AP PSYCHOLOGY
Review for the AP Exam
Chapter 1-4
Psychology:
The science of behavior (what we do) and
mental processes (sensations,
perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs,
and feelings….)
At all levels, psychologists examine how
we process information--how we
organize, interpret, store, and use it.
SCHOOLS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
Prologue
Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Empiricism
 Knowledge comes from experience via the senses
 Science flourishes through observation and experiment
Founding Psychologists:
1) William Wundt: (1879 Leipzig, Germany) Founded the first formal laboratory
devoted to experimental psychology.
2) Hermann von Helmholtz: physicist who conducted simple experiments on
perception and the nervous system…..the first to measure the speed of a
nerve impulse.
3) Herman Ebbinghaus: 1885 published classic studies on memory
4) G. Stanley Hall: first psychology laboratory in US (1883) at John Hopkins
Univ…………..first American Psychology Journal (1887)…….first president of
American Psychological Association (1892)
5) Margaret Floy Washburn: First woman to receive PhD in Psychology
(1894)
6) Francis Cecil Sumner: first African-American PhD in psychology
7) Mary Whiton Calkins: first woman elected president of APA, 1905
Historical Schools
STRUCTURALISM: using introspection, the systematic examination by
individuals of their own thoughts and feelings about specific sensory
experiences. Emphasized the structure of the mind and behavior.
Edward Titchener: (Cornell University) emphasized the “what” of
mental illness rather than “why” or “how” of thinking.
The major opponent to Stucturalism was……
FUNCTIONALISM: gives primary importance to learned habits that
enable organisms to adapt to their environment and to function effectively.
“What is the function or purpose of any behavioral act?”
John Dewey: provided impetus for progressive education.
William James: study of consciousness was not limited to elements,
contents, and structures. ….the mind haS an ongoing relationship with
the environment. He published “Principles of Psychology” 1890
GESTALTISM: The whole is greater than the sum
of its’ parts.
BIOLOGICAL: the causes of behavior in the genes, the brain,
the nervous system, and endocrine system ………the role of
specific brain systems in aggression by stimulating different
regions and then recording any destructive actions that are
elicited.
BEHAVIORISM: emphasizes observable behavior rather than
inner mental experiences……… emphasizes the role of
environment as the cause of behavior. (From our environment,
we learn to do certain behaviors and learn not to do others.)
Sometimes called learning theory. ……….use of positive
reinforcement rather than punishment
B. F. Skinner: radical behaviorism acknowledged that evolution
provided each species with a repertory of behaviors.
John B.Watson: observable behavior was important; stated the chief
goal of psychology was the prediction and control of behavior.
Ivan Pavlov: classical conditioning.
NEUROPHYSIOLOGY: An approach which emphasizes that all
actions, feelings, and thoughts are associated with bodily
events such as the firing of nerve cells in the brain or the release
of hormones
COGNITIVE: refers to mental activity including thinking,
remembering, learning and using language. Behavior is only
partly determined by preceding environmental events and past
behavioral consequences. “People act because they think.”
Jerome Bruner: developed a learning theory based upon categorization
David Ausubel: attempted to explain meaningful verbal learning as a
phenomenon of consciousness rather than of behavior…. Created the
“advance organizer.”
Jean Piaget: identified stages of cognitive development.
PSYCHOANALYSIS: An approach that emphasizes unconscious motives and
conflicts. A psychodynamic psychologist will analyze aggression as a reaction to
frustrations caused by barriers to pleasure, such as unjust authority. They view
aggression as an adult’s displacement of hostility originally felt as a child
against his or her parents.
Sigmund Freud: developed from his work with mentally disturbed
patients; views a person as being pushed and pulled by complex
network of inner and outer forces. Developed stages of life to age 12,
claiming that an individual would change little after that point.
Erik Erikson: expanded on Freud’s stages of life to include 8 stages into
later adulthood.
Carl Jung: challenged his mentor Freud with the hypothesis that
adulthood, not childhood, represents the most significant phase of
psychology.
Bernice Neugarten: focused on the difference between chronological
age and social age.
