Colonialism in Africa
Berlin Conference
• Tensions between European powers seeking
African colonies led to the Berlin West
Africa Conference (1884-1885) or Berlin
• At this conference there were delegates
representing fourteen European states and the
United States. Here they devised the ground
rules for the colonization of Africa without a
single African being present.
• The conference produced an agreement that
any European state could establish an African
colony after notifying the other nations of its
• This conference provided European diplomats
with the justification they needed to draw lines
on maps and carve a continent into colonies.
Berlin Conference
Colonization Begins
• In the 1890s Europeans sent armies to
consolidate their claims and impose colonial
rule in Africa.
• Armed with the latest weaponry, African
forces were easily defeated with their outdated
muskets and spears by cannons and machine
gun fire. By 1900 all of Africa was under
colonial rule except for the areas of what are
now the countries of Liberia and Ethiopia.
Problems with Colonization
• In the wake of this rapid conquest came
problems of colonial occupation. European
countries assumed that following an initial
modest investment, colonial administration
would become financially self-sufficient. For
decades Europeans struggled to figure out how
to rule Africa, only to learn that colonial rule
in Africa could be maintained only through
exceedingly high expenditures.
Early Colonial Rule
• The earliest approach to colonial rule involved
concessionary companies. These were private
companies that were granted large concessions
of territory by European governments.
• These concessionary companies were
empowered to undertake economic activities
such as mining, plantation agriculture, or
railroad construction.
• These companies also had permission to
implement systems of taxation and labor
• This new approach allowed European
governments to colonize and exploit
immense territories with only a modest
investment in capital and personnel, but
this also brought liabilities.
• Such liabilities as brutal use of forced labor,
which provoked a public outcry in Europe, and
profits smaller than anticipated convinced
most European governments by the early
twentieth century to curtail the powers of
private companies and to establish their own
rule, which typically took two forms, direct
rule typical of French colonies and indirect
rule typical of British colonies.
Colonization under Direct Rule
• Direct rule- Under direct rule, colonies
featured administrative districts headed by
European personnel who assumed
responsibility for tax collection, labor and
military recruitment, and the maintenance of
law and order.
• Administrative boundaries intentionally cut
across existing African political and ethnic
boundaries in order to divide and weaken
potentially powerful indigenous (native)
• Direct rule aimed at removing strong kings
and other leaders and replacing them with
more compliant persons.
• The underlying principle of direct rule was the
desire to keep African populations in check
and to permit European administrators to
engage in a “civilizing mission”. This
approach to colonial rule presented its own
Difficulties Under Direct Rule
• Constant shortage of European personal
Ex. In French West Africa some thirty-six
hundred Europeans tried to rule over an
African population of more than nine
• The combination of long distances and
slow transport limited effective
communication between regional
authorities and officials in remote areas.
• An inability to speak local languages and a
limited understanding of local customs
among European officials further
undermined their effective administration.
Colonization under Indirect Rule
• A British colonial administrator Frederick D.
Lugard was the driving force behind the
doctrine of indirect rule, which the British
employed in many of its African colonies.
• Lugard wrote The Dual Mandate in British
Tropical Africa. In this he stressed the moral
and financial advantages of exercising control
over subject populations through indigenous
(native) institutions.
Frederick D. Lugard
• Lugard thought that by using tribal and
customary laws Europeans could establish a
strong foundation for colonial rule.
• Forms of indirect rule worked in regions
where Africans had already established strong
and highly organized states but often this plan
was not effective, especially in the regions that
were not well organized under the control of
its colonial leaders.
Difficulties Under Indirect Rule
• Many colonial leaders were confused by the
complexity of tribal laws and boundaries and
imposed their own idea of what they thought
was tribal boundaries and tribal laws.
• This was done with little regard to the
differences between tribes and these tribes
were split up into what Europeans thought was
acceptable boundaries. These colonial
boundaries divided ethnic groups or grouped
traditional enemies. Some groups were even
given limited access to water in their newly
drawn up lines of tribal territories.
Colonialisms Effects Today
• As a result of colonial rule with little regard to
African’s tribal boundaries and practices many
African nations today are fighting tribal wars
Ex.(Rwandan genocide) and still having
disputes over land for reasons such as ethnic
dominance and control over natural resources.
