CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Engineering
Drawing and Design
Learning Objectives
• Explain topics related to the history of
engineering drafting
• Define drafter and other related
terminology
• Identify categories and disciplines
related to drafting
• Describe the requirements for
becoming a drafter
Learning Objectives
• List and explain points to consider when
seeking employment
• Identify the professional organization that
is dedicated to the advancement of
design and drafting
• Explain workplace ethics and related
issues
• Identify topics related to copyrights,
patents, and trademarks
Engineering Drawing
• Common language of engineering
• Process of creating drawings for any
engineering or architectural
application
Engineering Drawing
• Also known as:
• Drafting
• Engineering drafting
• Mechanical drawing
• Mechanical drafting
• Technical drawing
• Technical drafting
Engineering Drawings
• Effective and efficient way to
communicate:
• Design intent
• Engineering requirements
• Instructions
• Proposals
• Typically not open to interpretation
Mechanical Drafting
• Used in the manufacturing industry, or
• Heating, ventilating, and airconditioning (HVAC) systems
Manual Drafting
• Traditional drafting practice using
pencil or ink on a medium such as
paper or polyester film
• Mostly replaced by computer-aided
drafting (CAD)
Computers in Design and Drafting
• Have revolutionized design and
drafting practices
• Used in several industries and most
engineering and architectural related
disciplines for design and drafting
Computers in Design and Drafting
• Computer-aided design and drafting
(CADD)
• Computer-aided design (CAD)
• Computer-aided drafting (CAD)
Early Drawing Practices
• Pictograms and petroglyphs
• Prehistoric graphic forms of
communication
• Designers of ancient structures and
machines
• Sketches, drawings, and documents
• 14th and 15th century
• Engineering drawings representing
machines and buildings
Early Engineering Drawing
Pioneers
• Leonardo da Vinci
• 1452-1519
• Italian artist, inventor, and mapmaker
• Created pictorial drawings generally
without dimensions
Leonardo da Vinci
Early Engineering Drawing
Pioneers
• Leon Battista Alberti
• 1404-1472
• Italian architecture and engineering
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•
author
Explored the need to incorporate more
geometry in drawings
Proposed drawings with multiple views
Early Engineering Drawing
Pioneers
• René Descartes
• 1596-1650
• French inventor of the Cartesian
coordinate system
Founder of analytic geometry
•
• Gaspard Monge
• 1746-1818
• French developer of descriptive geometry
The Industrial Revolution
• Parts produced from hand sketches or
hand drawings on blackboards
• Coleman Sellers, American engineer and
•
innovator
Henry Ford, American automobile
manufacture
• Most designs began as a hand sketch of
the object to build
The Industrial Revolution
• Interchangeability became important
• Requires accurate drawings
• 19th century
• Engineering drawing evolves more rapidly
Early Drafting Practices and
Equipment
• Drawings created by hand on a board
• Initial drawing was done using a pencil, T-
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•
square, triangles, scales, irregular
(French) curves, compasses, and dividers
Drafters often traced original pencil
drawings onto cloth using pen and ink
Attention to lettering quality
Drafting Machines
• Replaced the T-square, triangles,
scales, and protractor
• Arm and track (track shown)
• Parallel bar
Drawing Reproduction
• Required for distributing drawings to
manufacturers or builders
• Blueprints
 Replaced
by the diazo process
 Modern printers, plotters and engineering
copiers create prints
Computer-Aided Design and
Drafting (CADD)
• 1980s
• Schools started teaching CADD
• 1990s
• Many schools and companies make the
complete transition to CADD
• CADD now accounts for almost all
design and drafting
The Drafter
• Prepares technical drawings and plans
used by production and construction
workers
• Fills in technical details using
drawings, rough sketches,
specifications, and calculations made
by engineers, surveyors, architects, or
scientists
The Drafter
• Uses technical handbooks, tables,
calculators, and computers
• Most often uses computer-aided design
and drafting (CADD) systems to prepare
drawings
Other Common Titles
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•
Draftsperson
• Discipline or task
specific titles
Design drafter
• Example:
Drafting technician
 Civil drafter
Engineering drafter
 Civil engineering
drafter
CADD operator
 Construction drafter
CADD technician
 Civil CADD
technician
Drafting Fields
• Specific drafting areas have unique
conceptual and skill characteristics
• Drafters often create a variety of
drawings even though they may be an
employ in a certain field, or focus on a
specific product
• Drafters often work with a team,
individuals of the same discipline, and
others related to a specific project
Aeronautical Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Airplanes
• Missiles
• Spacecraft
• Components and related equipment
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Architectural Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Architectural and structural features of a
building
Architectural Drafter
Automotive Design Drafter
• Working layouts and master drawings
• Automotive vehicle components,
assemblies, and systems
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Cartographic Drafter
• Cartographer
• Maps of geographical areas
• Natural and constructed features
• Political boundaries
• Other features
Casting, Forging, and Mold Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Castings
• Forgings
• Modeled parts
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Civil Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Construction or civil engineering projects
Civil Drafter
Commercial Drafter
• Facilities Drafter
• Lays out the location of buildings
• Planning of arrangements in offices,
large rooms, store buildings, and
factories
• Specialization of architectural drafting
Directional Survey Drafter
• Plots oil- or gas-well boreholes
• Specialization of civil drafting
Electrical Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Electrical equipment
• Wiring diagrams
• Circuit board assembly diagrams
• Layout drawings
Electrical Drafter
Electronic Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Electronic devices and components
• Printed circuit boards
• Electronic equipment
Electronic Drafter
Geological Drafter
• Geological or geophysical stratigraphy
and locations of gas and oil deposits
• Maps
• Diagrams
• Profiles
• Cross sections
• Directional surveys
• Subsurface formations
Geophysical Drafter
