Environmental & Facility
SAFETY SIGN
Overview
IEEE IAS 2000
San Antonio, TX
Bob Rafferty - DuPont / Global Services Business / Engineering
February 16, 2000
Agenda
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Guiding Standards
Types of Safety Signs
Signal words
Message words
Symbols
Color
Examples
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Safety Sign - Definition
• A visual alerting device in the form of a
sign, label, decal, placard or other marking
which advises the observer of the nature and
degree of the potential hazard(s) which can
cause an accident. It may also provide other
directions to eliminate or reduce the hazard
and advise of the probable consequences of
no avoiding the hazard.
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SAFETY SIGNS & COLORS
Applicable Standards
• ANSI Z535.1 - Safety Color Code
• ANSI Z535.2 - Environmental & Facility
Safety Signs
• ANSI Z535.3 - Criteria for Safety Symbols
• ANSI Z535.4 - Product Safety Signs and
Labels
• ANSI Z535.5 - Accident Prevention Tags
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Safety Signs
(what has changed)
ANSI Z535 volumes 1 through 5 were revised
in 1998. Major changes include:
• Change in sign format and layout
• Safety alert and other symbols
• Signal Words (four that are most important
to the electrical community)
• Quantifying use of signal words
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Categories of Safety Signs
• Environmental safety sign: Sign or placard
in a work or public area that provides safety
information about the immediate
environment. (will be addressed)
• Product safety sign: Sign, label, or decal
affixed to a product that provides hazard
and safety information about that product.
(not addressed)
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Classification of Safety Signs
(three tier personnel injury hazard classification & others)
• DANGER
• WARNING
• CAUTION
• NOTICE
• SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
• FIRE SAFETY & DIRECTIONAL
SIGNS (not discussed)
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Safety Sign Format
(Normally made up of two or three “Panels”)
• Signal word panel: Contains signal word.
Also contains safety alert symbol for
personnel hazards.
• Message panel: Contains those words
relating to: Identification of the hazard, how
to avoid the hazard, and/or the probable
consequence of not avoiding the hazard.
• Symbol/Pictorial panel: Contains symbol
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Two-panel sign format
Signal Word Panel
Word Message ____________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
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Three-Panel Sign Format
(Layout can vary)
Signal Word Panel
Word message
Symbol/Pictorial
Panel
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Safety Alert
!
• It is used to alert to potential personal injury
hazards. Obey all safety messages that
follow to avoid possible injury or death.
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Danger - Signal word panel
(ANSI 535.2)
• DANGER: Imminently hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
!
DANGER
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Danger - Alternate signal word
panel
(ANSI 535.2, for Danger only)
• DANGER: Imminently hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
DANGER
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Warning - Signal word panel
(ANSI 53.1, ANSI 535.2)
• WARNING: Potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, could result in death
or serious injury.
• Alternate (older) black letters, on safety orange
truncated triangle, on a black background.
!
WARNING
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Caution - Signal word panel #1
(ANSI 53.1, ANSI 535.2)
• CAUTION: Potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, may result in minor
or moderate injury.
• Alternate safety yellow on black background
!
CAUTION
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Caution - Signal word panel #2
(ANSI 53.1, ANSI 535.2)
• Used without the safety alert symbol
indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, may result in
property damage.
CAUTION
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Notice - Signal word panel
• NOTICE: Signs used to indicate a statement of
company policy or information indirectly
related to the safety of personnel or protection
of property.
NOTICE
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General Safety-Signal word
panel
• Indicates general instructions relative to
safe work practices, reminders of proper
safety procedures, or location of safety
equipment.
SAFETY
INSTRUCTIONS
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Word Message Panel
• Communicates information to an observer
on the type of hazard, the consequence of
not avoiding the hazard and how to avoid
the hazard.
• Some factors to consider:
– Can the hazard be inferred by the symbol?
– Reaction time required to avoid the hazard?
– Target audiences knowledge of the hazard?
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Formatting the word message
(use “headline style”)
• Omit pronouns (this, that, they) , articles (a,
the, an), verbs (is, are, were)
• Headline style Message examples:
Hazardous voltage inside
Keep out!
Keep access door locked
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Ordering the content of word
message (example)
Keep Out
Hazardous
Voltage inside
Can shock, burn
or cause death
Avoidance or action
Statement
Type of Hazard Statement
Consequence Statement
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Action Statement
• Tells the viewer how to avoid the hazard
• Statement should be simple, direct and
applicable to the hazard
• Examples:
Keep out!
Wear hard hats
Keep away
No smoking
Call before you dig
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Hazard description statement
• Identify the hazard in clear simple language
• Action and consequence can be omitted if
obvious (such as “slippery when wet”)
• Examples:
Hazardous voltage inside
Buried underground cables
More than one source of voltage
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Consequence statement
• Tells the viewer in clear, simple language
what will happen if the warning is ignored.
• Examples:
–
–
–
–
–
Can shock, burn, or cause death
Will disrupt electrical service
Can irritate skin
Can cause serious burns
Exposure can cause nausea, and dizziness
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Symbols / pictorial panel
(ANSI Z535.3-1998)
• SYMBOL: Graphic representation intended
to covey a message. May represent a
hazard, hazardous situation or precaution to
avoid a hazard, the result of not avoiding
the hazard of any combination of these
messages.
