GIS vs.
The Organization
Carmi Neiger ESRI-Chicago
Copyright ESRI© 2006
Part 1
The Organization
Mapping the
organizational
landscape
Or, what you
don’t know can
hurt you
Copyright ESRI© 2006
Carmi’s Law
• Technology is always ahead of the
organization’s ability to use it
effectively.
Here’s Why …
Copyright ESRI© 2006
3
The Bermuda Triangle
Management
Info. Systems
Line Operations
Copyright ESRI© 2006
4
Organizational environment
• Understand the organizational
structure
– Obtain a formal organization chart
– Know the informal power structure
– Learn about budgeting/procurement/
approval processes
– Historical milestones
• This is basic and essential knowledge
Copyright ESRI© 2006
5
What are the Roles?
• Identify the players
– Non-technical GIS “champion”
– Key GIS implementer
– Department heads & personnel
–Participating
–Non-participating
– Information Systems
– Finance
– Outside consultants
Copyright ESRI© 2006
6
Background radiation
• Departmental issues
– Inter-departmental competition
– Historical rivalry/enmity
– Prestige
– Community recognition
– Resources
– Show me the money!
Copyright ESRI© 2006
7
Background radiation
• Intra-departmental issues
– Intransigent “Old Guard”
– Not invented here
– The Peter Principle
– Parkinson’s Law
– Employee rivalries
– Personal conflicts
Copyright ESRI© 2006
8
Situation Assessment
• SWOT analysis
–Strengths
–Weaknesses
–Opportunities
–Threats
Copyright ESRI© 2006
Strategic issues
Tactical issues
9
SWOT Analysis
• Strengths, for example
– Good network infrastructure
– Reliable, usable existing data
– Technology-friendly executive
management
– Progressive IS department
Copyright ESRI© 2006
10
SWOT Analysis
• Weaknesses, for example
– Poor IS infrastructure
– Little usable data
– History of unsuccessful technology
decisions
– High employee and/or management
turnover
Copyright ESRI© 2006
11
SWOT Analysis
• Opportunities, for example
– Good pilot project candidate
– Data-sharing agreement
– Organization-wide technology
upgrade
– “Photo ops”
Copyright ESRI© 2006
12
SWOT Analysis
• Threats, for example
– Budget shortfalls
– Hardware crises
– Management/staff turnover
– Outside consultants
Copyright ESRI© 2006
13
Part 2
Making an Impact
Using the
organization
to get the job
done
Or, illigitimi non
carborundum
Copyright ESRI© 2006
Making GIS work
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
GIS as Meta-profession
GIS program management
Setting expectations
Map production
Working with a coach
Things to avoid
GIS Entrepreneurship
Copyright ESRI© 2006
15
GIS as Meta-Profession
What does Meta mean?
Copyright ESRI© 2006
16
GIS as Meta-Profession
What does Meta mean?
In computer science, a common prefix that means
"about". So, for example, metadata is data that
describes other data (data about data). A
metalanguage is a language used to describe
other languages. A metafile is a file that contains
other files. The HTML META tag is used to
describe the contents of a Web page.
Copyright ESRI© 2006
17
GIS as Meta-Profession
• GIS can be seen as profession
“about” other professions
• Bringing spatial-analytical skill set to
multiple areas of endeavor
• Raise awareness of spatial aspects
and components of problem-solving
and decision-making
Copyright ESRI© 2006
18
GIS as Meta-Profession
• Like IT, GIS is a horizontal set of
applications
– Serves multiple departments/divisions
– Spatial tools are not subject matter
specific
– Support can be centralized
Copyright ESRI© 2006
19
GIS as Meta-Profession
• Unlike IT, GIS is a vertical set of job
skills
– Requires understanding of multiple
business processes
– Support departmental (vertical) business
processes
– Custom application development
– Technology transfer (e.g., training)
– Task execution
– Develop support resources within
departments
Copyright ESRI© 2006
20
GIS Program Management
• Two-tier structure is useful
– Policy Committee
– Technical Committee
• Executive-level buy-in
• Maintains link between projects and
funding sources
Copyright ESRI© 2006
21
GIS Program Management
Policy Committee
– Membership
– GIS manager
– Board representatives
– Department heads
– IS director
– Quarterly MRB meetings (Management
Review Board)
Copyright ESRI© 2006
22
GIS Program Management
• Technical Committee
– Membership
– GIS Manager
– GIS staff
– Departmental liaisons
– IS representative
– Outside consultant (if appropriate)
– Monthly meetings
• Sets agenda for Policy Committee
Copyright ESRI© 2006
23
GIS Program Management
• Role of Information Systems
– Best ally or worst enemy
– Define areas of responsibility
– Ownership vs. stewardship
– Hardware and network resources
– Data
– Non-GIS operations support systems
– Obtain executive-level concurrence
Copyright ESRI© 2006
24
GIS Program Management
• Inter-governmental data sharing
agreements
– Official vehicle for data sharing
– Establish and enforce standards
– Incentive for GIS program development
– Raises visibility of GIS efforts
Copyright ESRI© 2006
25
Setting Expectations
• Be a team player
– Departmental outreach
– How can you help your manager
succeed?
