Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge
Management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Management
MOCURIS teaching materials
Presentation for lecturers
Janis Grundspenkis and Marite Kirikova
Devision of Systems Theory
Riga Technical University
[email protected], [email protected]
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Management
Philosophy
This module presents a framework for understanding the role of
knowledge management in modern competitive and innovative
organizations.
It is an advanced level module for Knowledge Engineering career
track covering broad subject area and is addressed to IS
developers career track.
This module trains to create human-centered flexible enterprisewide information infrastructure that effectively supports knowledge
capturing, storage, development, distribution and transfer.
It introduces to knowledge management tools, such as knowledge
flow enablers, knowledge navigation systems and tools, corporate
memories, knowledge repositories and tools aimed for
identification, creation, storage, suppliance, access, dissemination,
reuse and preservation of knowledge in knowledge base.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Objectives
Understand the role of Knowledge Management in
modern organizations
Use information technology for knowledge
management
Use intelligent agent technologies and multi agent
systems for knowledge management
Apply knowledge management systems
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Keywords
Knowledge
Knowledge management
Knowledge management systems
Knowledge management tools
Organizational memory
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Topics (1)
Paradigm shift from data, information management to
knowledge management
Knowledge management definitions and components
Knowledge sources and knowledge types and life
cycles of organizational knowledge
Knowledge generation, codification and transfer
Typologies of knowledge management sub-process
Knowledge management approaches
Knowledge assets
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Topics (2)
Concepts of memory in knowledge management
Knowledge management tools
Knowledge engineering in knowledge management
Knowledge management platforms
Knowledge management and information systems
Implementing knowledge management in
organizations
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Paradigm shift of data,
information management
to knowledge
management
Definitions of data, information, and knowledge
Differences between data, information and knowledge
From data administration to knowledge management
Roots of knowledge management
Related management areas
Knowledge management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Definitions of Data
Data is a set of discrete, objective facts about
events.
In an organizational context, data is most usefully
described as structured records of transactions.
Data is essential raw material for the creation of
information.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Definitions of Information
Collection of Data is called Information
Data becomes information when its creator adds
meaning.
Information is data endowed with relevance and
purpose.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Definition of Knowledge (1)
Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, expert
insight, and grounded intuition that provides an environment and framework for evaluating
and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the
minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or
repositories, but also in organizational routines, processes, practices and norms
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Definitions of Knowledge (2)
Knowledge consists of truths, and beliefs, perspectives
and concepts, judgments and expectations,
methodologies and know-how.
Knowledge is the whole set of insights, experiences,
and procedures that are considered correct and true
and that therefore guide the thoughts, behaviors, and
communications of the people.
Knowledge is reasoning about the information and data
to actively enable performance, problem-solving,
decision-making, learning, and teaching.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Difference between Data,
Information, and Knowledge (1)
K n o w le d g e
E la bo ra tio n
In te rp r e te d s ym b o l s tru c tu r e s
- u s e d to in te rp re t d a ta , e la b o ra te o n
in fo rm a tio n , a n d le a rn
- u s e d w ith u n th e d e c is io n s te p s
L ea rn in g
In fo rm a tio n
In te rp r e te d s ym b o ls a n d s ym b o l
s tru c tu re s
- in p u t to a d e c is io n s te p
- o u tp u t fro m a d e c is io n s te p
D a ta
in terp reta tio n
D a ta
O b s e r v e d u n in te r p re te d s ym b o ls
- s ig n s , c h a ra c te r s e q u e n c e s ,
p a tte rn s
Aamodt A., Nygārd M. Different roles and mutual dependencies of data, information and knowledge - An AI
perspective on their integration. Data &Knowledge Engineering, 1995.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Difference Between Data,
Information, and Knowledge (2)
Definition
Example
Data is basically just raw facts and
figures. No single piece of data can
be useful by itself, as it does not
provide good business information.
The number 37 is data.
Information is data which has been
processed and has now got some
meaning behind it.
37% of people eat junk food every
day.
Knowledge is an understanding of
the information which has been
given.
Those 37% of people lead a very
unhealthy lifestyle which could lead
to bad problems.
1.
Adapted from www.kesgrave.suffolk.sch.uk/Curric/ ICT/StudentWork/HannahSawyer.ppt
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
From data administration to KM
Time
Focus on
Mid 1970s DB administration,
Mid 1980s Data administration
Late 1980s Data management
1990s Information management
Late 1990s/2000s Knowledge management
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Roots of KM
Organizational science
Computer science and management
information systems
Management science
Psychology and sociology
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Related management areas
Change management
Quality management
Human resource management
Innovation management
Strategic management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge management
definitions and
components
KM Definitions
KM Components
KM system
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM Definitions (1)
Stress Systematic and Formal Aspects
Knowledge Management is a the systematic, explicit, and
deliberate building, renewal, and application of knowledge to
maximize an enterprises knowledge-related effectiveness and
returns from its knowledge assets.
Knowledge Management is the formalization of and access to
experience , Knowledge, and expertise that create new
capabilities, enable superior performance, encourage
innovation, and enhance custom value.
KM involves the identification and analysis of available and
required knowledge, and the subsequent planning and control of
actions to develop knowledge assets so as to fulfill organization
objectives.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM Definitions (2)
View KM as a Process
Knowledge Management is the process of creating value
from an organization’s intangible assets.
Knowledge Management is defined as a process through
which organization’s create, store and utilize their
collective knowledge.
