Holland
Compared
Source: FloraHolland
The Netherlands
General information
•
The Netherlands – the Gateway to Europe.
•
Geographically small
Amsterdam 
– 134th position in the world.
•
Densely populated country with 16.8 million people
– 61st position worldwide.
•
Around 32% of the Netherlands' GDP
derived from activities beyond its borders.
•
Strategic central location – 160 million consumers
(half of the EU) within a 300-mile (482.8 km) radius.





Capital: Amsterdam
Currency: Euro (€)
North-South 200 miles/321.9 km
West-East 100 miles/160.9 km
Area: 16,000 square miles
or 33,800 km²
 Population: 16.8 million
Attractive place to live
Norway
Switzerland
Austria
Denmark
Germany
Sweden
Luxembourg
Belgium
Finland
Netherlands
0
IMD, 2013.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Quality of life
Population by age
4%
12%
23%
0-19
20-44
45-64
65-79
older than 79
28%
33%
Statistics Netherlands, 2013.
Population by age (2012)
One of the most competitive economies
Switzerland
Singapore
Finland
Germany
United States
Sweden
Hong Kong, China
Netherlands
Japan
United Kingdom
0
World Economic Forum, 2013.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Global Competitiveness 2013 - 2014
Macro
indicators
Source: Rijkswaterstaat
Sixth-largest EU Economy
Germany
France
United Kingdom
Italy
Spain
Netherlands
Sweden
Poland
Belgium
Austria
0
Eurostat, 2013.
500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
3.000
Gross Domestic Product (2012) in billions of euros
High average income
Luxembourg
Switzerland
United States*
Austria
Ireland
Sweden
Netherlands
Denmark
Germany
EU-27
0
OECD, 2013.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
GDP per capita in thousands of US dollars, corrected for
purchasing power parity (2012, *=2011).
High productivity per hour
Luxembourg
Norway
United States
Belgium
Netherlands
France
Ireland
Germany
Sweden
Austria
0
10
20
The Conference Board and Groningen Growth
and Development Centre, 2013.
30
40
50
60
70
80
GDP per hour in US dollars (2012)
Prosperous, sustainable and enterprising
Switzerland
Sweden
Germany
Austria
Belgium
Netherlands
Finland
United States
France
EU-27
0,0
Eurostat, 2013.
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5 %
Average real GDP growth rate (2006 – 2012)
Moderate inflation
Switzerland
Ireland
Sweden
Netherlands
Germany
France
Euro area
Austria
Denmark
United States
0,0
Eurostat, 2013.
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5 %
Average annual price increases (2006 – 2012)
High labour participation rate
Switzerland
Netherlands
Sweden
Germany
Denmark
Austria
United Kingdom
Finland
United States
Luxemburg
France
0
OECD, 2013.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Ratio of total employment to the population of
working age (2012)
Many part-time employees
Netherlands
Switzerland
Ireland
United Kingdom
Germany
Denmark
Austria
Belgium
Luxembourg
France
0
OECD, 2013.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Part-time work as a percentage of employment
as a whole (2012)
Relatively low unemployment
Switzerland
Netherlands
Austria
Luxembourg
Denmark
United Kingdom
Germany
United States
Sweden
Finland
0
OECD, 2012.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Average unemployment 2006-2012, as a
percentage of the working population
Trade and
investment
Source: Europe Container Terminals BV, Rotterdam
Open economy
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1970
CPB, 2013.
1975
1980
1985
1995
2000
2005
2012
Dutch exports of goods and services as a
proportion of GDP in %
World's sixth-largest exporter of goods
China
United States
Germany
Japan
France
Netherlands
South Korea
Russian Federation
Italy
Hong Kong, China
0
ITC, 2013.
400
800
1.200
1.600
2.000
2.400
Export value in billions of US dollars (2012)
Strong in agri-food production
United States
Netherlands
Germany
Brazil
France
0
ITC, 2013.
50
100
150
200
Export value in billions of US dollars (2012)
Major importer of goods and services
United States
China
Germany
Japan
United Kingdom
France
Hong Kong, China
South Korea
Netherlands
India
0
ITC, 2013.
