Going Open Source:
Migrating EPA’s BASINS to
MapWindow Open Source
GIS
Dr. Daniel P. Ames
Department of Geosciences, Idaho State University
2005 Intermountain GIS Conference
Pocatello, Idaho
Outline
What is BASINS?
 Why consider open source GIS?
 What is MapWindow?
 What is the approach?
 What are the challenges and
anticipated benefits?

Ames – Intermountain GIS 2005
What is BASINS?




“Better Assessment Science Integrating point
and Non-point Sources”
GIS-based watershed modeling and data
analysis software
Built by EPA to support watershed approaches
such as TMDL
Includes spatial and temporal data for the
United States, analysis tools and models
Ames – Intermountain GIS 2005
Ames
GIS 2005
SETAC
GIS– &Intermountain
WQ Short Course,
2002
Ames – Intermountain GIS 2005
BASINS 3.1 GIS Interface
Ties all software components together through ArcView 3.x and
extensions.
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BASINS Spatial Data
water supply sites
• Land use and land cover (shape •• Drinking
Dam sites
and grid)
•
EPA region boundaries
• Urbanized areas
• State boundaries
• Populated place locations
• County boundaries
• Reach file 1
• DEM (shape and grid)
• Reach file 3
• Ecoregions
• National Hydrographic Data
• NAQWA study unit
•
•
(NHD)
•
Major roads
USGS hydrologic unit boundaries
(accounting and catalog units) •
Courtesy of Tetra Tech Inc.
boundaries
Managed area database
(Federal and Indian Lands)
Soil (STATSGO)
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BASINS Utilities and Tools



Automatic data downloader and software updater
•
•
•
Spatial data: NED DEM, NLCD land cover, NHD stream networks.
Temporal data: USGS streamflow, STORET water quality.
Automatic updater for software updates.
Data analysis tools
•
•
•
“Target” to summarize data by watershed in a region
“Assess” to summarize stream quality in a specific watershed
“Data Mining” to link stations to water quality and monitoring records
Watershed delineation tools to identify watershed boundaries
and contributing areas
•
•
Manual - heads-up digitizing based on elevation polygons
Automatic – raster DEM based algorithms for finding watersheds
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Data Extractor
Web-linked tool to set up a new BASINS Project
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Downloading BASINS Core Data
Once a watershed HUC is selected, the
software downloads all of the base GIS and
observation data for
that watershed.
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Web Data Download Tool
Additional data can
be automatically
downloaded from
various web-sites
and integrated with
the base dataset.
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Automatic Software Updates
A software updater checks for software
updates which can include bug fixes as well
as new analysis tools
and models.
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Models in BASINS



Multiple Objectives
•
•
Source assessment
Receiving water evaluation
Various Scales
•
•
•
Local scale
Watersheds
Basins
Various Levels of Complexity
•
•
Screening
Detailed
Courtesy of Tetra Tech Inc.
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Models in BASINS



PLOAD – export coefficient based lumped model
•
•
Steady state, spatial, fit, deterministic.
“Screening level” model for looking for spatial trends in
water quality based on land cover type
SWAT – soil water accounting tool
•
•
Dynamic, spatio-temporal, process, deterministic.
Agriculture-centered watershed model
HSPF – hydrologic simulation program FORTRAN
•
•
Dynamic, spatio-temporal, process, deterministic.
Primarily hydrologic process model with water quality
components.
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Simple Models in BASINS
PLOAD Export Coef. Model
LP = U(LPU * AU)
Where:
LP = Pollutant load, lbs;
LPU = Pollutant loading rate for land
use type u, lbs/acre/year; and
AU = Area of land use type u, acres
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PLOAD Output Options
Total pollutant loads
by watershed – map
and table
Pollutant loads per
acre by watershed –
map and table
Event Mean
Concentration (EMC)
by watershed – map
and table
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Complex Models in BASINS
B
A
Landuse and pollutant
specific Data
Landscape data
C Meteorological
Data
Point
Sources
GIS
D
Windows interface
Landuse
Distribution
E
Core Model
HSPF
Stream
Data
F
Courtesy of Tetra Tech Inc.
Post Processing
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BASINS Architecture


GIS-based main user interface
•
•
•
Currently ArcView 3.x
Spatial data stored as shapefiles
Temporal data stored in binary “wdm” files
All key functions exist in dynamic link libraries
(DLLs) and executables
•
•
Tight integration – ArcView extension provides the GUI
and calls functions in a DLL
Loose integration – ArcView extension prepares input
files and launches external executable
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BASINS 4.0





Due Spring 2006 (prime contractor: Aqua
Terra Consultants)
Builds off BASINS 3.1
Significant restructuring
No third party dependencies or purchase
requirements
MapWindow Application and Plug-in
Architecture
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Why Open Source GIS?

Original intent of EPA was to provide all
software and data freely because it is a
federally financed project.

However… No PC-based free or open
source GIS alternatives in 1996.
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Why Open Source GIS?

Software code licensed under the
Mozilla Public License can be used for
both commercial and non-commercial
applications.

Allows user-developers to access update
and improve core GIS and model
functionality.
Ames – Intermountain GIS 2005
Why Open Source GIS?

Increased distribution and
use of BASINS – including
internationally.

Since MapWindow was
released as open source
in January 2005,
download bandwidth from
www.MapWindow.com
has increased from 1 GB
per month to about 15 GB
per month.
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Open Source GIS Options

www.OpenSourceGIS.org lists 189 projects
(not MapWindow!!).

www.FreeGIS.org lists 235 projects (yes
MapWindow )

Mostly data conversion, reading and writing
libraries, specific viewers, web tools and
Linux/Unix tools.
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What is MapWindow?