Knowledge Management is the process of capturing
company’s collective expertise whenever it resides-in
databases, on paper, or in peoples heads-and distributing
it to whenever if can help produces the biggest profit.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM Definitions (3)
Focusing on Organizational Aspects
Knowledge Management is getting the right knowledge to
the right people at the right time so they can make the best
decision.
Knowledge Management is the art of creating value from an
organization’s intangible assets.
Knowledge Management is the explicit control and
management of knowledge within the organization aimed at
achieving the company’s objective.
Knowledge Management means exactly the management
of organizational knowledge of creating greater value and
generating a competitive advantage.
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM components (1)
From the point of view of knowledge flow
The flow of knowledge
Knowledge cryptography
Communities of knowledge workers
Knowledge repositories and libraries
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM components (2)
From the technical viewpoint
Software interface
Access and authentication tools
Collaborative intelligence tools
Application level software
Transport level software
Middleware and legacy integration software
Repositories
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM system (1)
Relation of terms: knowledge, KM life cycle, KM system
Knowledge
KM system
KM life cycle
is used in
Socrates-Erasmus project
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is supported by
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM system (2)
Definition
Knowledge management system (KMS) is an information and communication technology (ICT) system in the
sense of an application system or an ICT platform that combines and integrates functions for the contextualized
handling of both, explicit and tacit knowledge, throughout the organization or that part of the organization that is
targeted by a knowledge management initiative. A KMS supports networks of knowledge workers in the creation,
construction, identification, capturing, acquisition, selection, valuation, organization, linking, structuring,
formalization, visualization, distribution, retention, maintenance, refinement, evolution, accessing, search and
last but not least the application of knowledge the aim of which is to support the dynamics of organizational
learning and organizational effectiveness.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM system (3)
Seven layers architecture for developing a KMS
Interface layer
Access and authentication layer
Collaborative intelligence and filtering
Application layer
Transport layer
Middleware and legacy integration layer
Repositories
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge sources and
types
Knowledge sources
Knowledge types
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge sources (1)
E xp lic it kn o w le d g e
a b o u t th e o je c t
C re a te d b y th e
o b s e r ve r
P re p a re s
< < Ag e n t> >
O b s e rve r o f th e o b je c t
O b s e rve s
C a n c o m m u n ic a te
w ith
C an use
< < Ag e n t> >
S e e k e r o f kn o w le d g e
O b je c t
C an
o b s e r ve
C a n c o m m u n ic a te
w ith
M a n -m a id o b je c t
C an use
N a tu ra l o b je c t
M a ke s
< < Ag e n t> >
M a s te r o f th e o b je c t
P re p a re s
E xp lic it kn o w le d g e
a b o u t th e o b je c t
C re a te d b y th e
c re a to r
Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical
University, Computer Science, 2002.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge sources (2)
K no w le dge
po s s ess o rs
C us to me rs
Artific ia l kno w le d ge
po s s ess o rs
Na tura l k no w le d ge
po s s ess o rs
M a na ge me nt a nd
e m plo y e e s
P ro vide rs
C o ns ulta nts
Ha rd c o pie s of
do c u me nts
P a ss iv e kno w le dge
po s s ess o rs
Ac tiv e kno w le dge
po s s ess o rs
Age nts
Artific ia l inte llige nc e
te c hnique s
P a rtne rs
C o m pe tito rs
E le c tro nic do c ume nts
D o c ume nts
P ic tures
R e po rts
E xpe rt s ys te ms
Inte llige nt de c isio n
s uppo rt s y ste ms
Ima ge s
Artic le s
Au dio re c o rds
Artific ia l ne ura l
ne tw o rks
M a nua ls
Vide o re c o rds
Ac tiv e a nd inte llige nt
da ta ba se sy ste ms
P a te nts
O the r kinds o f
do c u me nts
S o ftw a re
(c a lc ulus , a nima tio n,
e tc .)
Virtua l re a lity
P a tte rn re co gnitio n
a nd i ma ge pro c e ss ing
Inte llige nt info r ma tio n
s ys te ms a nd C AS E
to o ls
Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical University, Computer Science, 2002.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Types (1)
Tacit knowledge
(Subjective)
Explicit knowledge
(Objective)
Knowledge of experience
(body)
Simultaneous knowledge
(here and now)
Analog knowledge (practice)
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Knowledge of rationality
(mind)
Sequential knowledge (there
and then)
Digital knowledge (theory)
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Types (2)
Blackler’s classification of knowledge
Embrained knowledge
Embodied knowledge
Encultured knowledge
Embedded knowledge
Encoded knowledge
Cognitive psychologists classification of knowledge
Declarative knowledge
Procedural knowledge
Strategic knowledge
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Types (3)
K n o w le d g e
re p re s e n te d b y
A gent B
K n o w le d g e of A g e n t A
b e lo n g s to
E xte rn a lis e d
k n ow le d g e
M a n ife ste d k n ow le d g e
E m b e d d e d k n ow le dg e
E m b o d ie d k n ow ld g e
S o ft k n ow le d g e
H a rd k n ow le d g e
S e lf-a c q uire d
k n ow le d g e
B u ilt in k n ow le d ge
S e n s ula l e xp e rie n c e
A b s tra c t k n ow le d g e
Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge and Knowledge
Sources, Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical University,
Computer Science, 2002.