500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
Import value in billions of US dollars (2012)
Most significant trading partner: Western
Europe
1,4%
8,8%
0,6%
2,4%
5,1%
Europe
Africa
North America
Middle and South America
Near and Far East
Asia
Oceania
3,4%
78,4%
Statistics Netherlands, 2013.
Destination of exports (2012)
Gateway to Europe
0,4%
18,2%
Europe
Africa
3,6%
North America
Middle and South-America
4,4%
Near and Middle East
7,1%
62,9%
Asia
Oceania
3,4%
Statistics Netherlands, 2013.
Origin of imports (2012)
Composition of export
Food and livestock
9%
1%
12%
Drinks and tobacco
2%
Non-edible resources
5%
Mineral fuels and oils
Oils and fats of animal and
plant origin
Chemical products
25%
19%
Manufactured goods
1%
8%
Machinery and
transportation devices
Other manufactured goods
18%
Others
Statistics Netherlands, 2013.
Composition of exports (2012)
Composition of import
Food and livestock
10%
0%
9%
Drinks and tobacco
1%
4%
Non-edible resources
Mineral fuels and oils
28%
25%
Oils and fats of animal and
plant origin
Chemical products
Manufactured goods
1%
9%
Machinery and
transportation devices
Other manufactured goods
13%
Others
Statistics Netherlands, 2013.
Composition of imports (2012)
Ninth-largest foreign investor in the world
United States
China (including Hong Kong)
United Kingdom
Germany
France
Switzerland
Japan
Belgium
Netherlands
Canada
0
UNCTAD, 2013.
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
6.000
Outward FDI stocks in billions of US dollars (2012)
Attractive for inward foreign investments
United Kingdom
France
Belgium
Germany
Switzerland
Spain
Netherlands
Russian Federation
Sweden
Ireland
0
UNCTAD, 2013.
200
400
600
800
1.000
1.200
1.400
FDI stocks in billions of US dollars (2012)
Top Sectors in Focus
Top Sectors
• Agriculture and Food
• Chemical Industry
• Creative Industries
• Energy
• High Tech Systems and Materials
• Horticulture
• Life Sciences
• Logistics
• Water
Agriculture
& Food
Sector
Source: DAF Trucks NV
Source: Nuon / Jorrit Lousberg
Source: Vereniging FME-CWM
Agriculture & Food Sector
World-leading supplier of agro-food products
• Holland is the world's 2nd largest exporter of agricultural products, after the USA.
Together with the USA and France, Holland is one of the top 3 exporters of
vegetables and fruit.
• The total value of Dutch agricultural exports was 75.4 billion Euros in 2012. The
Dutch agro-food industry contributed 52.5 billion Euros of added value to Dutch
GDP.
• The Netherlands is responsible for 22% of the world’s potato exports. The
Netherlands has the second highest private R&D investment (as % of GDP) in
agro-food in Europe.
• Four of the world's top 25 food and beverage companies are Dutch and 12 have
a major production site or R&D facilities in the Netherlands.
Chemical
Sector
Source: AkzoNobel Source: DAF Trucks NV
Source: Nuon / Jorrit Lousberg
Chemical Sector
Chemical Portal to Europe
• The chemical industry is one of the leading business sectors in the Netherlands,
making a significant contribution to the economy. In 2011, the turnover was 58
billion Euros.
• Holland is one of Europe's leading suppliers of chemical products and services.
• The competitiveness of the Dutch chemical industry lies in its internal and intercompany integration. Chemical companies work together on innovation and
production, and take advantage of regional clustering.
• Holland hosts 19 of the world’s top 25 leading chemical companies, including
AkzoNobel, BASF and Shell.
• Holland is also home to world-class R&D institutes for fundamental and applied
research such as TNO, Delft University, Twente University, Wageningen
University and Eindhoven University.