Rwandan Genocide
Current Challenges in Africa
-While Sub-Saharan Africa is home to just over 10
percent of the world’s population, it has more than 60
percent or more than 25 million people living with
-Two important issues to note with regard to the
epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa are, first we are
dealing with multiple epidemics requiring multiple
strategies and, two the face of the epidemic is
becoming more feminine which has dire
-These next two slides show that while Sub-Saharan
Africa bears the brunt of the epidemic in terms of the
number of people affected, HIV/AIDS spares no one.
Population Growth
• -Over the last century Africa's population has grown
at a rapid rate.
• - Various estimates of the population size of Africa
indicate that prior to 1900 the annual growth rate of
population was less then 0.1 percent. During the
period 1900-1950. It was 1.2 percent in the period
1950-1970, the growth rate was estimated at 2.8
percent. In the period 1980-1990, the rate was at 3.2
percent. This data Shows that the recent
demographic trends in Africa are characterized by
unprecedented rapid growth rates.
• Africa's population which was estimated at 257
million in 1960 had increased to 482 million by
1983. In 1993 the population of the continent
was estimated at 682 million. The average
annual growth rate during the decade was 3.2
percent, the highest among a Third World
• Current population estimates of the continent
are around 1 billion people.
• Africa faces a major population explosion in the
near future.
Poaching and the Ivory Trade
• Although international ivory trade has been
banned since 1989, elephant tusks are hot
commodities on the black market.
• The tusks are actually elongated incisors.
Since about a third of their length is inside the
skull, the tusks cannot be fully removed while
the animal is alive. Poachers therefore shoot
into an elephant herd, cut off the trunks of any
fallen animals, and hack out the tusks with an
• In the decade before the ivory ban, the number
of African elephants plummeted from roughly
1.3 million to fewer than 600,000.
• Before the ban, about 7.4 percent of the
animals were killed for their tusks each year.
This ban helped during the early and mid
1990s but is now on the rise again.
• Current estimates suggest that the annual rate
is now 8 percent, worse then before the ban.
This could bring African elephants to
extinction by 2020 according to the
Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species or CITIES. Today the
current African elephant population is around
450,000 (Aug.2008). That means that roughly
36,000 African elephants are poached each
year for their ivory tusks.
Crisis in Sudan
• Sudan has been at war with itself for almost its
entire post- colonial history since 1956. All of
its major ethnic & religious groups have
fought or are fighting each other today.
• In 2004 government troops and militia groups
known as Janjaweed moved to crush the black
African ethnic groups that have been neglected
by the Muslim Central government.
• Estimates of 300,000 people dead and roughly
2.7 million have fled their homes to get away
from the crisis. Currently there are almost a
dozen armed groups across the country, each
with its own political agenda.
Child Soldiering
• Currently there are 300,000 child soldiers
world-wide. Most of these children live in
Africa today. These children are controlled by
warlords & new rebel groups that are
motivated by financial gain through violence
and crimes. These warlords use poor young
children who are impressionable, fearless and
in abundant supply. In recent years such
countries as Sierra Leone, Liberia,
Mozambique, Somalia, Uganda, and the
Democratic Republic of Congo have all been
locations for child soldiering.
Child Soldier
Mountain Gorillas in Rwanda
• In the 1970’s -1980’s, mountain gorillas were
being killed for profit in Rwanda & Uganda.
In the 1990’s they were causalities of
Rwanda’s bloody civil war. In 2003 the last
know gorilla killing was committed by former
park employees. They murdered 2 females,
stole one infant and were sentenced to 4 years
in prison.
• Current- Since the end of the civil war and the
establishment of a new democratic
government the gorilla population has not only
stabilized, it has increased. The new Rwanda
government has made tourism into a growing
industry. Rwanda is educating its population
on the importance of the gorilla. Not only is
saving the gorilla a human act it has become a
profitable one. The gorilla population in
Rwanda has grown from 324 in 1985 to 380 in
2008 for an increase of 17%. While this is the
case in Rwanda it is not as optimistic in the
Democratic Republic of Congo.