D e c la ra tive k n ow le d ge
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P ro c e d u ra l k n ow le dg e
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
P a c ka g e d k now le d g e
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Life cycles of
organizational
knowledge
Knowledge conversation as life cycle of
organizational knowledge
The personal knowledge evolution cycle
The institutional knowledge evolution cycle
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge conversation as life
cycle of organizational
knowledge
Tacit
knowledge
Explicit
knowledge
Dialogue
Tacit
knowledge
Explicit
knowledge
Socialization
Externalization
Field
Building
Linking
Explicit
Knowledge
Internalization
Tacit
knowledge
Combination
Learning by Doing
Explicit
knowledge
Nonaka I., Takeuchi H., The Knowledge-Creating Company, 1995.
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Explicit
knowledge
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
The knowledge life cycle in
organizational learning
processes
Knowledge
sources
Individual knowledge
learn
share
Inter-subjective knowledge
institutionalize
repack
reproduce
Institutionalized knowledge
apply
Knowledge in use
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Knowledge
products & services
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Personal knowledge evolution
cycle
Tacit subliminal knowledge
Idealistic vision and paradigm knowledge
Systematic schema and reference methodology
knowledge
Pragmatic decision-making and factual knowledge
Automatic routine working knowledge
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
The institutional knowledge
evolution cycle
Create new knowledge: learn, innovate, and research
Capture and store knowledge
Organize and transform knowledge
Deploy knowledge
Apply, use and leverage knowledge
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge generation,
codification and transfer
Knowledge generation
Knowledge codification
Knowledge transfer
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge generation
The actual process of conducting research and producing new
knowledge
Five modes of knowledge generation
Acquisition
Dedicated resources
Fusion
Adaptation
Knowledge networking
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge codification
The aim of knowledge codification is to put organizational knowledge
into a form that makes it accessible to those who need it.
Possible forms of codified knowledge
Documented knowledge
Mapped knowledge
Modeled knowledge
Knowledge codified in systems
Socrates-Erasmus project
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge transfer (1)
Knowledge transfer is the process of passing available knowledge to specified audiences
Functionalities
channel identification and choice,
scheduling, and
sending
Aspects of knowledge transfer
hard aspects – focus on improved access to knowledge
(information), electronic communication, document
repositories, and so forth;
soft aspects – focus on human face-to-face communication
(meetings, talk rooms etc.).
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge transfer (2)
Complete knowledge transfer
Transmission
+
Absorption
improve
organization’s ability to do things and increase its value
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Typologies of KM
sub-processes
Knowledge management process
Role of KM process in organization
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM process (1)
Knowledge
Acquisition
Knowledge
Sharing
Knowledge
Utilization
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM process (2)
Create
Knowledge
Value
Knowledge
Organize
Knowledge
Store
Knowledge
Distribute
Knowledge
Apply
Knowledge
Feedback
Knowledge
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM process (3)
Process triggering
Identify knowledge
Define knowledge goals
Create knowledge
Continuously
reproducing
Store knowledge
Distribute knowledge
Apply knowledge
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM process (4)
Identify
Capture
Select
Store
Share
Apply
Create
Sell
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM process (5)
Creation
Acquisition
Knowledge
Generation
Synthesis
Fusion
Adaptation
Knowledge
Codification
Capture
Knowledge Transfer
Representation
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
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Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
t
Ex
er
l
na
v
en
i
t
en
m
n
ro
Role of KM process in
organization
Knowl edge envi r onment i n
or gani zat i on
(organiz ati onal cul ture,
K now le dg e
i nf rastructure,
st rategy, goals . .. )
Art i f a ct s
Know le dg e
Art i f a ct s
Bet t er b usi n e ss pr ocesse s
Busi n ess pr oce sses
Know le dg e
K now le dg e
Art i f a ct s
Art i f a ct s
Kn o w l e g d e
K now le dge
Art i f a ct s
Agent X
Age nt Y
Ac ti vit i es
Act iv it ies
Agent Y
Agent X
c od i f i c at i on
Wi ser
Wi ser
K n o w l ed g e
K nowle dg e
ca p t u r i n g
Art i f a ct s
Kn owl e dge
Knowl ed ge
Ar t if ac t s
Art i f a c t s
( g en er at i o n )
A c t ivi ti es
Ac t ivit i es
Know le dg e
Kn o w l e d g e
Art i f a c t s
u t i l i za t i o n
Kno wl e dge
Ar t if a c t s
Kno wl ed ge
Ar t if a c t s
Agen t Z
Age nt Z
Ac t ivi ti es
KM Pr oc es s es,
Wis er
suppor t ed by var ious me t hods, t ec hni que s, and t ools
Act i vit ie s
Kn owl e dge
Ar t i f ac t s
I mprov e me nt of bus i ne s s proc e s s e s a ppl y i ng k now l e dge ma na ge me nt proc e s s e s
Kn owl e dge
goe s on c ont i nuous l y
Ar t i f ac t s
Apšvalka D, Zināšanu pārvaldības metožu lietojums organizāciju intelektuālā kapitāla izmantošanai, Master’s thesis, Riga Technical University, 2003.
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MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM approaches
Process-centred and Product-centred
Enabling knowledge creation
Business process oriented knowledge
management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Process-centered & Productcentered approach (1)
Product-centered
Product-centered approach focuses on knowledge
documents, their creation, storage and reuse in
computer-based corporate memories.
It is called also IT-based approach.