HUMANISM: emphasizes personal growth, self-esteem, and the
achievement of human potential more than the scientific understanding,
prediction, and control of behavior. Human beings are not driven by the
powerful, instinctive forces postulated by Freudians or manipulated by
environments. ………….look for personal values and social conditions that
foster self-limiting, aggressive perspectives instead of growthenhancing, shared experiences.
Abraham Maslow: developed the Hierarchy of Needs, stating that
each level of needs must be satisfied before one moves onto the next.
EVOLUTIONARY: Seeks to connect contemporary psychology to a central
idea of the life sciences, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural
selection. Researchers focus on the environmental conditions in which the
human brain evolved. Those organisms best suited to their environments
will flourish and pass on genes more successfully than those with poorer
adaptations.
CULTURAL: Study cross-cultural differences in the causes and
consequences of behavior. Researchers may compare the prevalence of
eating disorders for white Americans vs. African American teenagers within
the U.S. Cultural psychologists study the perceptions of the world as
affected by culture, the languages one speaks and how it affects ones
experience of the world, or how does culture affect the way children
develop toward adulthood.
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Perspectives
A lot depends on your viewpoint
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Subfields
 Basic Research
 Biological psychologists explore the links between
brain and mind
 Developmental psychologists study changing
abilities from womb to tomb
 Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive,
think, and solve problems
 Personality psychologists investigate our persistent
traits
 Social psychologists explore how we view and affect
one another
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychiatry
 A branch of medicine dealing with psychological
disorders
 Practiced by physicians who sometimes use
medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as
psychotherapy
PSYCHOLOGICAL
RESEARCH
Chapter 1
Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific
method to construct theories that organize
observations and imply testable hypotheses
Five Steps of the Scientific Method:
1) Developing a hypothesis
2) Performing a controlled test
3) Gathering objective data
4) Analyzing the result/Survival of Hypothesis (refine
hypothesis and retest)
5) Publishing, criticizing and replicating the results
Types of Research
Experimental Method
Components of the Research Process:
1) Developing a research question
2) Surveying the literature
3) Hypothesis
9) Procedure
4) Independent variable
10) Results/Statistics
5) Dependent variable
11) Discussion
6) Extraneous variables
12) New Hypothesis
7) Controls
8) Sampling/Subjects (random assignment to groups)
Research Strategies--Step 1
Developing a Hypothesis
Empirical Investigation
*collecting objective information firsthand by making
careful measurements based on direct experience.
Theory
*an explanation using an integrated set of principles
that organizes and predicts observations
Hypothesis
*a testable prediction
*often implied by a theory
*MUST be defined operationally
Research Strategies--Step 1
Developing a Hypothesis
Operational Definition
*a statement of procedures (operations) used to
define research variables
*REQUIRED to make your suspicion testable
*You MUST describe:
independent variables
dependent variable
list of procedures
*Example*intelligence may be operationally defined as what
an intelligence test measures
Research Strategies--Step 2
Performing a Controlled Test
Independent Variable
*the experimental factor that is manipulated
*the variable whose effect is being studied
Think of the independent variable as a
condition that the experimenter changes
INDEPENDENTLY of all the other controlled
experimental conditions.
Research Strategies--Step 3 Gathering Objective Data
Dependent Variable
*the experimental factor that may change in response
to manipulations of the independent variable
*in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental
process, or test.
**the dependent
variable must also be
given an operational
definition.
The responses of the
participants in an
experiment DEPEND
directly on the conditions to
which they have been
exposed.
Research Strategies--Step 5
Publishing, Criticizing, Replicating the Results
Critics will look for flaws in the research.
REPLICATION is one way to see if one would get
the same results.
Replication
*repeating the essence of a research study to see
whether the basic finding generalizes to other subjects
and circumstances
*usually with different subjects in different situations
Types of Psychological Research:
1) Experimental Method
2) Non-Experimental Methods (Descriptive
Studies)
3) Correlational Studies
*Survey
*Naturalistic Observation
*Longitudinal Study
*Cross-Sectional Study
*Cohort-Sequential Study
Advantages of
Experimental Method
*cause-and-effect
Disadvantages of
Experimental Method
*operationalization of
variables
*reduce external
validity
*stresses the control of
variables
*difficult to establish
adequate control
conditions
*can implement doubleblind or blind procedures
*high internal validity
*may be replicated
*statistical probability
of bias
Advantages of Case
Study
*in-depth, detailed
information about the
case
*opportunity to study
unusual cases
*time, money issues
*ethical
considerations
Disadvantages of Case
Study
*results cannot be
generalized
*prone to inaccurate
reporting from source
*cannot be used to
establish cause-andeffect relationships
*biased researcher?