Creative Industries
Source: DAF
Bavaria
N.V.NV
Source:
Trucks
Creative Industries
Masters in architecture, design, fashion and
gaming
• Holland’s creative industry ranks among the world’s top 10 in terms of trade
figures, jobs and registrations of brands and patterns.
• The annual turnover of Dutch creative industries is 7.1 billion Euros.
• Dutch architects are commissioned to design prestigious buildings around the
world such as the Mercedes Benz Museum in Stuttgart, the CCTV Headquarters
in Beijing and Battery Park in New York. Renowned Dutch architects/agencies
include Rem Koolhaas (OMA), Francine Houben (Mecanoo), Ben van Berkel and
Caroline Bos (UNStudio).
• Holland has a long tradition of interior design, epitomized by Rietveld's furniture
designs. Marcel Wanders is currently one the world's best known furniture
designers.
Energy
Sector
Source: DAF Trucks NV
Source: Nuon / Jorrit Lousberg
Source: Heerema
Energy Sector
Innovative, sustainable energy solutions
• 15 to 20% of the gas consumed in Europe comes from Holland.
• The distribution network for gas is the densest in Europe and of a very high
standard.
• The Dutch have unmatched capacity to cope with seasonal fluctuations in gas
demand, providing north-western Europe with much-needed flexibility.
• Holland has an international reputation for research in renewable energy, due, in
part, to the work of the energy research centre ECN.
• The Dutch have leading expertise in offshore wind energy, co-combustion of
biomass in coal-fired power plants, pre-treatment methods of biomass, the use of
landfill gas, and the use of heat pumps combined with heat and cold storage.
High Tech
Sector
Source: ASML
High Tech Sector
New technologies for health, mobility, energy
and security
• Holland's high-tech sector is a world leader in the development of new
technologies and materials for use in communication systems, aircraft and
automobiles, medical devices, energy generation and semiconductor production.
• Dutch companies invented WiFi, the CD and the DVD. Bluetooth was invented by
Dutchman Jaap Haartsen. And high-tech equipment from Dutch companies are
used in 90% of all silicon chips produced worldwide.
• The Netherlands ranks among the world's top 3 nano science countries, together
with Switzerland and the USA. MESA+, the institute for technology located at the
University of Twente, is one of the largest nanotechnology research institutes in
the world.
Horticulture
Sector
Source: DAF Trucks NV
Source: Nuon / Jorrit Lousberg
Source: Jan J. Guldemond
Horticulture Sector
World's leading supplier of flowers, plants and
trees
• A quarter of the world trade in horticultural products (24%) is in Dutch hands.
Holland has a 50% share of the worldwide trade in floricultural products, making
it the dominant global supplier of flowers and flower products. Some 80% of all
flower bulbs traded worldwide come from the Netherlands, the majority of which
are tulips.
• The sector is the number 3 exporter in nutritional horticulture products.
• Dutch horticultural innovations include intelligent greenhouses that can float on
water, moving platforms, robots, innovative lighting, water and waste recycling,
and greenhouses that generate more energy than they consume and thus
contribute to a reduction in CO2. The current generation of greenhouses already
generates approximately 10% of Holland’s power needs by using combined heat
and power (CHP).
Life Sciences
and
Health Sector
Source: DAF Trucks NV
Source: Nuon / Jorrit Lousberg
Source: Jan J. Guldemond
©Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.
Life Sciences and Health Sector
Helping to advance health worldwide
• The Netherlands ranks 8th worldwide in life sciences and health
patents.
• With approximately 350 innovative life sciences companies clustered
within a 120 mile radius, Holland is the most geographically
concentrated region in the world when it comes to creating economic
and social value in Life Sciences and Health.
• The sector invests over 2 billion Euros in R&D in the Netherlands each
year and is becoming a globally recognized stronghold of open
innovation. It already accounts for 2.5% of GDP.
• Philips is the world leader in medical imaging and patient monitoring;
DSM is a biomaterials leader.
Logistics
sector
Source: DAF Trucks NV
Source: DAF Trucks
N.V.
