Chapter 13
Country name: People's Republic of China,
Capital: Beijing
Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East
China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South
China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
(its size is bigger than Europe; 4th largest
country in the world coming after Russia,
Canada and United States)
Border countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan,
Burma, Hong Kong, India, Kazakhstan,
North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Macau,
Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan,
Government type: Communist state
Population: 1,286,975,468 (July 2003 est.).
Most populated country (app. 1/6th of world
population) in the world (followed by India
and United States)
Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin
(Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect),
Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei
(Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese),
Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
Administrative divisions: 23 provinces and 4
Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim
1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity $4,700 (2002 est.) (127th in the world)
Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building,
armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum,
cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food
processing, automobiles, consumer electronics,
Currency: yuan (CNY) (CIA, World Fact Book)
Important Facts
One of the top 5 destinations in the world (with
France, Spain, US, and Italy; as the 5th)
36,8 million international tourist arrivals
 $ 20,4 billion international tourism receipts (WTO,
Coastline: 14,500 km
Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts
in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east (2/3 of
China is covered by mountains)
Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to
subarctic in north (CIA, World Fact Book).
Selling Points
The Greta Wall, the terra-cotta warriors,
acrobats, shopping, Hong Kong, Tibet, pandas,
ancient instrumental music and Chinese opera,
food, the Forbidden City and a diverse landscape
(from mountains to desert).
Very Brief History
represents one of the earliest civilizations in the
world (the oldest continuous major world
civilization); has a recorded history of about
3,600 years
in its ancient history, several dynasties were
present starting from the 21st century BC (Xia
Dynasty)to 1911 AD (Qing Dynasty). The last
dynasty was having power between 1644 to 1911
13th century, northern part conquered by the
between 1386 and 1644, Portuguese are
permitted to settle in Macau
1839 – 1842, the First Opium War; after the
Chinese defeat, Hong Kong was ceded to Britain
in 1842 under the “Treaty of Nanking”
1856 – 1858, the Second Opium War; after
another defeat, Britain was granted a perpetual
lease on the Kowloon Peninsula under the 1860
Convention of Beijing
in 1898, Britain executed a 99-year lease of the
Hong Kong (and adjacent lands)
between 1912 -1949, it was the Republic of
China which sank between Nationalists and
Communists. Foreign powers, missionaries and
adventurers took advantage of the situation.
Japan invaded and occupied much of the
country. After the war the Nationalists failed to
resume power and were defeated by the
Communists. Many fled to Taiwan
in 1949, the People's Republic of China is
founded and so China entred into the socialist
stage in its history. After the communist
takeover, hundreds of people emigrated from
China to Hong Kong
in 1955, Portugal declares Macau it’s colony
in 1978, the Open Door policy introduced to
modernize the economy and welcome visitors
from overseas. Today, China is committed to
economic reform and opening to the outside
in 1987, Portugal and China declare that Macau
will go back under Chinese administration on
December 20, 1999
1 July 1997, Hong Kong became the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of
China. In the agreement, under its “one country,
two systems” formula, China promise that it will
not exercise its socialist economic system in
Hong Kong
Most Famous Cities
Beijing (capital of the country)
Hong Kong (special administration region)
Shanghai (most populous city)
Guangzhou (Canton) (most modern city)
Xi’an (starting point of Silk Road, home of Qin Army
Vault Museum)
Lhasa (capital of Tibet, home of Dalai Lama)
Suzhou (Soochow) (famous with 11th century gardens)
Chengdu (71 meters tall world’s largest Buddha)
Beijing (Peking)
Forbidden City (14th century; Imperial Palace
with 6 palaces, 800 smaller buildings, 9000
Summer Palace (wooded setting on a splendid
lake with a marble replica of Mississippi
Tiannanmen Square - site of:
Monument to the People’s Heroes (36-m obelisk)
Mao Zedong’s Mausoleum
 the Great Hall of People (Congress Building)
 Museum of Chinese History
 Museum of Chinese Revolution
 Temple of Sleeping Buddha
 Tempe of Azure Clouds (with Diamond Throne
 Temple of Heaven (a large park with Hall of Prayer
for Good Harvests)
 Grand View Garden (a theme park based on the
famous Chinese novel the Dream of the Red Chamber)
Fragrant Hills Park (for a panoramic view)
 Friendship Store (government-run store)
 day trips to the Great Wall and the Ming Tombs
Great Wall of China
is 75 km far from Beijing
built to defend China from the northern
enemies; started on the 3rd century BC; re
constructed between 3rd and 5th centuries AD
stretches at least 6000 km
interesting places to see the wall are;
en route to Chengdu (where there are double walls;
built in case enemies scaled the first one)
 near Shanhaiguan (where the wall meets the ocean)
Hong Kong
its territory consists of a mainland peninsula and
more than 200 islands scattered around the
China See
became part of China in 1997, China has
promised that, under its "one country, two
systems" formula, China's socialist economic
system will not be imposed on Hong Kong and
that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of
autonomy in all matters except foreign and
defense affairs for the next 50 years.