Advantages of Correlation
Study
*examine, test, reveal,
compare or describe
relationship between 2
variables
Disadvantages of
Correlation Study
*cannot establish causeand-effect
*prone to inaccurate
reporting
*efficient, collect lots of data *hard to access the impact
of additional variables
*make predictions
*do not allow for the
*dispel illusory correlations
active manipulation of
*utilize preexisting or archival variables.
data
Illusory Correlation
*the
perception
of a
relationship
where none
exists
Conceive
Do not conceive
confirming
evidence
disconfirming
evidence
disconfirming
evidence
confirming
evidence
Adopt
Do not
adopt
Research Strategies
Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships
(1)
Low self-esteem
could cause
Depression
or
(2)
Depression
could cause
Low self-esteem
or
Low self-esteem
(3)
Distressing events
or biological
predisposition
could cause
and
Depression
BIOLOGICAL
(Neurophysiological)
Chapter 2
Neural Communication
 Neuron
 a nerve cell
 Dendrite
 the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive
messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
 Axon
 the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal
fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or
to muscles or glands
 Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath
 a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many
neurons
 enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses
Neural Communication
Neural Communication
 Action Potential
 a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
 generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of
channels in the axon’s membrane
 Threshold
 the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Cell body end
of axon
Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals
Neural Communication
 Synapse [SIN-aps]
 junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite
or cell body of the receiving neuron (synaptic gap)
 Neurotransmitters
 chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
 when released by the sending neuron, neuro-transmitters travel across
the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby
influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse
Serotonin Pathways
Dopamine Pathways
Neural Communication
 Acetylcholine [ah-seat-el-KO-leen]
 a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle
contraction
 Endorphins [en-DOR-fins]
 “morphine within”
 natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters
 linked to pain control and to pleasure
Neural Communication
Neurotransmitter
molecule
Receiving cell
membrane
Receptor site on
receiving neuron
EXAMPLES:
Neurotransmitters:
dopamine, serotonin
Agonists
cocaine (increases dopamine in
synapse)
Antagonist (blocks reuptake)
curare
SSRI
Agonist mimics
neurotransmitter
Antagonist
blocks
neurotransmitter
PROBLEMS:
1)Serotonin Syndrome:
potentially life-threatening
*two drugs increase the level of serotonin at the same time. (ie)
migraine medication (triptans) and antidepressants with SSRI
(selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
*examples: SSRI = Celexa, Zoloft, Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, and Lexapro.
SNRI's include Cymbalta and Effexor
*examples: Triptans = mitrex, Zomig, Frova, Maxalt, Axert, Amerge,
and Relpax
Drugs of abuse, such as ecstasy and LSD have also been associated
with serotonin syndrome.
The
ENDOCRINE
SYTEM
The Endocrine System
 Endocrine System
 the body’s “slow” chemical
communication system
 a set of glands that secrete
hormones into the
bloodstream
The Endocrine System is
made up of tissues or
organs called endocrine
glands, which secrete
chemicals directly into the
bloodstream. The
chemical messengers are
called HORMONES.
HYPOTHALAMUS (ADH and OXYTOCIN—Secretes
REGULATORY HORMONES)
*Primary link between Endocrine and Nervous systems.
PINEAL GLAND (MELATONIN)
PITUITARY GLAND
*Secretes seven important hormones which REGULATE
GROWTH
THYROID GLAND (TYROSINE, CALCITONIN)
THYMUS
( thymosins )
*Two lobes consists--outer CORTEX and a central MEDULLA.
PARATHYROID GLANDS ( PARATHORMONE )
ADRENAL GLANDS (CORTICOSTEROIDS, EPINEPHRINE (adrenaline),
NOREPINEPHRINE (noradrenaline))
*Lie along the superior borders of the kidneys.