Source:
Nuon / Jorrit Lousberg
Logistics sector
Strategic gateway to Europe and the world
• The Netherlands was ranked 5th in the 2012 World Bank global
Logistics Performance Index (based on terms of efficiency and
effectiveness of its customs, quality of transport, IT infrastructure for
logistics and ease and affordability of shipping).
• The Port of Rotterdam is the world’s fourth-largest and Europe’s largest
port. From the Port of Rotterdam, all major industrial and economic
centres in Western Europe can be reached in less than 24 hours.
• Amsterdam Schiphol Airport won two awards at the 2012 Asian Freight
& Supply Chain Awards for best airport in Europe and the Best Air
Cargo Terminal in Europe. In 2012, Schiphol also won the ‘ACI
EUROPE Best Airport’ award for the third time.
Water
Sector
Source: Rijkswaterstaat
Source: DAF Trucks NV
Source: Nuon / Jorrit Lousberg
Water Sector
World leaders in hydraulic engineering, water
treatment and shipbuilding
• The Dutch are renowned for their integrated water management and multidisciplinary approach that balances social, economic, environmental and
engineering needs ('Building with Nature'). Dutch companies are involved in the
sustainable development of low-lying urban agglomerations such as Jakarta and
Bangladesh, and coastal development in areas such as Dubai, Vietnam and
Romania.
• Two Dutch companies command half of the world's dredging market.
• The Dutch Delta Works are listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest
flood defence project in the world. With almost 16,500 kilometres of dykes and
300 structures, the project is one of the most extensive engineering projects in
the world.
• The Dutch invest heavily in innovation and R&D through public-private
partnerships. These include renowned institutes such as Deltares, MARIN,
Wetsus and KWR Watercycle Research Institute.
Human capital
and
innovation
Source: Jeroen Verreijt / Dutch Polymere Institute
Well-educated working population
United States
Sweden
Switzerland
Germany
Finland
Austria
Denmark
United Kingdom
Ireland
Netherlands
0
OECD, 2012.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Percentage of population (25-64 years old) that
has attained upper secondary education (2010)
Dutch schoolchildren are second in the EU
OECD, 2013.
PISA score points, OECD average = 497
(2012)
Human Development Index 2012
Norway
Australia
United States
Netherlands
Germany
New Zealand
Ireland
Sweden
Switzerland
Japan
0,890
0,900
United Nations Development
Programme, 2013.
0,910
0,920
0,930
0,940
0,950
0,960
Human Development Index (2012)
Entrepreneurs create dynamism
Australia
Canada
Netherlands
Belgium
EU-27
Ireland
United Kingdom
Germany
Finland
United States
0
Statistics Netherlands, 2012.
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Number of entrepreneurs as a percentage of the
working population (2009)
Well-developed ICT infrastructure
Finland
Singapore
Sweden
Netherlands
Norway
Switzerland
United Kingdom
Denmark
United States
Taiwan
0
World Economic Forum, 2013.
1
2
3
4
5
6
The Networked Readiness Index (2013)
Global Innovation Index: fourth position
INSEAD, 2013
Global Innovation Index (2013)
Modest R&D expenditure
Finland
Sweden
Denmark
Germany
Austria
United States*
France
Belgium
Netherlands
United Kingdom
0,0
Eurostat, 2013.
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
4,0
R&D expenditures as percentage of GDP (2012, *=2011)
Home-grown knowledge multinationals
Philips
Philips
ASML
ASML
KPN
KPN
Shell*
Shell*
Royal DSM
Royal DSM
NXP Semiconductors
NXP Semiconductors
Unilever*
Unilever*
Océ-Technologies
Océ-Technologies
DAF Trucks
DAF Trucks
AkzoNobel
AkzoNobel
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0
500
1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500
* Estimation Technisch Weekblad.
* Estimation Technisch Weekblad.
R&D expenditures in million Euros (2012)
R&D workforce in FTE (2012)
Technisch Weekblad, 2013.