– Respect your predecessors
– Be predictable
Copyright ESRI© 2006
26
Setting Expectations
• Do first what you can succeed at
– “Friendly” project
– Limited (short) duration
– Good visibility
– Budget-conscious
Copyright ESRI© 2006
27
Map Production
• List of maps currently being used
• Assessment of available data
– Timeliness
– Accuracy
– Format compatibility
• Planning map production
– Revision schedule determined by departments
– Wish lists
– Prototyping
• Drew’s rule: “All maps, all the time.”
Copyright ESRI© 2006
28
Working with a Coach
• GIS cannot succeed without strong
executive sponsorship
• Mid- or upper-level manager
– Credibility
– Seniority
– Clout
– Commitment
Copyright ESRI© 2006
29
Working with a Coach
• In the “power curve”
• Organizational vision
• Personal goals aligned with organizational goals
• Multiple coaches?
Copyright ESRI© 2006
30
Things to avoid
•
•
•
•
Data collection – Zeno’s paradox
Techno-superiority/techno-secrecy
Disrespecting your audience
Don’t be a casualty of:
– Inter-departmental crossfire
– Unrealistic project goals
– Your own ambition
Copyright ESRI© 2006
31
Things to avoid
• Shortchanging professional
development
• Ivory tower syndrome
• Complacency
Copyright ESRI© 2006
32
GIS Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship:
The assumption of risk and
responsibility in designing and
implementing a business strategy or
starting a business.
Copyright ESRI© 2006
33
GIS Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship:
The assumption of risk and
responsibility in designing and
implementing a business strategy or
starting a business.
Copyright ESRI© 2006
34
GIS Entrepreneurship
• RISK: Consequences of failure to
meet expectations
– Letting down colleagues
– Letting down manager
– Failure to grow GIS
– Sidetrack career development
– Losing your job
Copyright ESRI© 2006
35
GIS Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship:
The assumption of risk and
responsibility in designing and
implementing a business strategy or
starting a business.
Copyright ESRI© 2006
36
GIS Entrepreneurship
• RESPONSIBILITY: Whose job is it to
get it done?
– “It’s your thing, do what you wanna do”
– The Isley Brothers
– You’re the boss, so act like it
– Ownership
– Failure is mine, success is ours
Copyright ESRI© 2006
37
GIS Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship:
The assumption of risk and
responsibility in designing and
implementing a business strategy or
starting a business.
Copyright ESRI© 2006
38
GIS Entrepreneurship
• DESIGNING: “He’s the man with a
plan” – Stevie Wonder
– Preparation=perspiration
– The time spent planning is far less than
time spent fixing mistakes
– Enfranchise stakeholders in planning
process
– Give them a vote, not a veto
– Keep them in the loop
Copyright ESRI© 2006
39
GIS Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship:
The assumption of risk and
responsibility in designing and
implementing a business strategy or
starting a business.
Copyright ESRI© 2006
40
GIS Entrepreneurship
• IMPLEMENTING: “Make it so,
Number One!” – Captain Jean-Luc Picard
– Focus – Just Do It
– Overcoming obstacles
– It is more important to act like a
manager than to be one
Copyright ESRI© 2006
41
Bob Weir’s wisdom
Some folks look for answers,
Some folks look for fights
Which are You?
Copyright ESRI© 2006
42
GIS Entrepreneurship
• Books for GIS Entrepreneurs
– Thinking about GIS: Geographic Information
System Planning for Managers
by Roger Tomlinson
– Selling the Invisible: A Field Guide to Modern
Marketing
by Harry Beckwith
– "I Wish I'd Said That!": How to Talk Your Way
Out of Trouble and Into Success
by Linda MacCallister
Copyright ESRI© 2006
43
Why you do GIS
$ Cost savings from operational efficiencies
Promote data sharing and reduce data
redundancy
Enhanced capabilities & new applications
Enhanced communication
Facilitate better decision-making
Save the World!
Copyright ESRI© 2006
44
Descargar

No Slide Title