The typical goal is to take documents with knowledge
embedded in them and store them in a repository
where they can be easily retrieved.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Process-centered & Productcentered approach (2)
Process-centered
Process-centered approach mainly understands
Knowledge Management as a social communication
process.
Knowledge is closely tied to the person who develops it
and is shared mainly trough person-to-person.
The main purpose of Information Technology in this
approach is to help people communicate with knowledge,
not to store it.
The underlying strategy here is to facilitate connections
between those people who possess knowledge and
those who need knowledge.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Process-centered &Productcentered (3)
Product & process centered approaches in KM software
Product-centered
Process-centered
Knowledge as product
Knowledge as process
Technologies supporting knowledge
storage:
Intranet
Knowledge maps
Semantic analysis
Structured document analysis
Full text retrieval
File management systems
Technologies supporting knowledge
transfer:
White boarding
Net conferencing
Discussion groups
Real-time messaging
E-mail
Shared files
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Enabling knowledge creation
(1)
This approach is emphasised on the assumption that
knowledge cannot be managed, it is only enabled.
In this approach managers need to support knowledge
creation rather than control it, and it is called knowledge
enabling
Knowledge is dynamically created in social interactions
and has a subjective nature deeply rooted in individual
value systems
Enabling knowledge creation includes facilitating
relationships and conversations as well as sharing local
knowledge across an organisation or beyond geographic
and cultural borders.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Enabling knowledge creation
(2)
Five knowledge enablers
Instil a knowledge vision
Manage conversation
Mobilise knowledge activists
Create the right context
Globalise local knowledge
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Enabling knowledge creation
(3)
„Innovators”
d
an
2.
1.
an Ca
d pt
Lo ur
c a in g
t in
g
„Risk
Minimizers”
Tr
an
„Efficiency
Seekers”
S h s fe
a r ri n g
in
g
3.
En
ab
lin
g
Process
focus
Content
focus
Focus on existing
knowledge
Krogh G., Ichijo K., Nonaka I., Enabling Knowledge Creation, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Focus on new
knowledge
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Business process oriented KM
(1)
The operative methods and procedures used to generate,
store, distribute and apply knowledge differ according to
particular business process.
These specific methods have to be integrated into a
knowledge management approach that is oriented towards
business process
Corporate culture is an interwoven network of different
professional cultures, functional cultures
Knowledge management tasks have to be combined with
daily work tasks and integrated into the daily business
processes.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Business process oriented KM
(2)
Systematic methods to integrate KM activities into the
business processes
The business knowledge management approach
The knowledge value chain approach
The building block approach
The model-based knowledge management approach
The reference-model for knowledge management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Assets
Definitions and types of knowledge assets
Intellectual capital
Identifying knowledge assets
Evaluating knowledge assets
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Definitions and types of
knowledge assets (1)
Definitions of Knowledge Assets
Knowledge assets are the knowledge regarding markets,
products, technologies and organizations, that a business
owns or needs to own and which enable its business
processes to generate profits, add value, etc.
Knowledge asset is a guidance and support information,
“owned” by the organization, that enhance stakeholders’
ability to accomplish work processes.
Knowledge assets include all the underlying skills, routines,
practices, principles, formulas, methods, heuristics and
intuitions, whether explicit or tacit; and all the data-bases,
manuals, reference works, textbooks, diagrams, displays,
computer files, and artifacts in which both facts and
procedures are recorded and stored.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Definitions and types of
knowledge assets (2)
Types of knowledge assets
Human knowledge assets - capabilities of
the individuals
Structural knowledge assets organizational capabilities to meet market
requirements
Market knowledge assets - to knowledge
about the market, the company's clients,
partners, competitors, etc
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Intellectual capital
Definition
Intellectual capital is knowledge that can be converted into value
Intellectual capital consists of
Human capital – the tacit knowledge embedded in the minds of
the employees;
Structural capital – the organizational routines of the business;
Relational capital – the knowledge embedded in the
relationships established with the outside environment.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Identifying knowledge assets
Identify most important knowledge
Determine where it is most at risk to "brain drain"
Identify experts (the people with the knowledge) both
internally and outside the company
Learn how to capture and package knowledge
(create knowledge assets)
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Evaluating knowledge assets
Elements for evaluating knowledge potential
Knowledge relevance indicator
Knowledge connectivity factor
Knowledge activation factor
Added value in context
Knowledge capturing and learning
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Concepts of memory in
Knowledge Management
Human memory
Organizational memory
Organizational memory system
Organizational learning
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Human memory (1)
Definitions
Memory is ability to store and retrieve information
Memory is a basic human ability that allows us to recall
past events and knowledge. It is a concept whose
importance stems from the fact that our understanding of
time is one directional, forward, and all of our current
actions depend upon the past knowledge and future
expectations
Memory is the retention of, and ability to recall,
information, personal experiences, and procedures (skills
and habits)
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Human memory (2)
Three important factors concerning with memories
Memories are constructions made in
accordance with present needs, desires,
influences, etc.