Piracy off the Somalia coast
• Last year 12 Japanese ships were attacked by
pirates, a total of over 100 ships from different
countries were attacked. Some of these ships
were hijacked for multi-million dollar
ransoms. Pirates use fast moving skiffs to pull
along side ships were they are often boarded
by ladders &/or grappling hooks.
• Current- On 3/23/09 a Japanese cargo ship,
Jasmine Ace, was attacked by 2 small boats
that fired rocket propelled grenades (RPGs)
and automatic weapons into the bridge before
fleeing. The ship escaped hijacking but
increasing speed and evasive maneuvers.
• This was the 3rd attack
that day on a cargo
ship. Attacks on ships
during January and
February of 2009 are
up 10 times from the
same period in 2008.
Although the number
of attacks is up, the
number of successful
hijackings is down.
This is mainly because
an international antipiracy mission is
North AfricA’s cLiMAtEs
North Africa’s major climates are
Arid (Desert) & Semi-arid (Steppe)
Sahara Desert
The Sahara is the world’s
largest desert, stretching
3.5 million square miles.
Averages less than five
inches of rain each year.
Temperatures there can
run to the extreme
-freezing at night
-Can be more than 130
degrees Fahrenheit at the
peak of day.
Wildlife of
the Desert
Horned Viper
Fennec Fox
Sand Cat
that is
into a
Atlas Mountains
 Separates the
climate from
the arid south.
Atlas Mountains of Morocco
Atlas Mountains in Morocco
• Water is the most precious
resource for this region of
deserts and steppe areas.
• Wadis dry
that fill with
water only
after rainfall
in a desert
or steppe
• Oasis is a place
where water comes
to the surface in
desert area.
• "oasis" is believed
to come from an
ancient Egyptian
word, "wah,"
meaning "fertile
place in the desert."
• About 75 percent of
the Sahara's
population live in
Major Water Features
• Mediterranean
• Red Sea
• Arabian Sea
• Persian/Arabian
• Nile River
The Nile and its
tributaries flow
though nine
The Nile River
• Length: From White Nile Source to
Mouth- 4184 miles, longest river
in the world
• Name: The Nile gets its name from the
Greek word "Nelios", meaning
River Valley.
• Sources: The White Nile: Lake Victoria,
The Blue Nile: Lake Tana,
on the Nile River
• The Dam was created in 1971
• The Dam wall is 365 feet high
• Created artificial lake- Lake
Nasser, which covers 300
Positive effects of Dam
• Prevents flooding
• Controls irrigation
• Can plant 3 crops instead of
only 1 a year
• Creates Hydroelectric powersupplies Egypt with 40% of its
• Amount of farmland has
increased by 2.9 million acres
Negative Effects of Dam
• New layer of fertile soil no
longer deposited by annual
flood, must use fertilizers
– Very expensive
– Run off pollutes river,
pollution kills fish
• New soil not added to Delta,
which causes erosion
• Water flow has decreased.
– Stagnant water allows
disease to increase.
– Salt content has increased,
which can ruin crops
– Some experts think weight
of Lake Nasser may be
producing earthquakes
Egypt and
Suez Canal
The 101-mile waterway
connects the
Mediterranean Sea to
the Red Sea.
* The Suez Canal is used
to transport goods to
and from three
Early Civilization
• Ancient Egypt- was the birthplace
of one of the world's first
civilization. It began over 5000
years ago and lasted for 2000
• The Nile River was the life blood
of ancient Egypt; it provided rich
soil, irrigation, and transportation.
The Egyptians named their nation
Kemet, Black land, after the rich
dark soil of the Nile River.
Egyptian Contributions
• Egyptian civilization made many
contributions to the world. Among
them are a 365 - day calendar,
hieroglyphics (picture writing),
and papyrus (paper like writing
material). They also had one of
the first national governments
and developed a religion that
emphasized life after death.
• However their best known
accomplishment are the
pyramids, gigantic stone
structures built as tombs for the
pharaohs (kings) that were
constructed 4500 years ago and
are still standing.
Pyramids at Giza
• Beginning in about 3500BC King
Menes of Upper Egypt conquered
Lower Egypt. Memphis became
the capital of this new nation. It is
near present day Cairo.
