineering
Explored the need to incorporate more
geometry in drawings
Proposed drawings with multiple views
Early Engineering Drawing
• René Descartes
• 1596-1650
• French inventor of the Cartesian
coordinate system
Founder of analytic geometry
• Gaspard Monge
• 1746-1818
• French developer of descriptive geometry
The Industrial Revolution
• Parts produced from hand sketches or
hand drawings on blackboards
• Coleman Sellers, American engineer and
Henry Ford, American automobile
• Most designs began as a hand sketch of
the object to build
The Industrial Revolution
• Interchangeability became important
• Requires accurate drawings
• 19th century
• Engineering drawing evolves more rapidly
Early Drafting Practices and
• Drawings created by hand on a board
• Initial drawing was done using a pencil, T-
square, triangles, scales, irregular
(French) curves, compasses, and dividers
Drafters often traced original pencil
drawings onto cloth using pen and ink
Attention to lettering quality
Drafting Machines
• Replaced the T-square, triangles,
scales, and protractor
• Arm and track (track shown)
• Parallel bar
Drawing Reproduction
• Required for distributing drawings to
manufacturers or builders
• Blueprints
 Replaced
by the diazo process
 Modern printers, plotters and engineering
copiers create prints
Computer-Aided Design and
Drafting (CADD)
• 1980s
• Schools started teaching CADD
• 1990s
• Many schools and companies make the
complete transition to CADD
• CADD now accounts for almost all
design and drafting
The Drafter
• Prepares technical drawings and plans
used by production and construction
• Fills in technical details using
drawings, rough sketches,
specifications, and calculations made
by engineers, surveyors, architects, or
The Drafter
• Uses technical handbooks, tables,
calculators, and computers
• Most often uses computer-aided design
and drafting (CADD) systems to prepare
Other Common Titles
• Discipline or task
specific titles
Design drafter
• Example:
Drafting technician
 Civil drafter
Engineering drafter
 Civil engineering
CADD operator
 Construction drafter
CADD technician
 Civil CADD
Drafting Fields
• Specific drafting areas have unique
conceptual and skill characteristics
• Drafters often create a variety of
drawings even though they may be an
employ in a certain field, or focus on a
specific product
• Drafters often work with a team,
individuals of the same discipline, and
others related to a specific project
Aeronautical Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Airplanes
• Missiles
• Spacecraft
• Components and related equipment
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Architectural Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Architectural and structural features of a
Architectural Drafter
Automotive Design Drafter
• Working layouts and master drawings
• Automotive vehicle components,
assemblies, and systems
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Cartographic Drafter
• Cartographer
• Maps of geographical areas
• Natural and constructed features
• Political boundaries
• Other features
Casting, Forging, and Mold Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Castings
• Forgings
• Modeled parts
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Civil Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Construction or civil engineering projects
Civil Drafter
Commercial Drafter
• Facilities Drafter
• Lays out the location of buildings
• Planning of arrangements in offices,
large rooms, store buildings, and
• Specialization of architectural drafting
Directional Survey Drafter
• Plots oil- or gas-well boreholes
• Specialization of civil drafting
Electrical Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Electrical equipment
• Wiring diagrams
• Circuit board assembly diagrams
• Layout drawings
Electrical Drafter
Electronic Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Electronic devices and components
• Printed circuit boards
• Electronic equipment
Electronic Drafter
Geological Drafter
• Geological or geophysical stratigraphy
and locations of gas and oil deposits
• Maps
• Diagrams
• Profiles
• Cross sections
• Directional surveys
• Subsurface formations
Geophysical Drafter
• Subsurface contours in rock formations
Heating, Ventilating, and AirConditioning (HVAC) Drafter
• HVAC contract documents from
engineering schematics
• Detail drafter (detailer)
Heating, Ventilating, and AirConditioning (HVAC) Drafter
Industrial Process Pipe Drafter
• Industrial Pipe Drafter, Piping Drafter,
Pipeline Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Layout, construction, and operation of oil
and gas fields, refineries, chemical plants,
and process piping systems
• Oil and gas drafter
Industrial Process Pipe Drafter
Landscape Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Landscape architecture
Mechanical Drafter
• Engineering Drafter
• Mechanical drafting for the
manufacturing industry
Mechanical Drafter
Marine Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Structural and mechanical features of
ships, docks, and other marine structures
and equipment
• Specialization of mechanical and
structural drafting
Patent Drafter
• Clear and accurate drawings of varied
sorts of mechanical devices