PANCREAS (GLUCAGON., INSULIN)
GONADS (TESTOSTERONE. ESTROGEN, PROGESTERONE)
The NERVOUS
SYSTEM
The Nervous System
 Central Nervous System (CNS)
 the brain and spinal cord
 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
 the sensory and motor neurons that connect CNS to the
rest of the body
 Nerves
 neural “cables” containing many axons
 part of the PNS
 connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs
 Sensory Neurons
 neurons that carry incoming information from the sense
receptors to the CNS
The Nervous System
 Interneurons
 CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene
between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
 Motor Neurons
 carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and
glands
 Somatic Nervous System
 the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls
the body’s skeletal muscles
The Nervous System
 Autonomic Nervous System
 the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the
glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the
heart)
 Sympathetic Nervous System
 division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the
body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
 Parasympathetic Nervous System
 division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the
body, conserving its energy
The Nervous System
 Reflex
 a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
Neurons in the brain
connect with one
another to form networks
Inputs
Outputs
The brain learns by modifying
certain connections in
response to feedback
 Neural Networks
 interconnected neural
cells
 with experience, networks
can learn, as feedback
strengthens or inhibits
connections that produce
certain results
 computer simulations of
neural networks show
analogous learning
The BRAIN
Brain Structures and their Functions
 Lesion
 tissue destruction in the brain
 a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally
caused destruction of brain tissue
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
 an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity
across the brain’s surface
 these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the
scalp
The Brain
 CT (computed tomography) Scan
 a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and
combined by computer into a composite representation of a
slice through the body; also called CAT scan
 PET (positron emission tomography) Scan
 a visual display of brain activity that detects where a
radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a
given task
 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
 a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to
produce computer-generated images that distinguish among
different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures
within the brain
MRI Scan
Normal patient
Schizophrenic patient
The Brain
 Brainstem
 the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning
where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull
 responsible for automatic survival functions
 Medulla [muh-DUL-uh]
 base of the brainstem
 controls heartbeat and breathing
The Brain
 Reticular Formation
 a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an
important role in controlling arousal
 Thalamus [THAL-uh-muss]
 the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of
the brainstem
 it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in
the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum
and medulla
 Cerebellum [sehr-uh-BELL-um]
 the “little brain” attached to the rear of the
brainstem
 it helps coordinate voluntary movement and
balance
The Brain
 Limbic System
 a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures
at the border of the brainstem and cerebral
hemispheres
 associated with emotions such as fear and
aggression and drives such as those for food and
sex
 includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and
hypothalamus.
 Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la]
 two almond-shaped neural clusters that are
components of the limbic system and are linked
to emotion
 Hypothalamus
 neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus;
directs several maintenance activities (eating,
drinking, body temperature, sexual behavior)
The Cerebral Cortex
 Cerebral Cortex
 the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that
covers the cerebral hemispheres
 the body’s ultimate control and information
processing center
 Glial Cells
 cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and
protect neurons
The Cerebral Cortex
 Frontal Lobes
 involved in speaking and muscle
movements and in making plans and
judgments
 Parietal Lobes
 includes the sensory cortex
 Occipital Lobes
 include the visual areas, which
receive visual information from the
opposite visual field
 Temporal Lobes
 include the auditory areas
The Cerebral Cortex
 Motor Cortex
 area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary
movements
 Sensory Cortex
 area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and
processes body sensations
Association Areas
 More intelligent animals have increased
“uncommitted” or association areas of the
cortex
The Cerebral Cortex
 Aphasia
 impairment of language, usually
caused by left hemisphere
damage either to Broca’s area
(impairing speaking) or to
Wernicke’s area (impairing
understanding)
 Broca’s Area
 an area of the left frontal lobe
that directs the muscle
movements involved in speech
 Wernicke’s Area
 an area of the left temporal lobe
involved in language
comprehension and expression
Specialization and Integration
 Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and
speaking words
 Plasticity
 the brain’s capacity for modification, as evident in brain
reorganization following damage (especially in children) and
in experiments on the effects of experience on brain
development
Corpus callosum
 Corpus Callosum
 large band of
neural fibers
 connects the
two brain
hemispheres
 carries
messages
between the
hemispheres
Split Brain
 a condition in which
the two hemispheres
of the brain are
isolated by cutting the
connecting fibers
(mainly those of the
corpus callosum)
between them
Right Brain
vs.