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Typical Symbol
• Symbols - Recognition by a multi-ethnic, highly mobile,
population derived from a multiplicity of social and
educational backgrounds, with different reading skills and
word comprehension.
Electrical
Hand with wire
Electrical
Body with wire
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Typical Symbol (cont’d)
• Other electrical symbols - Use only with supplementary
word messages (50 - 83% recognition testing)
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Safety Sign Color
(recommended panel color schemes, all alternates not shown)
DANGER
Signal word:
White letters on a safety red background, safety red exclamation mark
(Alternate):
White letters on safety red oval with white outline on black rectangle
Message word : Black or red letters on white background, or white letters on black background
Symbol/pictorial:Black, safety red, or black and safety red on a white background
WARNING
Signal word:
Black letters on a safety orange background, safety orange exclamation mark
(Alternate):
Black letters within a safety orange truncated diamond on a black background
Message word: Black letters on a white background, or white letters on a black background
Symbol/pictorial: Black symbol on a white background. Alternate safety orange. background
CAUTION
Signal word:
Black letters on a safety yellow background, safety yellow exclamation mark
(Alternate):
Black letters within a safety orange truncated diamond on a black background
Message word: Black letters on a white background, or white letters on a black background
Symbol/pictorial: Black symbol on a white background. Alternate safety yellow background.
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Danger Sign - Example
(Based on interpretation of ANSI Z535.1-1997 / replaces Z53.1-1979)
• Example safety sign with message panel where
hazard may not be clearly understood.
Safety Alert symbol (optional with message)
!
DANGER
Hazardous Voltage Inside
Will cause death or
serious injury
Signal Word (degree
of hazard)
Hazard statement (can
also be avoidance
statement)
Consequence hazard
Change “will” to “could”
changes signal word to
“WARNING”.
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Caution Sign - Example
• Identify source of hazard where opening the
supply disconnect does not remove all sources of
hazardous voltages
!
CAUTION
CONTAINS 120Vac
120Vac FROM
FROM
CONTAINS
MORETHAN
THANONE
ONESOURCE
SOURCE
MORE
(CONSULT
SCHEMATIC
______________
(CONSULT
SCHEMATIC
(S) (S)
______________
) )
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Arc-Flash / PPE Label
• Example of a PPE label attached to the front of
electrical equipment. (based on NFPA 70E-1995)
EQUIPMENT NAME ___________________________________________
EQUIPMENT
NAME
___________________________________________
POWER
SOURCE
LOCATION
__________________________________
POWER SOURCE
LOCATION
__________________________________
EQUIPMENT
RATING
________ VOLT
__ PHASE
EQUIPMENT
RATING
________
__ PHASE
FLASH HAZARD
BOUNDARY
_______
inchesVOLT PPE
LEVEL ____
FLASH
HAZARD
BOUNDARY _______ inches
PPE LEVEL ____
SHOCK
HAZARD
BOUNDARY:
SHOCK HAZARD
BOUNDARY:
LIMITED APPROACH
________
inches
LIMITED
APPROACH
________ inches
RESTRICTED
APPROACH
____ inches
RESTRICTED
PROHIBITIED
APPROACHAPPROACH
____ inches ____ inches
PROHIBITIED APPROACH ____ inches
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Arc-Flash / PPE Label
(ANSI Z535.2, clauses 4.12.4, and 5.4.1)
• Example of a PPE label attached to the front
of electrical equipment. (based on NFPA 70E-1995)
•
NOTICE
EQUIPMENT NAME ___________________________________________
POWER SOURCE LOCATION __________________________________
EQUIPMENT RATING ________ VOLT __ PHASE
FLASH HAZARD BOUNDARY _______ inches
PPE LEVEL ____
SHOCK HAZARD BOUNDARY:
LIMITED APPROACH ________ inches
RESTRICTED APPROACH ____ inches
PROHIBITIED APPROACH ____ inches
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Arc-Flash -Incident Energy Label
• Changes to NFPA 70E arc-flash incident
energy calculation may be required.
• At this time, there is not a recognized label
that could be attached to equipment.
• Forms available in the back of the room to
propose a label to NFPA. Chance to directly
influence a standard.
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Danger Sign Example More than one language
DANGER
KEEP OUT
HIGH
VOLTAGE
PELIGRO
PROHIBIDA
LA ENTRADA
ALTO
VOLTAJE
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Closing - We discussed
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Guiding Standards
Types of Safety Signs
Signal words
Message words
Symbols
Color
Examples
IEEE IAS 2000 - Electrical Safety Workshop - Safety signs
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Alert the hazard !
DANGER
KEEP OUT
HIGH
VOLTAGE
PELIGRO
PROHIBIDA
LA ENTRADA
ALTO
VOLTAJE
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Comments made during presentation
• NEC article 490-2 defines high voltage as more then 600 volts. Use
this as a guide in using the signal word “High Voltage”.
• Similarly, voltages in the range of 50 to 600 volts should use the signal
word “Hazardous Voltage”.
• NEC 110-34(c) requires all buildings, rooms or enclosures containing
exposed live parts or exposed conductors operating at over 600 voltage
to have a warning sign “Danger - High Voltage - Keep Out” (also see
NEC 225-50, and NEC 230-203)
• Since the signal word “Danger” is probably overused in industry,
consider using “Warning” (orange) signs to alert personnel of the
hazard boundary during maintenance work procedures.
• Also refer to NFPA-70E
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