world financial capital, a city of rocky,
mountainous terrain and limited space
Places worth seeing include;
Victoria Harbor (or “Fragrant Harbor” abuzz with
luxury liners, yachts, cargo ships and old-fashioned
 Aberdeen (south side of Hong Kong Island, best
known with its Harbor, floating city and ship
 Ocean Park (more than 400 fish species with trained
dolphins and killer whales)
The Middle Kingdom (a theme park that re-creates
the architecture/atmosphere of 13 Chinese dynasties
spanning 5000 years)
 Central District in the Northern Hong Kong island
(government and financial centers, remnants of old
Hong Kong )
 Western District (interesting old streets)
 Victoria Peak (a trap goes up this hill, Peak Tower is
a place for restaurants and shops)
 Kowloon (nine dragons) peninsula (most visitors
stay here. Nathan Road and Golden Mile has best
Ladies Market and Temple Street Market (local
 Po Lin Monastery (a Buddhist temple on Lantau
 New Territories (north of Kowloon with traditional
 Castle Peak (beaches and good restaurants)
 Sai Kung Peninsula (best seafood in Hong Kong)
turned to Chinese territory in 1999, like Hong
has a Mediterranean and Portugese flavor
colonial architecture and temples are the main
gambling is also an important attraction, it is the
playroom and bedroom of Hong Kong
Xi’an (Sian)
pronounced as “SHE-on”
starting point of the Silk Road
places to see include;
Qin Army Vault Museum (located 40 km east of
town; contains more than 8000 life-size ceramic
soldiers, chariots and horses buried there 2200 years
ago to protect the tomb of the first emperor of
Banpo Museum (located 10 km away from town;
built around the actual site of 6000-yr-old Neolithic
 Great Mosque (used by the city’s surprisingly large
Muslim population)
 Big Wild Goose Pagoda (AD 625; most famous
pagoda of China; has great view from the top)
country’s most populous city (17 million)
once considered the “Paris of the Orient”
new buildings, subway and business districts are
being constructed
things to see include;
Shangai Municipal Museum (one of best historical
art museum in the country)
 Huangpu River (for boat trips)
 Yu Yuan Market (oldest and largest in the city)
 Shangai Acrobats
Guangzhou (Canton)
most modern city of China
places to see include;
Shamian Island (site of the White Swan Hotel and
colonial architecture)
 Qingping Free Market (20 min walk from Swan
Hotel; a market where many Chinese shop for food snakes, monkeys, cats etc.)
 Guangzhou Cultural Park (Chinese operas, acrobat
and puppet shows, art exhibits, roler-skating)
Guangzhou Zoo (second largest zoo of China, has
 Pearl River (to have boat trips)
capital of Sichuan region
things to see include;
City zoo (one of the best places to see pandas,
included rare red panda)
 world’s largest Buddha (71 m tall; carved into the
face of a cliff; located south of Chengdu)
West Lake (beautiful view like a painting)
Lingyin Temple (Buddhist rock carvings)
Silk Factory
Li River (cruising on the beuatiful river is the
most famous attraction)
a place flooded with tourists
Suzhou (Soochow)
one of cities on the Grand Canal
the city has a dozen Chinese gardens (from 11th
century; most famous of them is Lion Garden)
until the early 1950s, Tibet was semiindependent, now fully under Chinese control
Places to see include;
Lhasa (is the capital; a dirty place; sits at an elevation
of 3660 meters)
 Barkhor Bazaar (hours can be spent by watching
 Jokhang (located in the midst of the bazaar; has the
holiest Tibetan Buddhist temples; full of pilgrims)
Potala Palace (winter residence of Dalai Lama (who
now is in exile since 1959 in India); an architectural
wonder since it has thousands of rooms and built
without use of a single nail)
Things to Remember
do learn to use chopsticks before going to
China, or take your own fork
don’t be surprised if Tibetans stick tongues out
at you. It’s a friendly greeting
Western hand signals are completely different
from Chinese. Do learn to count to ten in

Chapter 8