Memories are often accompanied by feelings
and emotions
Memory usually involves awareness of the
memory
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Human memory (3)
Structure of memory
Memory is a set of encoded neural connections
Encoding can take place in several parts of the
brain
The stronger the connections, the stronger the
memory
Recollection of an event can occur by a stimulus
to any of the parts of the brain where a neural
connection for the memory occurs
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Human memory (4)
Stores and processes of human memory
Deleted if not needed
Sensory
store
Perception
Short term
store
recall
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
Long term
store
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Human memory (5)
Taxonomy of human memory
Memory
Declarative
Memory
Semantic
Memory
Procedural
Memory
Perceptual
Learning
Episodic
Memory
Motor Skill
Learning
Conditioning
Short Term Memory
or Working Memory
Recognition
Cognitive
Long Term Memory or
Reference Memory
Recall
Adapted from: Steven P.R. Rose, http://www.fathom.com/
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational memory (1)
Definitions
Repository for the knowledge developed jointly by multiple individual
firm members in the amplification of individual learning to firm level
learning
Involves the use of five storage bins: individual firm members,
organizational culture, transformation, structure, and ecology
organizational memory has four dimensions:
level – refers simply to the amount of knowledge an organization has
accumulated
dispersion – the extent to which memory is shared and spread across
the organization by the organizational members
accessibility – refers to the extent to which memory can be retrieved for
use
content – concerns the meaning of memory in terms of whether it is
procedural (involving skills and competencies) or declarative (involving
facts or events).
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational memory (2)
Content of organizational memory
Knowledge
Explanations
Predictions
Action-outcome theories
Paradigm
Norms
Values
Beliefs
Information
Potential knowledge
Organizational memory carrier
Organizationally accessible human capital
Domain
General
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational memory (3)
Organizational memory processes
Storing organizational memory
Retrieving organizational memory
Representing organizational memory
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational memory system
(1)
System that functions to provide a means by which knowledge from the past is brought to
bear on present activities, thus resulting in increased level of effectiveness for the
organization
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational memory system
(2)
Six perspectives on organizational memory system
OMS as a new type of the use of
application systems
OMS as a concept
OMS in a functional view
OMS as a property of information systems
OMS in a behaviorists view
OMS in a technological view
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational memory system
(3)
Organizational memory system enabling software
Databases – handling of data about memory
Expert systems – formalized memory in memory base, and
formal inference capabilities in inference engine
Case-based reasoning – case descriptions by key terms in
base, and retrieval of case by inference engine
Hypertext & hypermedia – multi-media objects and a uniform
user-interface consisting of links between key terms
E-mail and its GroupWare variants – computer network and
software to handle electronic conversations (from very formal to
very informal)
Model bases – database consisting of mathematical models that
can be used to process data
And other.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational memory system
(4)
Organizational memory system hardware components
A filling system, containing an acquisition module, a
classifier model and an insertation module
A retrieval system, containing a browser and a query
system module
An interface system, for interfacing the filing/retrieval
subsystems and the model and memory contents
servers.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational learning (1)
Learning is the transformation (development, maintenance
and use) of organizational memory.
Organizations learn in three ways:
single-loop
double-loop and
deutero
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Organizational learning (2)
The essence of learning organization
Continuous learning at the systems level
Knowledge generation and sharing
Critical, systemic thinking
A culture of learning
A spirit of flexibility and experimentation
People-centered
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge management
tools
Tools for knowledge socialization
Tools for knowledge externalization
Tools for knowledge combination
Tools for knowledge internalization
Software for collaboration
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
socialization (1)
Communication enablers
Watercoolers
Telephone
Chat
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
Conversations at the water cooler or in the company cafeteria are
often occasions for knowledge transfer
Telephone also is a form of knowledge transfer through
conversation
Chat is another form of informal knowledge transfer through
personal conversation to electronic conversation.
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
socialization (2)
Video conferencing
Is used to see the person or group with
whom you are working virtually
Combine virtuality with face-to-face
collaboration. It enables people to exchange
both video and audio across a distributed
network
Allows people to meet face to face in small
or large groups with colleagues for meetings,
corporate training, and distance learning
programs without participants being required
to travel to a central location
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
socialization (3)
Web Conferencing
Enables virtual meetings where users from different
locations connect, conduct meetings, and share
information as if everyone were in the same room
Allow participants to collaborate, share documents, and
can add content to them
Two Types of Web Conferencing
Real-time conferencing
Non-real time conferencing
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
socialization (4)
Digital Whiteboards
Permits real time display of drawings,
pictures or documents for group discussion
and comment
Can capture whatever is drawn on regular
paper notepads, and store as image on a
personal computer
Can be networked to allow multi-user
collaboration over the Internet
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
socialization (5)
Bulletin boards
Bulletin boards are used to post notices and facilitate
discussions on any topic
Electronic bulletin boards allow users to publish live, digital
content to public spaces
Two types
Simple bulletin boards
Electronic bulletin boards
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
externalization (1)
Expert systems
Knowledge intensive computer programs that capture the
expertise of a human in limited domains of knowledge
Include rule-based systems, decision trees and also casebased reasoning systems
Arrives at intelligent solutions to user queries by using the
