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Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer
Vasco da Gama was the
first navigator to sail
directly from Europe to
India.
He left Lisbon on July 8,
1497.
Da Gama led an
expedition of four ships:
1. The São Gabriel, the
flagship, was a carrack.
2. The São Rafael was
also a carrack.
3. The Berrio was a
caravel.
4. Another ship, type
unknown, was used for
storage.
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The expedition stopped at the Cape Verde
Islands.
On November 22, 1497, the ships rounded
the Cape of Good Hope.
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Vasco da Gama stopped
at Natal, where the crew
broke up the cargo ship
for parts and supplies.
On March 2, 1498, da
Gama reached
Mozambique.
He and his crew tried to
pass as Muslims, but
soon met with hostility
from the local population.
They sailed on to
Mombasa and Malindi,
attacking Arab trading
ships for supplies.
The sultan of Malindi
supplied them with a
navigator to guide them
on their journey to India.
Malindi
Mombasa
Mozambique
(Mossuril Bay)
Natal
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On May 20, 1498, Vasco da Gama’s expedition reached
Kappad, 15 kilometers from Calicut.
The voyage, aided by a Muslim navigator named Ibn Majid,
took only 23 days.
Da Gama was welcomed by the local ruler, known as the
Zamorin.
He began trade relations between Portugal and India.
Calicut, on the coast of
Malabar, 1813
Vasco da Gama delivers a letter from
King Manuel I of Portugal to the
Zamorin of Calicut
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Calicut, 1572
Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is a city in the southern
Indian state of Kerala.
During the Age of Exploration, Calicut was known as the
"City of Spices."
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Vasco da Gama took three months to
cross the Indian Ocean back to Africa.
Without proper provisions, many of his
men died of scurvy.
He lost so many men that he was
forced to scuttle the São Rafael.
On March 20, 1499, the expedition
made it to the Cape of Good Hope.
On September 9 of that year, da Gama
reached Portugal with a shipment of
spices from India.
He was given the title "Admiral of the
Indian Seas."
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Vasco da Gama’s Second Voyage
On February 12, 1502, da Gama left Portugal
with a fleet of twenty warships. His mission
was to punish Muslims for killing Portuguese
citizens in India.
His warships bombarded Calicut.
He sailed south to the kingdom of Cochin
and established trade relations.
He continued to attack Muslim merchants
until he concluded a new treaty with the
Zamorin of Calicut on October 30, 1502.
Goa
Sea port
at Cochin
Calicut
Cochin
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Vasco da Gama’s Final Voyage
In 1524 da Gama was sent to India to replace Eduardo de
Menezes as viceroy.
He contracted malaria in Goa and died December 24, 1524.
His tomb is in the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon, Portugal.
Construction of the monastery had begun in 1502 under
King Manuel I to commemorate da Gama’s return from India.
Manuel I
Jerónimos Monastery
The tomb of Vasco
da Gama
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Compare and Contrast Early Explorers
http://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=NjEG
ncridoQ&list=PLBDA2
E52FB1EF80C9
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Portuguese Expansion in the Indian Ocean
1505: Settlement in Ceylon.
1506: Portugal occupies Socotra in the Arabian
Sea.
1509: Discovery of Mauritius.
1509: The Portuguese win the Battle of Diu
against a joint fleet of the Mamluk Sultanate of
Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, the Zamorin of
Calicut and the Sultan of Gujarat, supported by
the republics of Venice and Ragusa.
India
Sea Battles of Diu
Socotra
Mauritius
Socotra
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Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
The Portuguese explorer Lourenço de Almeida established a
settlement in Ceylon in 1505, naming the island Ceilão.
At that time, Ceylon was known for producing cinnamon.
By 1517 the Portuguese had established a fort in Colombo.
Due to the occupation of Ceylon, Portuguese traders held a
monopoly on cinnamon for over one hundred years.
Area of
Portuguese
control in blue
Pre-colonial
Ceylon
British
Ceylon
1914
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Timeline of Portugal in the Indian Ocean
1516: Conquest of Aden, a port city in Yemen.
1521: Antonio Correia conquers Bahrain.
1538: Second Battle of Diu gives Portugal
control over the Indian Ocean. Portugal
establishes trading posts in Goa, Ormuz,
Malacca, Kochi, the Maluku Islands, Macau, and
Nagasaki.
1622: The Portuguese are driven from Gamru
Port (Bandar Abbas) and Hormuz by Abbas I of
Persia, with the help of the British East India
Company and the British Royal Navy.
Yemen
Dutch
trading
caravels
at
Nagasaki,
Japan, in
1543
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Portuguese Exploration
1549: Tomé de Sousa is sent as the first
governor general of Brazil and begins
construction of the capital, Salvador. Jesuit
missionaries arrive in Brazil.
1565: Founding of Rio de Janeiro.
1567: Governor Mem de Sá and his nephew
Estácio de Sá defeat French colonists at
France Antarctique and Guanabara Bay.
1580: Portugal and Spain form the Iberian
Union.
1615: French colonists are expelled from
northern Brazil (France Équinoxiale).
1693: The largest known supply of gold is
found in Minas Gerais.
Tomé de Sousa
Mem de Sá
Estácio de Sá
Recife
Salvador
Rio de Janeiro
(Guanabara Bay)
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The Iberian Union and its Possessions
(Portugal in blue, Spain in red)
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Portuguese Missionaries in South America
The Society of Jesus (known as the Jesuits) was
founded in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola.
Jesuit missions were instrumental in pacifying local
populations by teaching them Christianity.
In Brazil and Paraguay the Jesuits set up Christian
communities called reductions. These placed native
people under Church control and protected them from
being enslaved by Portuguese colonists.
Important among the Jesuits were Manuel da Nóbrega
and José de Anchieta Llarena, who helped found Brazil’s
main cities, and Antonio Ruiz de Montoya in Paraguay.
José de
Anchieta Llarena
Manuel da
Nóbrega
Ignatius of
Loyola
Antonio
Ruiz de
Montoya’s
report on
Paraguay
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Jesuit Missionaries in Asia
Missionaries were learned men who studied
local languages and compiled dictionaries.
Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit, developed a
system for Romanizing the Chinese language.
He compiled the first Chinese-Portuguese
dictionary with Michele Ruggieri, also an
Italian Jesuit.
João Rodrigues, a Portuguese Jesuit,
compiled a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary
in 1603 and a Japanese grammar book in
1624.
The first Vietnamese-Portuguese dictionary
was compiled by Gaspar d'Amiral, while
Antonio Barboza compiled the first
Portuguese-Vietnamese dictionary.
Other Jesuits in Asia, such as German-born
Johann Adam Schall von Bell, contributed to
the exchange of science and technology.
Matteo Ricci
Johann Adam
Schall von Bell
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Portuguese Exploration
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Portuguese Trade in the Pacific and Indian Oceans
Green: Portugal
Yellow: Spanish
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Portuguese Territory, 1521-1557
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Portuguese-Speaking Countries Today
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