Graphic Communication Signs & Symbols Signs Signs are used to convey information in pictorial form. This has many advantages over written instructions. People who talk different languages can understand the same common signs. Instructions for some tasks can be clearer when given as drawings. Signs & Symbols Signs & symbols are commonly used in everyday situations. Roadsigns, information, engineering symbols, flow charts and circuit diagrams are types of drawings that you will need to know about for your exams. Signs There are different families of signs. These are: mandatory signs prohibition signs warning signs safety signs danger signs Signs - Mandatory signs These signs are blue in colour. They give a positive instruction. In other words they tell you what to do rather than what not to do. Turn left Signs - Prohibition signs These signs are circular with a line across the circle. They are red in colour. No smoking Signs - Warning signs These signs are yellow. They are normally triangular but can be other shapes. Signs - Safety Signs These signs tell people of safe places to go or safe conditions. Signs - Danger signs These signs warn people of dangerous situations. Commonly found on roadsigns and the back of long vehicles. Signs There are also general information signs used for a number of different purposes. Some common signs are shown over the next few slides. Signs - Kitemark The Kitemark is used to tell consumers that the products they buy are safety tested to BSI standards. All products sold must carry this Kitemark to be legally sold. The British Standards Kitemark. Signs - Fragile This mark is placed on breakable objects’ packaging to tell people handling the box to treat it with care. The Fragile symbol. Signs - Recycled This mark is placed on recycled objects to tell the consumer that they are buying a recycled product. This is a big advertising point as companies like their products to be seen as being environmentally friendly. Flow Charts A Flow Chart is a method of showing the correct steps to follow in order to complete some type of problem. There are some symbols used in flow charts to show certain processes that have to be done when completing the problem. Flow Charts These symbols are shown below. Process Start/Stop Decision Input/Output Start Flow Charts Has button been pushed? An example of a flow chart for a pelican crossing is shown: Yes Amber light on Wait 2 Red light on Wait 10 Red light off Amber light flash Wait 5 Green light on No Circuit Diagrams When electrical circuits are designed, standard symbols are used to tell people what the different components are. This is so people from different countries and areas can understand the drawings. It would be dangerous for a person to wire a circuit up incorrectly simply because they did not understand the drawing! Circuit Diagrams These symbols are drawn to British Standards. You have to know some of them. These are drawn over the next two slides. switch (general symbol) cross-overs junctions Circuit Diagrams bulb battery electric bell microphone loudspeaker Drawing Symbols Drawings use many different line types to show different parts of an object. These are standardised so that anyone can understand what is meant by a particular line type regardless of where they come from. Drawing Symbols Orthographic drawings are drawn in Third Angle Projection. This is a standard drawing layout covered in the tutorial on orthographic projection where the 3 views are drawn in the direction you are looking at them. Drawing Symbols The 3rd Angle Projection symbol is shown below. This is normally included on a drawing to tell people the standard it is drawn in. Drawing Symbols Different line types used include: outlines projection lines hidden detail centre lines cutting planes fold lines Drawing Symbols - Outlines Outlines are used to show the outline of an object. They are thicker than projection lines. Drawn at 0.7mm thick. Drawing Symbols - Projection Lines Projection lines are used to help construct a drawing. They are not part of the outline of the drawing and are drawn lightly and thin. Drawing Symbols - Hidden Detail Hidden detail lines are used to show any part of an object that cannot be seen but does exist. They are dashed lines. Drawing Symbols - Centre Lines Centre lines are used to show the centre of circles or lines of symmetry. They are drawn as a series of long and short dashes. Drawing Symbols - Cutting Planes Cutting planes are used to show where an object is cut in a sectional drawing. The arrows tell us what direction the cut is to be viewed. The letters are the label of the section. The ends of the cutting plane are drawn slightly thicker than the rest of it. X X Drawing Symbols - Fold Lines Fold lines are used to show where surface developments should be folded. CL Centre Line AF Across Flats AC Across Corners Diameter R Radius Square Drawing Symbols Abbreviations Often in technical drawings abbreviations are used to translate information quickly for example : CL Centre Line AF Across Flats – size across the flats AC Across Corners – size across the corners Drawing Symbols Abbreviations Other symbols used in drawings are Diameter – used in dimensioning Radius – used in dimensioning Square - used in dimensioning R Building Symbols Engineers need to use symbols to show the different materials used in building a house. This is law as when submitting planning permission a company must be able to prove the quality of the houses or buildings they want to build. Building Symbols These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. Shower tray Sink top Bath Sink Radiator Washbasin Building Symbols These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. In-line valve (any type) Crossover Window Door Sawn wood Junctions Building Symbols These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. Bulb Switch Socket Insulation Brickwork Concrete Storyboards Storyboards give step by step instructions on how to operate something using pictures to illustrate what is to be done at each stage. Short statements further help the user understand what to do. They are often found on change machines and in electrical appliance instructions. Storyboards These are advantageous as a person does not have to speak any specific language to understand what to do. The written instructions are kept very short which helps people who, for any reason, cannot read things properly. Often the statements are also given in many different languages to help foreigners. Building drawings A number of different drawings are required to be completed and submitted to the local authorities when developers want to build new buildings. This group of drawings is called a Project Set. Project Set A project set consists of a number of different drawings including elevations sketches sectional drawings schematic diagrams location plans site plans floor plans Project Set Elevations, sketches and sectional drawings are required to view the actual building. Schematic diagrams are used by tradesmen to install any electrical circuit work or plumbing and heating. Schematic diagrams use British Standards symbols covered in these slides. Location Plans This type of drawing shows the position of the new building in its surrounding area. It is as if you are looking at the building from an aeroplane above. It is normally drawn to a scale of 1:1250. Location Plans This is an example of a location plan. Site Plans This type of drawing shows the building from closer in than a Location Plan. It is like a bird is looking down at it. It shows the building in its immediate surrounding area. It is normally drawn at a scale of 1:200. Site Plans This is an example of a site plan. Floor Plans This type of drawing shows the internal layout of a building including the materials used in the walls. Any electrical appliances fitted will also be drawn like, radiators, electrical sockets and switches. This type of drawing is normally drawn at a scale of 1:50. Floor Plans This is an example of a floor plan.