Left Brain
Perception
Speaking
Spatial-relations
Calculations
Abstract thought
Speech
Intuitive thought
Songs
Writing
Logic
Analysis
Whole picture
vs.
Details
Emotion
vs.
Content
NATURE v. NURTURE
Chapter 3
Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
• Chromosomes
– threadlike structures made
of DNA that contain the
genes
All human cells contain the
diploid number of
chromosomes (46) consisting
of 23 pairs of homologous
chromosomes
Two of this set are X and Y (the
sex chromosomes) and the
other 22 pairs are autosomes
that guide the expression of
other traits.
KARYOTYPE of a male: The human
haploid genome contains
3,000,000,000 DNA nucleotide pairs,
divided among twenty two (22) pairs
of autosomes and one pair of sex
chromosomes.
Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
– complex molecule containing the genetic information that
makes up the chromosomes
– has two strands-forming a “double helix”- held together by
bonds between pairs of nucleotides
DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid)
Four major
varieties of nitrogencontaining bases can
contribute to
nucleotide structure:
• Adenine
• Guanine
• Cytosine
• Thymine
Genetics and Behavior
Genes
biochemical units of heredity that make up the
chromosomes
a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
Genome
*the complete instructions for making an organism
consisting of all the genetic material in its
chromosomes
*Represents two sets of genetic instructions--one from
the egg and one from the sperm
Evolutionary Psychology
• Natural Selection
– the principle that, among the range of inherited trait
variations, those contributing to survival will most likely be
passed on to succeeding generations
• Mutations
– random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in
the sequence of nucleotides
– the source of all genetic diversity
Identical
Fraternal
Behavior
Genetics
twins
twins
• Identical Twins
– develop from a single zygote (fertilized egg)
that splits in two, creating two genetic
replicas
• Fraternal Twins
Same
sex only
Identical twins
may have
separate
placentas and
blood flow,
just like
fraternal
twins.
Same or
opposite sex
– develop from separate zygotes
– genetically no closer than brothers and
sisters, but they share the fetal
environment
Two placental
arrangements
in identical
twins
a) Splits early, about 5th day
b) Splits between 5th and 12th
day, greater mortality, greater
abnormalities
Eggs that split after the 12th day results in conjoined twins.
Parapagus
Pygopagus
Thoracopagus
Parasite
Parapagus
A little known (and very rare) genetic situation results in the
TETRAGAMETIC CHIMERISM. . . someone who has at least
two different genotypes which each arose from an individual zygote and
eventually fused, when normally they would have developed separately as
twins.
Behavior Genetics
• Temperament
– a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
• Heritability
– the proportion of variation among individuals that we can
attribute to genes
– may vary, depending on the range of populations and
environments studied
• Interaction
– the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on
another factor (such as heredity)
• Molecular Genetics
– the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure
and function of genes
Environmental Influence
• Experience affects brain development
Impoverished
environment
Rat brain
cell
Enriched
environment
Rat brain
cell
In 14 to 16 repetitions of this basic experiment, the rats placed in the enriched
environment developed significantly more cerebral cortex.
Environmental Influence
Culture
– the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions
shared by a large group of people and transmitted from
one generation to the next
Norm
– an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
Personal Space
– the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
Memes
– self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovation passed from
person to person
The Nature and Nurture of Gender
• X Chromosome
– the sex chromosome found in both men and women
– females have two; males have one
– an X chromosome from each parent produces a female
• Y Chromosome
– the sex chromosome found only in men
– when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it
produces a male child
The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Testosterone
– the most important of the male sex hormones
– both males and females have it
– additional testosterone in males stimulates
• growth of male sex organs in the fetus
• development of male sex characteristics during puberty
Role
– a set of expectations (norms) about a social position
– defining how those in the position ought to behave
The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Social Learning Theory
– theory that we learn social behavior by observing and
imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Gender Schema Theory
– theory that children learn from their cultures a concept
of what it means to be male and female and that they
adjust their behavior accordingly
Gender Role
– a set of expected behaviors for males and females
Gender Identity
– one’s sense of being male or female
Gender-typing
– the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
The Nature and Nurture of
Gender
 Two theories of gender typing
DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 4
• Developmental Psychology
– a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and
social change throughout the life span
• Zygote
– the fertilized egg
– enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division
– develops into an embryo
• Embryo
– the developing human organism from 2 weeks through
2nd month
• Fetus
– the developing human organism from 9 weeks after
conception to birth
• Teratogens
– agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the
embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause
harm (nuclear fallout, food allergies, medicine taken by
mother during pregnancy, alcohol, drugs, et.al.)
• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
– physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a
pregnant woman’s heavy drinking.
– symptoms include facial misproportions
The Newborn
• Rooting Reflex
– tendency to open mouth, and
search for nipple when
touched on the cheek
• Preferences
– human voices and faces
• facelike images-->
– smell and sound of mother
• Babinsky Reflex
– tendency to grasp an object
when when placed into their
hands and lift them up by their
clasped fists
Newborn Reflexes
*rooting reflex
*sucking reflex
*grasping reflex
*swallowing reflex
*startle (moro) reflex
*babinsky reflex
The Newborn
• Habituation
– decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
– newborns become bored with a repeated stimulus, but
renew their attention to a slightly different stimulus
• Maturation
– biological growth processes
that enable orderly changes
in behavior
– relatively uninfluenced by
experience
– sets the course for
development while
experience adjusts it
At birth
3 months 15 months
Cortical Neurons
Infancy and Childhood
• Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a
mobile- and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier,
1989).
Cognitive Development
• Cognition
– mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and
remembering
• Schema
– a concept or framework that organizes and interprets
information
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Typical Age
Range
Description
of Stage
Developmental
Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 years
Sensorimotor
Experiencing the world through
senses and actions (looking,
touching, mouthing)
•Object permanence
•Stranger anxiety
About 2 to 6 years
Preoperational
Representing things
with words and images
but lacking logical reasoning
•Pretend play
•Egocentrism
•Language development
About 7 to 11 years
Concrete operational
•Conservation
Thinking logically about concrete
•Mathematical
events; grasping concrete analogies
transformations
and performing arithmetical operations
About 12 through
adulthood
Formal operational
Abstract reasoning
Handout 4-4 and 4-11
•Abstract logic
•Potential for
moral reasoning
Infancy and Childhood:
Cognitive Development
 Object Permanence
 the awareness that things continue to exist even
when not perceived (Piaget: Sensorimotor)
 Conservation
 the principle that properties such as mass, volume,
and number remain the same despite changes in the
forms of objects (Piaget: Concrete Operational)
Cognitive Development
• Baby Mathematics
– Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare
longer (Wynn, 1992)
• Egocentrism
– the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s
point of view (Piaget: Preoperational)
• Theory of Mind
– people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental statesabout their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the
behavior these might predict (Piaget: Preoperational)
 Autism
 a disorder that appears in childhood
 Marked by deficient communication, social interaction and
understanding of others’ states of mind
Lev S. Vygotsky (1896-1934)
Born in Russia (Jewish)
Law degree Unive of Moscow
PhD Literature & Linguistics
*humans use various symbols and items that help us to develop cultures
*we change, interact and go through development within our cultures
*higherハthinking skills depend on the internalization of the items we used to
develop within our culture and communicate.
*used blocks to distinguish children's mastery of the concept from simple
memorization
**His work was suppressed by Marxist Russian authorities for over 20 years
after his death.
SocioCultural Theory of Development
FACETS (not stages)
1) Private Speech: talking to oneself
2) Proximal Development: is the level of development immediately above
a person's present level to achieve maximum learning
3) Scaffolding: using hints and pointers from teachers, parents, and peers
who have already grasped the desired concept, children are able to form
their own path toward a solution
Vygotsky v. Piaget
Both Piaget and Vygotsky viewed pre-school
children in problem solving situations talking to
themselves. When Piaget labeled the self directed
behavior as egocentric and believed it only
minimum relevant to children’s cognitive growth,
Vygotsky referred to it as a private speech. He
argued that private speech grows out of the
children’s interaction with parents and other adults
and through such interactions, they begin to use
their parent’s instructional comments to direct their
own behavior.