• He also established the first of 30
dynasties to rule Egypt. Egyptian
history can be divided into three
main periods - the Old Kingdom,
The Middle Kingdom, and the New
The Old Kingdom
• The Old Kingdom began in 2686 BC
and was lead by Dynasty III. During
this period a strong central
government developed. It is also
known for the construction of the
Great Pyramid and other pyramids at
• Dynasty IV was headed by King Khufu.
As priests and government officials
fought over power, the pharaohs of
Dynasty V became weak. The Old
Kingdom lasted until 2181 BC.
The Middle Kingdom
• The Middle Kingdom was ruled by
Dynasty XII. In 1991 BC Amenemhet
seized the throne and moved the
capital to Itjawy near Memphis.
• Egypt's wealth and power was
restored by this dynasty. Egypt
conquered Nubia and traded with
Syria and Palestine.
• The Middle Kingdom ended in 1786 BC
and had been a period of growth in
architecture, literature, and art.
The New Kingdom
• The New Kingdom lasted for 500
years beginning in 1554 BC.
• Such rulers as Thutmose I, and
Queen Hatshepsut created an
empire that reached its height in
1400 BC. During this period Egypt
regained control over Kush and
Nubia. These two areas were
sources of slaves, copper, gold,
ivory, and ebony.
• During the reign of Amenhotep IV
huge religious changes occurred.
Amenhotep IV devoted himself to
Aten, the sun god.
• These changes angered many
Egyptians and his successor King
Tutankhamun, he restored the old
• With the advent of the XX Dynasty
ancient Egypt began to decline. It
broke into smaller states because
of the struggle for power between
the priests and nobles and lost its
empire. Foreign invaders would
take advantage of the situation.
Natural Resources
• Natural Resources
- Most valuable natural resources
are oil and natural gas
- Rich fishing grounds off
Morocco’s Atlantic coast
- Rain or irrigation makes farming
possible in areas with good soil
Moroccan Fishermen
• Economic Activities
- Oil and natural gas are basis of
Libyan and Algerian economies
- Agriculture is very important in this
region despite dry climates
- Tourism is another important activity
which falls victim to violence
- Still not enough jobs due to rapid
population growth
- Many skilled and educated workers
leave to find better jobs in Europe or
oil-rich countries in Southwest Asia
• Urban environments
- Cities have a mix of modern and
traditional buildings
- Many cities are becoming
overcrowded with a ring of slums
(shantytowns) surrounding the
older core
- Not enough housing
• Environmental Challenges
- Desertification (spreading of
desert conditions)
- Pollution from oil refining
- Polluted water supplies
- Health of the Nile River
Unit 7:Chap 21-24
Chap 22 West and Central Africa
Landforms and Rivers
• Plains and low hills make up most of the
landscape in West and Central Africa.
• The El Djouf is a desert region in eastern
Mauritania and Western Mali near the Niger
• The Congo and Niger river are the two largest
rivers in West and Central Africa.
• The Congo flows northward from Zambia
toward the Congo (DROTC) and then takes a
West then South West course until it empties
into the Atlantic Ocean on the border of the
Congo and Angola.
• The Niger flows Northeast through the Sahel
and then the Sahara until it reaches central
Mali. It then flows Southwest until it empties
into the Gulf of guinea in Nigeria.
The Congo River at Sunset
Niger River
Climates, Plants, and Animals
• In the Northern regions in the countries Mali,
Niger, Mauritania and Chad lies the worlds
largest arid desert, the Sahara.
• It is characterized by giant sand seas called
ergs and extensive gravel covered plans
referred to as regs.
• To its immediate South lies the region known
as the Sahel, a semi-arid region.
• The Sahel vegetation is limited to small
shrubs, grassland areas and sporadic tree
• Most indigenous people in the Sahel are
subsistence farmers, growing crops such as
peanuts and grains or raise cattle and goats.
• The combination of droughts and growing
population have caused desertification in the
• Currently desertification is spreading
southward from the Sahara into the Sahel.
• South of the Sahel is a tropical wet/dry climate
and a tropical humid climate.