rules contained in the system’s knowledge base
IF
{condition}
THEN
{do this}
ELSE
{do something else}
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
externalization (2)
Yellow Pages
Web-searchable electronic version of skills list
Pointers to expertise
Helps on locating and discovering organizational knowledge
Sample key entries in Yellow Pages
Persons name
Contact information (address, e-mail, telephone, web page)
Professional background
Practical experience
Training
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
externalization (3)
The idea of Yellow Pages
F in d p o in ter to
k n o w led g e reso u rce
S h a re k n o w led g e
w ith ex p ert
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
externalization (4)
Knowledge maps
Graphical representation of knowledge and its relation to
organizational concepts
A form for categorizing organizational knowledge
systematically mapping them
Consists of elements that in fact are pointers to knowledge
Are designed to help people find where they have to go to get
the required knowledge
Yellow Pages also can be organized as a knowledge map by
categorizing and representing personal profile data in specific
manner
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
externalization (5)
Yellow Pages as a knowledge map
I T E M S O F S E L E C T E D D O M A IN
D O M A IN S O F M A P
M a rk etin g
In fo rm a tio n S y stem s
F in a n ces
T ech n ic ia n
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
P E R S O N A L P R O F IL E
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
externalization (6)
Data warehouse
Collection of summarized data from various sources,
structured and optimized for query access using OLAP (online analytical processing) query tools
Organize and collect data into databases
Are used to hold explicit knowledge which helps people to
create new tacit knowledge
Helps company personnel to identify hidden business
opportunities
Improves productivity through improved access to
information and knowledge
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
externalization (7)
Intelligent Agent-based tools
Filtering, editing, searching, and organizing pieces of knowledge
are essential though frequently overlooked components of
successful knowledge management
Search tools need to integrate knowledge latently existing in a
company’s transaction databases, data warehouses, discussion
databases, documents, informal media, and, most importantly, in
people’s mind
Different types of intelligent agents
Search agents
Browsing agents
Monitoring agents
E – Commerce agents
Mail agents
Web mastering agents
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
combination (1)
Intranets
Designed to focus on the employee, and on improving workflow and
business processes
Useful for knowledge distribution, connectivity, and publishing
Intranet is not only a connection medium but also a knowledge base
Owing to their consistent, platform-independent access formats
such as rich HTML, and a common, consistent protocol (HTTP),
makes it possible to access and view documents of different file
format, operating system, or communication protocol
Besides information distribution and publication, intranets provide
the backbone platform for push delivery of information to user’s
desktops
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
combination (2)
Groupware
Software that supports communication and collaboration
between people
Groupware tools provide a document repository, remote
integration, and a base for collaborative work
Groupware tools consist of
Group calendars
Project management module
File management
Yellow Pages
Mail & fax support
Forum & chat
Voting system
Search
Bulletin boards
Conferencing
And other
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
combination (3)
Forums
In forums topics are posted to a website for discussion
and comment where participants can follow a line of
discussion on a topic
These discussions give rise to a library of information
on a wide variety of subjects
New knowledge can be transmitted via the forums to
others who have similar problems
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
combination (4)
Workflow management systems
Workflow can be described simply as the movement of
documents and tasks through a business process
Workflow Management Systems allow organizations to define
and control the various activities associated with a business
process
Categories of workflow applications
Production Workflow Systems
Messaging-based Workflow Systems
Web-based Workflow Systems
Suite-based Workflow Systems
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
combination (5)
Balanced scorecard
The balanced scorecard is a management system (not only
a measurement system) that enables organizations to
clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into
action
It provides feedback around both the internal business
processes and external outcomes
The balanced scorecard retains traditional financial
measures
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
combination (6)
Four dimensions of balanced scorecard
http://www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/bscl.html
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
internalization (1)
Neural networks
Neural network is a hardware and software that attempt to
emulate the processing patterns of the biological brain
Neural networks have learning capabilities
A generic artificial neural network can be defined as a
computational system consisting of a set of highly
interconnected processing elements, called neurons
Neural network becomes immensely promising when you
have data but lack experts to make judgments about it
But it is necessary to spend much time training the neural
network, cleaning up data, and pre-processing
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
internalization (2)
Some points how neural networks can be used
Neural networks can be developed for capturing the
meaning of words relative to the context in which they
appear
Neural networks can be used in data mining
Neural networks have been much applied within the
medical domain. For example, for clinical diagnosis,
image analysis and interpretation, signal analysis and
interpretation, drug development
Many other fields
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
internalization (3)
Case-based reasoning
Case-based reasoning approach allows companies to learn
from previous problems or cases to solve the present problems
similar to the past ones
The case-based reasoner solves new problems by using or
adapting solutions that were used to solve old problems
Using past knowledge gained from several projects reduce the
task to a simple match and cut-and-paste job
Solving the problem by analogy make the process of arriving at
the solution faster, better, and easier than it would have been
had if started from scratch
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Tools for knowledge
internalization (4)
6
Selects
the
approp
riate ca
se
1
Describes the problem
ew
ut
es
ca s
e
Problem
description
at
tri
b
ds
Se
n
Add
s
the
n
The idea of case-based reasoning
Delivers
cases
similar
Case base
3
Searches for
similar cases
es s
ri e v
Ret g case
chin
ma t
4
5
c3
c1
c2
Matching cases
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Software for collaboration (1)
Tacit Active Net