• Subsurface contours in rock formations
Heating, Ventilating, and AirConditioning (HVAC) Drafter
• HVAC contract documents from
engineering schematics
• Detail drafter (detailer)
Heating, Ventilating, and AirConditioning (HVAC) Drafter
Industrial Process Pipe Drafter
• Industrial Pipe Drafter, Piping Drafter,
Pipeline Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Layout, construction, and operation of oil
and gas fields, refineries, chemical plants,
and process piping systems
• Oil and gas drafter
Industrial Process Pipe Drafter
Landscape Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Landscape architecture
Mechanical Drafter
• Engineering Drafter
• Mechanical drafting for the
manufacturing industry
Mechanical Drafter
Marine Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Structural and mechanical features of
ships, docks, and other marine structures
and equipment
• Specialization of mechanical and
structural drafting
Patent Drafter
• Clear and accurate drawings of varied
sorts of mechanical devices
• Used by patent lawyer to obtain patent
rights
Photogrammetrist
• Analyzes source data and prepares:
• Mosaic prints
• Contour-map profile sheets
• Related cartographic materials
Plumbing Drafter
• Pipe Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Installation of plumbing and piping
equipment for residential, commercial,
and industrial installations
• Closely related to industrial process
pipe drafting
Structural Drafter
• CADD models and drawings
• Structures employing structural
reinforcing steel, concrete, masonry,
wood, and other structural materials
• Detail drafter (detailer)
Structural Drafter
Technical Illustrator
• Lays out and draws illustrations for:
• Reference works
• Brochures
• Technical manuals
Technical Illustrator
Tool and Die Design Drafter
• CADD models and detailed drawing
plans for manufacture of tools
• Specialization of mechanical drafting
Education and Qualifications
• Postsecondary training in a drafting
program
• Considerable experience with CADD
systems and techniques
• Strong background in drafting principles
• Ability to apply knowledge to a broader
range of responsibilities
• Mechanical ability and visual aptitude
Education and Qualifications
• Ability to perform detailed work
accurately
• Good interpersonal skills
• Knowledge of:
• Drafting standards
• Mathematics
• Science
• Engineering technology
• Manufacturing
• Construction methods
Advancement
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Entry-level or junior drafters
Intermediate drafters
Senior drafter, designer, or supervisor
Opportunities include design, checking,
purchasing, estimating, and
management
Drafting Job Opportunities
• Fluctuate with national and local
economies
• Tied to industries that are sensitive to
cyclical changes in the economy
• Construction
• Manufacturing
• Increasing temporary or contract
employment
Drafting Job Opportunities
• Mechanical drafting
• Metropolitan areas where manufacturing
is strong
• Civil or structural drafting
• Areas that are more rural
• Electronic data transfer helps to create
a broader range of opportunities
Searching For a Drafting Position
• Education and training requirements
vary with job opportunities and
employer requirements
• Two-year, post-secondary degree
advantage
• Cooperative work experience (CWE) or
internship
Job-Seeking Strategy
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Get your resume in order
Write an application or cover letter
Prepare a portfolio
Register with employment services
Use internet resources
Job-Seeking Strategy
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Be realistic
Research prospective companies
Be prepared when you get an interview
Ask intelligent questions
Respond fast to job leads
Make a decision with enthusiasm
Send thank-you letters
Salaries and Employment Benefits
• Comparable to salaries of other
professions with equal educational
requirements
• Employment benefits are common and
vary according to each employer
ADDA International
• American Design Drafting Association,
and
• American Digital Design Association
• Dedicated to the advancement of
design and drafting and the graphics
professions across all industries
ADDA International
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Leadership opportunities
Certification program
Certified curriculum program
Professional councils and student chapters
Annual Design Drafting Week, Technical and
Educational Conference, and poster and
design drafting contest
• Product and publication approval
• Publications
• Employment Center
Drafting Standards
• Established in most industries, schools,
and companies
• Promote safety, reliability, quality,
productivity, interchangeability, and
efficiency
• Lowers costs and simplifies training
• Code
Drafting Standards
• Apply to:
• CADD file storage, naming, and backup
• File templates
• Units of measurement
• Layout characteristics
• Borders and title blocks
• Symbols
• Layers, and text, table, dimension, and other
drafting styles
• Plot styles and plotting
Common Engineering Drawing and
Design Standards
• American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) standards
• Accredited by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
• American Welding Society (AWS) standards
• CADD Skill Standards
• International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) standards
• United States National CAD Standard (NCS)
Workplace Ethics
• Elements of a code of ethics:
• Be dependable
• Obey the laws
• Be good to customers
Intellectual Property Rights
• Protecting product research,
engineering, and development
• Employees must help protect design
ideas and trade secrets
• Proprietary notes on drawings
Software Piracy
• It is against the law to share copies of
some software
• Use software legally and report illegal
use when observed
Copyrights
• Control exclusively the reproduction
and distribution of:
• Literary, musical, and dramatic works
• Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
• Motion pictures and other audiovisual
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•
works
Sound recordings
Architectural and certain other
intellectual works
Patents
• 20-year term
• U.S. patent grants effective only
within the U.S., U.S. territories, and
U.S. possessions
• Subject matter must be useful
Application for a Patent
• Nonprovisional Application for a Patent
• Provisional Application for a Patent
Patent Drawings
• Form an integral part of a patent
application
• Must show every feature of the
invention
Trademarks
• Different from a copyright or a patent
• Rights start from the actual use of the
mark
• Federal registration not required, but
offers advantages
• Service mark
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