A “Programmable
Geographic Information
System” that supports:
•
•
•
•
Manipulation and viewing
of GIS data
Analysis of GIS data and
attributes
Custom GIS modeling
Custom GIS application
development
http://www.MapWindow.com/
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Why MapWindow?

We needed a spatial component for our modeling and
data analysis projects to support:
•
•
•
Manipulation and editing of spatial data sets
Manipulation and editing of attribute data
Development of custom models using GIS

We couldn’t find a freely distributable GIS that was
functional enough to support the functions and types of
analysis we needed

So...with help from several funding sources including the
Idaho National Laboratory (INL) we built MapWindow
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Data Distribution
Option 1:

Build a MapWindow
Project and distribute it
with the free MapWindow
GIS application

The MapWindow
application is a stand
alone software that is
freely distributable along
with your data
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Base MapWindow Functionality





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

Map area for displaying data
Legend and editor for creating custom color schemes for
layers
Toolbar and buttons to create, save, and open
MapWindow Project files
Toolbar buttons for adding and removing layers from the
map
Toolbar button for selecting features
Toolbar buttons for navigating the map (zoom in, zoom
out, zoom to a layer, pan, etc.)
Toolbar button to Print the current map
Preview Map
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Custom MapWindow Plug-ins
Distribute data analysis functionality with your data
•Water Quality Analyst
•Streamflow Analyst
•PhotoViewer
•TIN Builder/Viewer
•Grid Wizard
•Model Manager
•Terrain Analysis
Using DEMs
(TAUDEM)
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For Example: Watershed Information System
Launch button
Plug-in List
Map Area
MapWindow App
Legend
VB Plug-in
Plug-in Functions
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Data Distribution
Option 2

Use the MapWinGIS
ActiveX control to create
your own custom tool

The core MapWindow
component is a
programming object that
can be added to a form in
Visual Basic or other
languages supporting
ActiveX
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MapWinGIS ActiveX Control







Open, create, and save geo-referenced image, grid,
shapefile, triangular irregular network, and dbf attribute
data
View, label, color, highlight, shapefile data on the map
Perform spatial queries on the data
Search for features with specific attributes
Dynamically edit the spatial data and immediately see the
changes in the map
Interact with the data through the map
Build TINs from Grids, Images from Grids, Shape files
from TINs and Grids, Grids from Shape files, etc.
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Watershed Tools at USU
“Pre-BASINS”




Nooksack River DSS, WA
Virgin River DSS, UT
Big Lost River DSS, ID
Watershed Information
Systems
•
•
•
•

Newton Reservoir, UT
Otter Creek, UT
Echo Reservoir, UT
Strawberry Reservoir, UT
Others
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Plug-in Development Comparison
Open Source
MapWindow
ESRI
ArcView 3.x/9.x
ESRI
ArcExplorer
Basic GIS Data Vis.
Yes
Yes
Yes
Edit GIS Data
Yes
Yes
No
Create Custom Plug-ins?
Yes
Yes
No
Programming Language
VB.NET, C#
Avenue/VB
None
Free Viewer?
Yes
No
Yes
Developer price
Free
Free to write
N/A
extensions, users
must purchase
ArcView license
Source Code Available?
Yes
No
No
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ActiveX Control Comparison
Open Source
MapWinGIS
ESRI
MapObjects LT 2
Blue Marble
GeoObjects 3.1
View GIS Data
Yes
Yes
Yes
Edit Attribute Data
Yes
No
No
Edit Spatial Data
Yes
No
No
Includes TIN objects
Yes
No
No
Smooth Redrawing
Yes
No
No
Price
Free
$1,000
per developer
$999
per developer
Royalty Structure
None
Negotiated
$200 per CD or
download
Source Code
Available?
Yes
No
No
Ames – Intermountain GIS 2005
The Approach

Customize the MapWindow application interface using
the XML configuration file

Build BASINS functionality as MapWindow plug-ins

Link to external DLL’s and EXE’s as needed (i.e.
models).

Embed MapWinGIS ActiveX in some of these as needed
to provide support maps in specific tools.
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XML Configuration File
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BASINS MapWindow Plug-ins

BASINS plug-ins will include

All functions that were previously
contained in ArcView 3.x extensions
• Project management
• Software updater
• Data downloader
• Data analysis
• Models
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MapWindow Plug-ins Interface
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Challenges


Although BASINS only uses a relatively
small number of GIS functions, not all
have not been implemented in
MapWindow (i.e. clip, mosaic)
Use existing free and open source
libraries where possible…
• General Polygon Clipper (GPC)
• TAUDEM for watershed delineation
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Challenges

Projections – Love ‘em or leave ‘em?

Data formats – Personal Geodatabase?
MrSid? GeoTiff? JPEG2000?
• Read and write ESRI .prj files
• Projection libraries – proj4
• Use other open source and free libraries.
• GDAL
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Anticipated Benefits


Finally realize the original goal of EPA in
the development and distribution of a
fully open and free modeling and data
analysis system.
User community will add and share new
functions, models, analyses, data
viewers, etc.
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Acknowledgements

Paul B. Duda, John L. Kittle, Jr., Mark H. Gray, Paul R. Hummel –
Aqua Terra Consultants

Russell S. Kinerson, Paul Cocca, David Wells, Marjorie Wellman, Ed
Partington, Lauren MacWilliams – EPA Office of Science and
Technology

Kurt Wolfe – EPA Ecosystems Research Division – Athens, GA

Shane Cherry, Ron Rope – Idaho National Laboratory

David Tarboton, Jeff Horsburgh – Utah State University
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What’s next?
Descargar

basins_mapwindow - MapWindow Open Source GIS