• In the tropical wet/dry climates Northeast
winds from the Sahara bring hot, dry, dusty
conditions in winter months and winds blow in
the opposite direction from the ocean and
bring rain in the summer.
• In this region small trees, grasslands and
shrubs are common vegetation.
• Many animals such as Elephants, Giraffes,
Zebras live in this region.
Congo Rainforest
• Currently many are in a population decline
because of growing human population and
conversion of grassland into farmland.
• The tropical humid region closest to the
equator is a dense tropical rainforest that is
one of the worlds most diverse ecosystems.
• These rainforests have large trees that form
canopies that are formed by the uppermost
layer of the trees, where the limbs spread out.
• Almost all of the worlds Great Apes live in
these forests except the Orangutan.
Natural Resources
• This region has a wide variety of natural
resources such as timber and minerals.
• Much of the timber in this region is being cut
down at an alarming rate and is causing
deforestation throughout the region.
• Oil is the most valuable resource within the
• What country exports the most oil in Africa?
Early Empires
• Ghana was a trading state that was one of the
first kingdoms in West and Central Africa.
• With this trade came the transportation of
different foreign goods and Islam, which many
empires in the region adopted.
• Mali was also a great empire that replaced
Ghana. Its main city was Timbuktu, a center of
trade and education during its time.
• The Songhai Empire was the last great early
empire in the region. Like Ghana and Mali
they to were a trading based empire.
• Europeans first arrived in West Africa in the
late 1400s.
• They came in search of a water route to Asia
and were lured by gold.
• Starting in the 1500s the demand for labor in
the Americas shifted the main trade of gold to
slaves in West Africa.
The Colonial Era
West Africa
• Europeans did not hesitate to deceive Africans
in order to get their land and natural resources.
• Driven by of rivalries among themselves,
Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and
Portugal placed almost all of Africa under
European rule between 1880 and 1890.
• West Africa was particularly affected by the
slave trade, but trafficking in slaves had
declined after it was declared illegal by both
Great Britain and the United States by 1808.
• By the 1890s slavery was abolished in all the
major countries of the world.
• As slavery declined, Europe’s interest in other
forms of trade increased – for example, trading
manufactured goods for peanuts, timber, hides,
and palm oil.
• In the early nineteenth century, the British
established settlements along the Gold Coast
and in Sierra Leone.
• The growing European presence in West
Africa caused increasing tensions with local
African governments, who reared for their
• In 1874 Great Britain annexed (incorporated a
country within a state) the west coastal states
as the first British colony of Gold Coast.
Simultaneously, it established a protectorate
over warring Nigerian groups.
• France controlled the largest part of West
Africa, and Germany controlled Togo,
Cameroon, and German Southwest Africa
(now Namibia).
Central Africa
• European explorers had generated European
interest in the dense tropical jungles of Central
• David Livingstone was one such explorer. He
arrived in Africa in 1841 and trekked through
the unexplored interior for 30 years.
• A journalist from America, Henry Stanley,
sailed down the Congo River in the 1870s.
• He encouraged the British to send settlers to
the Congo River basin. When Britain refused,
Stanley turned to king Leopold II of Belgium.
• King Leopold II was the real driving force
behind the colonization of Central Africa.
• In 1876 he hired Henry Stanley to set up
Belgian settlements in the Congo.
• Belgium’s claim to the vast territories of the
Congo worried other European states.
• France especially rushed to gain territories in
Central Africa.
• Belgium ended up with the territories south of
the Congo River, and France received the
territories north of the Congo River.
• Colonialism left many effects on West and
Central Africa.
– People went from subsistence farmers to a
new commercial economy.
– Local economies went from being based on
trading gold, salt, and ivory to the exporting
of minerals and farm products.
– Modern medicine improved the quality of
– High unemployment and low wages
– Ethnic rivalry
• West and central Africa are very diverse
• There are three major cultural influences in
this region.
– Traditional African cultures, Islam, and
European culture
• Most of the languages spoken in this region
are of the Niger-Congo language family.
• During the colonial age English and French
became the lingua francas.
• Islam, Christianity and indigenous African
religions are dominant in these regions.
