Graphic
Communication
Signs & Symbols
Signs
Signs are used to convey information
in pictorial form.
 This has many advantages over
written instructions.
 People who talk different languages
can understand the same common
signs.
 Instructions for some tasks can be
clearer when given as drawings.

Signs & Symbols
Signs & symbols are commonly used
in everyday situations.
 Roadsigns, information, engineering
symbols, flow charts and circuit
diagrams are types of drawings that
you will need to know about for your
exams.

Signs
There are different families of signs.
 These are:

mandatory signs
 prohibition signs
 warning signs
 safety signs
 danger signs

Signs - Mandatory signs
These signs are blue in colour.
 They give a positive instruction. In
other words they tell you what to do
rather than what not to do.

Turn left
Signs - Prohibition signs
These signs are circular with a line
across the circle.
 They are red in colour.

No smoking
Signs - Warning signs
These signs are yellow.
 They are normally triangular but can
be other shapes.

Signs - Safety Signs

These signs tell people of safe places
to go or safe conditions.
Signs - Danger signs
These signs warn people of
dangerous situations.
 Commonly found on roadsigns and
the back of long vehicles.

Signs
There are also general information
signs used for a number of different
purposes.
 Some common signs are shown over
the next few slides.

Signs - Kitemark
The Kitemark is used to tell
consumers that the products they buy
are safety tested to BSI standards.
 All products sold must carry this
Kitemark to be legally sold.

The British
Standards
Kitemark.
Signs - Fragile

This mark is placed on breakable
objects’ packaging to tell people
handling the box to treat it with care.
The Fragile
symbol.
Signs - Recycled
This mark is placed on recycled objects to
tell the consumer that they are buying a
recycled product.
 This is a big advertising point as
companies like their products to be seen
as being environmentally friendly.

Flow Charts
A Flow Chart is a method of showing
the correct steps to follow in order to
complete some type of problem.
 There are some symbols used in flow
charts to show certain processes that
have to be done when completing the
problem.

Flow Charts

These symbols are shown below.
Process
Start/Stop
Decision
Input/Output
Start
Flow Charts
Has button
been pushed?

An example of a
flow chart for a
pelican crossing is
shown:
Yes
Amber light on
Wait 2
Red light on
Wait 10
Red light off
Amber light flash
Wait 5
Green light on
No
Circuit Diagrams



When electrical circuits are designed,
standard symbols are used to tell people
what the different components are.
This is so people from different countries
and areas can understand the drawings.
It would be dangerous for a person to
wire a circuit up incorrectly simply
because they did not understand the
drawing!
Circuit Diagrams


These symbols are drawn to British
Standards.
You have to know some of them. These
are drawn over the next two slides.
switch (general symbol)
cross-overs
junctions
Circuit Diagrams
bulb
battery
electric bell
microphone
loudspeaker
Drawing Symbols
Drawings use many different line
types to show different parts of an
object.
 These are standardised so that
anyone can understand what is meant
by a particular line type regardless of
where they come from.

Drawing Symbols
Orthographic drawings are drawn in
Third Angle Projection.
 This is a standard drawing layout
covered in the tutorial on orthographic
projection where the 3 views are
drawn in the direction you are looking
at them.

Drawing Symbols
The 3rd Angle Projection symbol is
shown below.
 This is normally included on a drawing
to tell people the standard it is drawn
in.

Drawing Symbols

Different line types used include:
outlines
 projection lines
 hidden detail
 centre lines
 cutting planes
 fold lines

Drawing Symbols - Outlines
Outlines are used to show the outline
of an object.
 They are thicker than projection lines.
 Drawn at 0.7mm thick.

Drawing Symbols - Projection
Lines
Projection lines are used to help
construct a drawing.
 They are not part of the outline of the
drawing and are drawn lightly and
thin.

Drawing Symbols - Hidden
Detail
Hidden detail lines are used to show
any part of an object that cannot be
seen but does exist.
 They are dashed lines.

Drawing Symbols - Centre
Lines
Centre lines are used to show the
centre of circles or lines of symmetry.
 They are drawn as a series of long
and short dashes.

Drawing Symbols - Cutting
Planes




Cutting planes are used to show where an object
is cut in a sectional drawing.
The arrows tell us what direction the cut is to be
viewed.
The letters are the label of the section.
The ends of the cutting plane are drawn slightly
thicker than the rest of it.
X
X
Drawing Symbols - Fold
Lines

Fold lines are used to show where
surface developments should be
folded.
CL Centre Line  
AF Across Flats  
AC Across Corners  
Diameter   
R Radius   
 Square
Drawing Symbols Abbreviations

Often in technical drawings
abbreviations are used to translate
information quickly for example :
CL Centre Line 
AF Across Flats – size across the flats
AC Across Corners – size across the
corners
Drawing Symbols Abbreviations

Other symbols used in drawings are
Diameter – used in dimensioning 
Radius – used in dimensioning
Square - used in dimensioning
R
Building Symbols
Engineers need to use symbols to
show the different materials used in
building a house.
 This is law as when submitting
planning permission a company must
be able to prove the quality of the
houses or buildings they want to build.

Building Symbols

These are some common symbols
that you will need to remember.
Shower tray
Sink top
Bath
Sink
Radiator
Washbasin
Building Symbols

These are some common symbols
that you will need to remember.
In-line valve
(any type)
Crossover
Window
Door
Sawn wood
Junctions
Building Symbols

These are some common symbols
that you will need to remember.
Bulb
Switch
Socket
Insulation
Brickwork
Concrete
Storyboards
Storyboards give step by step instructions
on how to operate something using
pictures to illustrate what is to be done at
each stage.
 Short statements further help the user
understand what to do.
 They are often found on change machines
and in electrical appliance instructions.

Storyboards
These are advantageous as a person does
not have to speak any specific language to
understand what to do.
 The written instructions are kept very short
which helps people who, for any reason,
cannot read things properly.
 Often the statements are also given in
many different languages to help
foreigners.

Building drawings
A number of different drawings are
required to be completed and
submitted to the local authorities when
developers want to build new
buildings.
 This group of drawings is called a
Project Set.

Project Set

A project set consists of a number of
different drawings including
elevations
 sketches
 sectional drawings
 schematic diagrams
 location plans
 site plans
 floor plans

Project Set
Elevations, sketches and sectional
drawings are required to view the actual
building.
 Schematic diagrams are used by
tradesmen to install any electrical circuit
work or plumbing and heating.
 Schematic diagrams use British Standards
symbols covered in these slides.

Location Plans
This type of drawing shows the
position of the new building in its
surrounding area.
 It is as if you are looking at the
building from an aeroplane above.
 It is normally drawn to a scale of
1:1250.

Location Plans

This is an example of a location plan.
Site Plans
This type of drawing shows the
building from closer in than a Location
Plan.
 It is like a bird is looking down at it.
 It shows the building in its immediate
surrounding area.
 It is normally drawn at a scale of
1:200.

Site Plans

This is an example of a site plan.
Floor Plans
This type of drawing shows the
internal layout of a building including
the materials used in the walls.
 Any electrical appliances fitted will
also be drawn like, radiators, electrical
sockets and switches.
 This type of drawing is normally drawn
at a scale of 1:50.

Floor Plans

This is an
example of a
floor plan.
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Graphic Communication