Helps to find people
Initiate and manage collaboration
Coordinate your activities automatically with those of other
people across the enterprise
Automatically learns about people's activities and focus,
and identifies who should be talking or working together
Makes it easy to locate and share files, find answers to
questions, or find the online conversations you should join
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Software for collaboration (2)
Tacit ESP
Flexible software foundation for complete
collaboration management
Automatically discovers an individual’s business
activity and expertise
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Software for collaboration (3)
Tacit Knowledge Mail
Automatically learns about the work-focus,
interests, and experiences of each user
Intelligently distinguish between critical business
knowledge and noise
Dynamic search and information-routing
capabilities are integrated directly into Microsoft
Outlook and Lotus Notes
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Engineering
in Knowledge
Management
Definition of knowledge engineering
Differences between knowledge management
and knowledge engineering
Applying Knowledge Engineering to Knowledge
Management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Definition of knowledge
engineering
Knowledge Engineering is the process used to acquire and
structure information about a subject. This approach serves to
guide development of the integrated knowledge base required for
problem solving and decision making and identify deficiencies in
the knowledge base needed for planning new research
Knowledge Engineering (KE) is a field within Artificial Intelligence
that develops Knowledge Based Systems
Knowledge consists of truths, and Beliefs, perspectives and
concepts, judgments and expectations, methodologies and knowhow
Knowledge is the whole set of insights, experiences, and
procedures that are considered correct and true and that therefore
guide the thoughts, behaviors, and communications of the people.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Differences between
knowledge management and
knowledge engineering
Knowledge Management
Knowledge Engineering
Information Systems and
Management
Computer Science
Development of organizational
software and technical systems for
enabling knowledge processes in
organizations
Development of Artificial Knowledge
based Systems
Whole spectrum of Tacit and Explicit
Knowledge
Problem Solving oriented Explicit
Knowledge
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Applying Knowledge
Engineering to Knowledge
Management (1)
Knowledge enfineering process
Knowledge Acquisition
Generation
Preservation
Exploration
Interpretation
Knowledge Elicitation
Make process in the human brain transparent
Transfer experts knowledge to create tangible asset
Knowledge Representation
Providing of theories and systems for expressing structured
knowledge and for accessing and reasoning with it in a principled
way.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Applying Knowledge
Engineering to Knowledge
Management (2)
Combining the KM & KE processes
Knowledge Management
Knowledge Engineering
Identify & Capture
Create
Represent
Apply
Encode
Share
Test & Evaluate
Liebowitz J. Knowledge Management: Learning from Knowledge Engineering, CRC Press, 2001.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
KM Platforms
Lotus Notes and Domino
The 4Keeps knowledge management platform
NIONEX knowledge management platform
Ontology Middleware: Platform for Real-World
Knowledge Management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Lotus Notes and Domino (1)
Integrated, Web-like environment that provides users with quicker access to and better management of
many types of information including Domino and Internet-based e-mail, calendar of appointments, personal
contacts and to-dos as well as Web pages, News Groups and intranet applications.
Focuses on
Human side of E- business
Enabling people to use ground-breaking technology to
collaborate
Learn and fully leverage their collective knowledge to achieve
success
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Lotus Notes & Domino (2)
Features
Submit (check-in) documents, deliverables (project plans, drawings,
ideas, architectures, patentable material, etc.), and other collaborative
content that contains intellectual capital
Store this in a repository that allows version control, check-out
Trigger approval process using workflow to review, revise, and approve
Alternatively leverage forms/templates
Promote quality, reuse
Provide information about the content (summaries, catalog, top 10 list)
Search/Navigate using a taxonomy, etc.
Locate experts in relevant topics
Generate reports on knowledge gaps, usage, other metrics
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
The 4Keeps KM platform
Integrated set of tools and technologies for building modeling
tools
Its purpose is to allow organizations to build and deploy
knowledge management systems
Provides an integrated environment for managing enterprise
business information which is tailored to fit an organizations’
particular business requirements
Features
Repository based solutions
Leverage existing tools
Validate
Web-enabled
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
NIONEX KM platform
Developed on the basis of a very successful knowledge portal
Permits components and functionality's such as content
management systems, e-learning and established portal
applications to be easily integrated into the platform to meet
your requirements
The NIONEX knowledge management platform is a
differentiated further development of the technology framework
that was used for three outstanding knowledge portals:
Wissen.de, the largest free-of-charge European knowledge portal
Wissens-Center, the subscriber restricted e-learning portal with the
highest sales volume in Europe
Sapere.it, the first and most successful knowledge portal in Italy
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Ontology Middleware: Platform
for Real-World Knowledge
Management (1)
Administrative software infrastructure that makes the rest of the modules in a knowledge management
toolset easier for integration in real-world applications
Features
Versioning (tracking changes) of knowledge bases
Access control (security) system
Meta-information for knowledge bases.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Ontology Middleware: Platform
for Real-World Knowledge
Management (2)
Features of provided infrastructure
A repository providing the basic storage services in a
scalable and reliable fashion
Multi-protocol clients access to allow different users and
applications to use the system via the most efficient
“transportation” media
Knowledge control
Support for pluggable reasoning modules suitable for various
domains and applications
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Knowledge Management
and
Information Systems
Role of information in knowledge creation
Role of IS in Knowledge Management
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Role of information in
knowledge creation
In fo rm a tio n + c o n te x t
K n o w le d g e
in c o n te x t
K n o w le d g e
in c o n te x t
N ew
k n o w le d g e
C o n te x t d im e n s io n s : tim e , e x p e rie n c e ,
o p in io n s ...