• Indigenous religions believe that the spirits of
their ancestors play an important part in their
• Education is low throughout both regions with
only a small percent graduating high school
and little or none from college.
• Children’s learned skills come from mainly
growing crops or raising animals to help
provide for their families.
The Region Today
• All countries in West and central Africa are
categorized as developing countries.
• People in these regions on average make less
income, live shorter lives, have lower levels of
education and less access to health care then
developed countries.
• Farmers in these regions plant and harvest
many different types of crops.
• This is done so that if one crop is diseased
other crops can still be harvested for food.
• Most of the countries in these two regions
export primary goods.
• Many countries in the region depend heavily on
only a few main exports. This has two main
- It makes economies vulnerable to changes in
the price of their main exports. Why?
- The export of primary goods is less profitable
than the export of manufactured goods. Why?
• Rapid population has caused shortages in
housing, electricity and potable running water.
Unit 7:Chap 21-24
Chap 23 East Africa
Landforms and Water
• Tectonic activity has shaped the
geography of East Africa, forming two rift
valleys, known as the Western and
Eastern Rift Valleys.
• The Western rift runs from Lake Malawi on
the border of Tanzania and Mozambique
northwards through Tanzania and the
valleys of Lake Tanganyika and then
ending in Southern Sudan.
• The Eastern rift runs from Mozambique
northward through the East coast of Africa
and into Southwest Asia.
• Along these rift valleys lies the most
popular mountain in all of Africa, Mount
• Two rivers form in Northern Sudan to
make the Nile River. The Blue Nile and
the White Nile.
• The headwaters of the Nile River are
located in two different countries.
• The White Nile’s origins are in Lake
Victoria and run northward until it meets
with the Blue Nile near Khartoum, Sudan.
• The Blue Nile’s origins are in the
Ethiopian Highlands and run southsoutheast before taking a WestNorthwest turn into Sudan.
Blue Nile Falls
Climates, Biomes, Natural Resources
• Latitude and variations in elevation
contribute to the diverse climates of East
The Equator Region
• Has alternating wet and dry seasons.
• Has vegetation on the high plains which
is a mixture of savannas and forests.
• Forests grow on the mountain slopes of
the region and rainfall is heavy.
North and South regions
• Regions North and South of the equator
are characterized by seasonal droughts.
• Weather is frequently hard to predict in
East Africa.
–To little rain causes grass to die and as
a result the livestock of the region often
–The exact opposite also occurs, to much
rain causes flooding and locust
populations to increase.
• These locusts eat all plant life in their path
and once again livestock and animals die
as a result.
Swarm of Locusts
The Tsetse Fly and its impact
• Tsetse flies transmit a disease called
sleeping sickness.
• This disease does not effect most native
animals but has devastating effects on
livestock in the region.
• As a result farmers and herders have not
entered the area in great numbers.
• This leaves Africa’s Serengeti Plan to the
native animals where little human
population exists.
Tsetse Fly
Natural Resources of the Region
• East Africa has very few energy or
mineral deposits.
• Most of the soil in the region is not fertile
enough to sustain any large production of
• To much salt or lime in the soil
contributes to this lack of production.
• One of East Africa’s main resources is its
natural scenery.
• Many tourists come from around the world
to see the Serengeti and beaches of East
• Video of Serengeti
Kenyan Coast
• By 1875 Britain and Germany had
become the chief rivals in East Africa.
• Germany was one of many European
nations interested in East African colonies.
• At the 1884 Berlin Conference, the major
European powers divided up East Africa,
giving recognition to German, British, and
Portuguese claims. No African
delegates were present at the
• There are hundreds of diverse ethnic
groups within East Africa.
- All can be organized into three different
groups according to their language.
-Nilotic speaking people- They are a
herding people that live along the Nile
River and the plains of Sudan.
-Cushitic-speaking people- They live
along the Read Sea coast all the way
down to the Horn of Africa.
-Bantu speaking people- The live in the
countries of Kenya, Rwanda and into
Southern Africa.
Other people of East Africa
•Along the coastline is where many people
of Arab traditions and South Asian descent
•During the colonial period many South
Asian people (Indonesia, India etc) came to
this region and settled it.
Religion in East Africa.