• Used by patent lawyer to obtain patent
• Analyzes source data and prepares:
• Mosaic prints
• Contour-map profile sheets
• Related cartographic materials
Plumbing Drafter
• Pipe Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Installation of plumbing and piping
equipment for residential, commercial,
and industrial installations
• Closely related to industrial process
pipe drafting
Structural Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Structures employing structural
reinforcing steel, concrete, masonry,
wood, and other structural materials
• Detail drafter (detailer)
Structural Drafter
Technical Illustrator
• Lays out and draws illustrations for:
• Reference works
• Brochures
• Technical manuals
Technical Illustrator
Tool and Die Design Drafter
• CADD models and detailed drawing
plans for manufacture of tools
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Education and Qualifications
• Postsecondary training in a drafting
• Considerable experience with CADD
systems and techniques
• Strong background in drafting principles
• Ability to apply knowledge to a broader
range of responsibilities
• Mechanical ability and visual aptitude
Education and Qualifications
• Ability to perform detailed work
• Good interpersonal skills
• Knowledge of:
• Drafting standards
• Mathematics
• Science
• Engineering technology
• Manufacturing
• Construction methods
Entry-level or junior drafters
Intermediate drafters
Senior drafter, designer, or supervisor
Opportunities include design, checking,
purchasing, estimating, and
Drafting Job Opportunities
• Fluctuate with national and local
• Tied to industries that are sensitive to
cyclical changes in the economy
• Construction
• Manufacturing
• Increasing temporary or contract
Drafting Job Opportunities
• Mechanical drafting
• Metropolitan areas where manufacturing
is strong
• Civil or structural drafting
• Areas that are more rural
• Electronic data transfer helps to create
a broader range of opportunities
Searching For a Drafting Position
• Education and training requirements
vary with job opportunities and
employer requirements
• Two-year, post-secondary degree
• Cooperative work experience (CWE) or
Job-Seeking Strategy
Get your resume in order
Write an application or cover letter
Prepare a portfolio
Register with employment services
Use internet resources
Job-Seeking Strategy
Be realistic
Research prospective companies
Be prepared when you get an interview
Ask intelligent questions
Respond fast to job leads
Make a decision with enthusiasm
Send thank-you letters
Salaries and Employment Benefits
• Comparable to salaries of other
professions with equal educational
• Employment benefits are common and
vary according to each employer
ADDA International
• American Design Drafting Association,
• American Digital Design Association
• Dedicated to the advancement of
design and drafting and the graphics
professions across all industries
ADDA International
Leadership opportunities
Certification program
Certified curriculum program
Professional councils and student chapters
Annual Design Drafting Week, Technical and
Educational Conference, and poster and
design drafting contest
• Product and publication approval
• Publications
• Employment Center
Drafting Standards
• Established in most industries, schools,
and companies
• Promote safety, reliability, quality,
productivity, interchangeability, and
• Lowers costs and simplifies training
• Code
Drafting Standards
• Apply to:
• CADD file storage, naming, and backup
• File templates
• Units of measurement
• Layout characteristics
• Borders and title blocks
• Symbols
• Layers, and text, table, dimension, and other
drafting styles
• Plot styles and plotting
Common Engineering Drawing and
Design Standards
• American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) standards
• Accredited by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
• American Welding Society (AWS) standards
• CADD Skill Standards
• International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) standards
• United States National CAD Standard (NCS)
Workplace Ethics
• Elements of a code of ethics:
• Be dependable
• Obey the laws
• Be good to customers
Intellectual Property Rights
• Protecting product research,
engineering, and development
• Employees must help protect design
ideas and trade secrets
• Proprietary notes on drawings
Software Piracy
• It is against the law to share copies of
some software
• Use software legally and report illegal
use when observed
• Control exclusively the reproduction
and distribution of:
• Literary, musical, and dramatic works
• Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
• Motion pictures and other audiovisual
Sound recordings
Architectural and certain other
intellectual works
• 20-year term
• U.S. patent grants effective only
within the U.S., U.S. territories, and
U.S. possessions
• Subject matter must be useful
Application for a Patent
• Nonprovisional Application for a Patent
• Provisional Application for a Patent
Patent Drawings
• Form an integral part of a patent
• Must show every feature of the
• Different from a copyright or a patent
• Rights start from the actual use of the
• Federal registration not required, but
offers advantages
• Service mark