Apšvalka D, Zināšanu pārvaldības metožu lietojums organizāciju intelektuālā kapitāla izmantošanai, Master’s thesis, Riga
Technical University, 2003
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Role of IS in Knowledge
Management (1)
IS that support information flow are one essential
component in knowledge management system
IS and IT create a virtual environment for knowledge
management
The information specialist brings a fundamental skill to the
knowledge environment
Organization cannot develop a knowledge management
environment without opening up information flows and
providing access to appropriate information, nor without
managing its store of explicit intellectual assets
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Role of IS in Knowledge
Management (2)
What is needed from IT and IS in knowledge management
Information architecture that include
languages, categories and metaphors for
identifying and accounting for skills and competencies
Technical architectures that
are open, flexible and “social”
show respect for the individual
empower users
Application architectures that focus on
problem solving, relationship building and representation rather,
than on output and transactions
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Role of IS in Knowledge
Management (3)
KMS
IS
(part of KMS)
deals with
Hard information/knowledge
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
Soft information/knowledge
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Implementing Knowledge
Management in
organizations
10-step roadmap
American Productivity & Quality Center’s
roadmap
Seven Steps to implementing KM in your
organization
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
10-step roadmap (1)
Four phases
I
Infrastructural Evaluation
II
KM system analysis,
design, and development
III
System development
IV
Performance evaluation
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
10-step roadmap (2)
Phase 1: Infrastructural evaluation
Step 1 Analyzing existing infrastructure
Step 2 Aligning knowledge management and business strategy
Phase 2: KM system analysis, design, and
development
Step 3 Designing the knowledge management architecture and
integrating existing infrastructure
Step 4 Auditing and analyzing existing knowledge
Step 5 Designing the knowledge management team
Step 6 Creating the knowledge management blueprint
Step 7 Developing the knowledge management system
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
10-step roadmap (3)
Phase 3: System Deployment
Step 8 Deploying with RDI methodology
Step 9 Change management, culture, reward structure design,
and choice of the CKO
Phase 4: Performance Evaluation
Step 10 Measuring results of knowledge management,
devising ROI metrics, and evaluating system performance.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
American Productivity &
Quality Center’s roadmap (1)
Five stages
I
Get started
II
Develop a strategy
III
Design and lunch a
KM initiative
IV
Expand and support
V
Institutionalize KM
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
American productivity &
quality center’s road map (2)
Stage I Get Started
Activity 1 Make the concepts of KM real for others in your
organization
Activity 2 Identify others to support the development of KM
Activity 3 Look for windows of opportunity to introduce the
benefits of KM
Activity 4 Capitalize on the Internet and enlist the IT
department to provide tools and a balanced view of KM
Stage II Develop a Strategy
Activity 1 Form a KM task force
Activity 2 Select pilots or identify current initiatives that could
work as pilots
Activity 3 Find the resources to support the pilot
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
American productivity &
quality center’s road map (2)
Stage III Design and Lunch a KM Initiative
Activity 1 Fund the pilots
Activity 2 Develop methodologies that can be replicated
Activity 3 Capture lessons learned
Stage IV Expand and Support
Activity 4 Develop an expansion strategy
Activity 5 Communicate and market the strategy
Activity 6 Manage growth
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
American productivity &
quality center’s road map (3)
Stage V Institutionalize Knowledge Management
Activity 1 Embed KM in the business model
Activity 2 Realign the organization's structure and budget
Activity 3 Monitor the health of KM
Activity 4 Align performance evaluation and rewards with KM
strategy
Activity 5 Balance an organizational KM framework with local
control
Activity 6 Continue the journey
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Seven Steps to implementing
KM in your organization (1)
Step 1: KM Vision Development
Understanding where your organisation is now in terms of
KM
Identifying where your organisation wants to be
Using the KM vision framework to identify a strategy
Step 2: Knowledge Assessment
Identify the areas of knowledge most important to the
business
Which knowledge assets would be of most value to the
business to better develop and leverage
Assessing the organizational readiness
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Seven Steps to implementing
KM in your organization (2)
Step 3: KM Strategy and Framework development
Prominent KM strategies
Review of different KM frameworks
Development of KM strategies and frameworks for your
organization
Step 4: KM Business Case Support
Why do we need a business case
What are the essential components to include in your business
case
Step 5: New KM roles and responsibilities
What are the new KM roles and responsibilities
Knowledge architecture
Rewards and recognition
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Seven Steps to implementing
KM in your organization (3)
Step 6: Implement KM processes and
technologies
KM enabling your processes
Available KM technologies
Step 7: Measure and improve
7 steps for developing measurements
Knowledge asset accounting
Starting your KM initiative
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Literature
Tiwana A. The Knowledge Management Toolkit, Prentice-Hall,
New Jersey, 2000.
Srikantaiah T.K. and Koenig M.E.D. (Eds.). Knowledge
Management for Information Professionals, ASIS Monograph
Series, 1999.
Liebowitz J. (Ed.). Knowledge Management Handbook, CRC
Press, 1999.
Berghoff U.M. and Pareshi R. (Eds.). Information Technology for
Knowledge Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Literature
Wess G. (Ed.). Multiagent Systems. A Modern Approach to
Distributed Artificial Intelligence, The MIT Press, 2000.
Knapik M. and Johnson J. Developing Intelligent Agents for
Distributed Systems, McGraw-Hill, 1998.
Krogh G.V. , Ichijo K., Nonaka I. Enabling Knowledge Creation:
How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the
power of Innovation, Oxford Uniersity Press, 2000.
Wijnhowen F. Managing Dynamic Organisational Memories,
Boxwood Press, 1999.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems
Literature
Brooking A. Corporate Memory: Strategies for Knowledge
Management, International Thomson Business Press, 1999
Davenport Th. H. and Prusak L. Working Knowledge, Harward
Business School Press, 1998.
Nonaka I. and Takeuchi H. The Knowledge-Creating Company:
How Japanesse Companies Companies Create Dynamics of
Innovation, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Socrates-Erasmus project
69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2
MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in
Information Systems at master level
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