• Like West and Central Africa many people
have the same belief that your ancestors are
a strong force in your daily life and
-There traditional religions are animist
-Animists believe the natural world
contains spirits that live in animals,
mountains, trees, and water.
-Mixed Religions- Many East Africans
mix characteristics of both native animist
religions with Christianity and Islam.
Ethiopian Woman Making injera
Made form teff flour, injera is the staple food of many East African countries.
The Region Today
• East Africa’s economy is mainly locally
based with little impact on the global
• Many locals work by growing and
harvesting plants like coffee and gum
arabic, the sap of acacia trees.
• Farming and herding are the two main
jobs of East Africans.
–Many women often farm the land while
men take care of the livestock.
Acacia tree
Commercial Agriculture
• There are few large commercial farms in
East Africa.
–These few large farms have technology
like tractors and combines.
–These farms produce large amounts of
crops due to the access to modern
seeds and fertilizers.
–These farms supply the regions cities
with much of their food supply.
Nairobi Market
Industry In the Region
• All countries in this region are developing
- Addis Ababa- The largest city and capital
in Ethiopia, headquarters of regional
organizations. Pop.est. 2,450,000
-Nairobi- The largest city and capital in
Kenya, region’s most important
commercial center. Pop.est. 2,150,000
-Dar es Salaam- The largest city and
capital in Tanzania, Pop. Est. 1,400,000
-Khartoum and Omdurman- Largest cities in Sudan,
face each other across Nile.
• Tourism is a major economic business in
East Africa.
-Tourism is a growth industry in the
-Many people have jobs that are
dependent on tourism.
Challenges to tourism
-Recent political strife and degradation
to national parks all deter tourism.
Bombing of U.S. Embassy in
Nairobi, Kenya 1998
Unit 7:Chap 21-24
Chap. 24 Southern Africa
Landforms and Water
• Southern Africa has three major landform
- a narrow coastal plain- Runs along the
coast of South Africa.
- an inland plateau- covers the largest area
in Southern Africa and is in the inland
- an escarpment- Lies between the plateau
and the costal plain. The Drakensberg
Range is located here.
Water bodies
• Major Rivers
• Victoria Falls
Climate & Desert types found in
• Tropical wet
• Dry
• Semiarid
-Namib- Located on the coast of
-Kalahari- Located in central
Southern Africa.
Namib Desert
• Angola- Petroleum
• Zambia- Copper and iron
• South Africa,Botswana and NamibiaDiamonds
• South Africa- Gold and platinum
• South Africa and Zimbabwe- Coal
Kimberly Mine South Africa
• European presence in Africa grew most
rapidly in the south. By 1865 close to
two hundred thousand white people had
moved to the southern part of Africa.
• The Boers, also called Afrikaners, were
the descendents of the original Dutch
settlers who occupied Cape Town in
South Africa in the seventeenth century.
• Later, the British seized these lands. In
the 1830s the Boers fled British rule, going
northward and establishing the
independent republics of Transvaal –
later the South African Republic – and the
Orange Free State.
• The Boers believed white supremacy was
created by God; therefore, they put a lot of the
indigenous (native) peoples on reservations.
• The Boers frequently battled the Zulu, an
indigenous people. The Zulu had risen to
prominence under their great ruler, Shaka.
Later the British defeated the Zulu.
• In the 1880s British policy in South Africa
was directed by Cecil Rhodes, he set up
diamond and gold companies that made him
wealthy. He named the territory north of the
Transvaal Rhodesia, after himself.
• Rhode’s ambitions led to his downfall in
1896. The British government forced him
to resign as prime minister of Cape
Colony after finding out he planned to
overthrow the Boer government of the
South African Republic without British
approval. Conflict broke out between the
British and the Boers, leading to war.
• The Boer War went form 1899 to 1902.
Fierce guerrilla resistance by the Boers
angered the British, who burned crops and
herded more than 150,000 Boer woman and
children into detention camps, causing
26,000 to die.
• In 1910 the British created the Independent
Union of South Africa, combining the Cape
Colony and the Boer republics. This was
a self-governing nation within the British
Empire. To appease the Boers, the policy
was that only whites could vote.
Boer War

Colonialism in Africa