Large base of knowledge and research
TNO
TNO
ECN
ECN
Deltares
Deltares
FOM
FOM
ESTEC
ESTEC
NLR
NLR
MESA+
MESA+
MARIN
MARIN
NEN
NEN
UNESCO-IHE
UNESCO-IHE
0
100
200
300
400
500
Turnover or budget in million Euros (2012)
Technisch Weekblad, 2013.
600
0
500
1.000
1.500
2.000
Workforce in FTE (2012)
2.500
3.000
3.500
4.000
Refreshing business approach
United States
Japan
Germany
China
South Korea
France
United Kingdom
Switzerland
Netherlands
Sweden
0
World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO), 2013.
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Number of PCT patent applications (2012)
Dutch scientists frequently cited
Switzerland
Denmark
Netherlands
United States
United Kingdom
Sweden
Belgium
Canada
Ireland
Norway
1,0
WTI2, 2012; Data processing: NL
Agency, 2012.
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
Average number of citations compared to the
world average (2006 – 2009)
Infrastructure
Source: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Navigable inland waterways
Denmark
Netherlands
Hong Kong, China
Singapore
Finland
Germany
Iceland
Sweden
Norway
Canada
8,0
IMD, 2013.
8,2
8,4
8,6
8,8
9,0
9,2
9,4
Quality of water transportation
(harbours, canals, locks, etc.) (2013)
Good at logistics
Singapore
Hong Kong, China
Finland
Germany
Netherlands
Denmark
Belgium
Japan
United States
United Kingdom
3,7
World Bank, 2012.
3,8
3,9
4,0
4,1
4,2
Logistics Performance Index (2012)
Third-largest cargo airport in Europe
Frankfurt
London Heathrow
Paris Charles de
Gaulle
Paris Charles de
Gaulle
Amsterdam Airport
Schiphol
Frankfurt
London Heathrow
Amsterdam Airport
Schiphol
Leipzig
Madrid
Cologne Bonn
Istanbul
0
500
1.000
1.500
2.000
Freight handled in 1000 tons (2012)
Schiphol Group, 2013.
2.500
0
10
20
30
40
50
Millions of passengers (2012)
60
70
80
Largest port in Europe
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Antwerp
Antwerp
Hamburg
Hamburg
0
100
200
300
400
500
Trans-shipment in million tonnes (2012)
Port of Rotterdam, 2013 and Hafen Hamburg, 2013.
0
2
4
6
8
Containers in thousand TEUs (2012)
10
12
Leading the field in broadband
Switzerland
Netherlands
Denmark
South Korea
Norway
France
Iceland
Germany
United Kingdom
Belgium
0
OECD, 2013.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Number of broadband connections per hundred
inhabitants (2012)
Government
Source: Hans Kouwenhoven
Effective government and good-quality
service provision
Finland
Denmark
Sweden
Canada
Netherlands
Australia
Belgium
Austria
United Kingdom
Germany
0
World Bank, 2013.
20
40
60
80
100
Average government effectiveness
ranking (2011)
One of the least corrupt countries
Transparency International,
2013.
Score on the Corruption Perception Index
(2013)
Moderate level of government debt
Luxembourg
Sweden
Denmark
Finland
Netherlands
Austria
Germany
United Kingdom
France
Euro area
0
Eurostat, 2013.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
National debt as a percentage of GDP (first quarter 2013)
Competitive taxation climate
Ireland
Switzerland
Sweden
United Kingdom
Austria
Denmark
Finland
Netherlands
Luxembourg
Germany
0
IMD, 2013.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
%
Maximum tax rate, calculated on profit before tax
Explanatory notes
This publication is intended to provide a
concise and representative picture of the
state of the Dutch economy. Every attempt
has been made to select indicators
carefully and judiciously from
internationally renowned and reliable
sources. In the case of most of the
indicators, the Dutch economy has been
compared with surrounding countries
(such as Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the
UK and Switzerland, many of which are
similar in terms of their economic
structures), and the United States.
Comparisons have also been made, in a
number of instances, with other countries,
such as with various global rankings.
More information:
NL Agency
www.hollandtrade.com or
www.agentschapnl.nl
[email protected]
Economic editor:
Ron Hogenboom
[email protected]
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