REF: http://starfsfolk.khi.is/solrunb/vygotsky.htm
Abnormal Development
PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU): a metabolic disorder that, left untreated,
results in mental retardation and other problems.
**inability of the body to utilize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine.
Amino acids are the building blocks for body proteins. We get amino
acids from food. In “classic PKU” the enzyme that breaks down this
amino acid is completely deficient causing phenylalanine to accumulate
in the blood and body tissues.
**high levels of phenylalanine can cause significant brain problems.
**symptoms include; vomiting, irritability, rash, mousy odor to the urine, nervous
problems, increased muscle tone, more active muscle tendon reflexes.
Later, severe brain problems occur, mental retardation and seizures. Other
features include: microcephaly (small head), prominent cheek and upper jaw
bones with widely spaced teeth, poor development of tooth enamel and
decreased body growth.
PKU DIET
Resource; http://depts.washington.edu/pku/diet.html
Abnormal Development
TAY-SACH’s DISEASE:
deterioration of the brain of a one-year
old child due to accumulation of fat on the brain, caused by insufficient activity of
an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A that catalyzes the biodegradation of
acidic fatty materials known as gangliosides.
*this child will usually die before age 4
*infants with this disease appear to develop normally for first few months of iife.
*symptoms: deterioration of mental & physical abilities, blindness, deafness,
inability to swallow, seizures, dementia, increased startle reflex, muscles
atrophy and paralysis sets in.
MONOSOMY X (TURNER SYNDROME):
the only
known viable human monosomy (missing one chromosome)
** 1 in 5000 births
**XO phenotype female; sex organs do not mature at adolescence, and
secondary sex characteristics fail to develop
**sterile and short
**no mental deficiency
Abnormal Development
ANDROGYNY:
having both female and male characteristics;
HERMAPHRODITIC
**may be raised as one sex or another as genetalia is ambiguous
**failure to develop breasts, milk-glands, child-bearing hips, no menses,
sterility, beard growth, male vocal chords,
TOURETTE’S SYNDROME:
neurological disorder which
becomes evident in early childhood or adolescence before the age of 18
years.
*multiple motor and vocal tics lasting for more than a year.
*symptoms include: involuntary movements of the face, arms, limbs, or
trunk……frequent, repetitive and rapid…..such as eye blink, nose twitch,
grimace.
*causal evidence points to abnormal metabolism of at least one brain
neurotransmitter, dopamine.
Social Development
• Stranger Anxiety
– fear of strangers that infants commonly display
– beginning by about 8 months of age
• Attachment
– an emotional tie with another person
– shown in young children by seeking closeness to the caregiver
and showing distress on separation
Mary Ainsworth (1979) observed mother-infant pairs at home during
their first 6 months. Later, she observed 1 year old infants in strange situations
without their mothers.
Sensitive-responsive mothers had infants who exhibited SECURE
ATTACHMENT.
Insensitive-unresponsive mothers--those who ignored their children at times-had children who exhibited INSECURE ATTACHMENT.
She is known for her work in the development of ATTACHMENT THEORY.
Placed in a strange situation, 60% of infants display SECURE
ATTACHMENT. They play comfortably and explore their new
environment.
Others show INSECURE ATTACHMENT. These infants cling
to their mother and are slow to explore their surroundings.
Harlow’s
Surrogate
Mother
Experiments
Monkeys
preferred
with the
comfortable
cloth mother,
even while
feeding from
the nourishing
wire mother
Harry Harlow
1905 - 1981
Social Development
• Monkeys raised by
artificial mothers were
terror-stricken when
placed in strange
situations without their
surrogate mothers.
Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989)
From his initial analysis of imprinting, Lorenz
went on to identify the essential components
of innate behavior and developed the central
constructs of releasers and fixed action
patterns which serve as the foundation of the
study of animal behavior.
Critical Period
– an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s
exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper
development
Imprinting
– the process by which certain animals form attachments
during a critical period very early in life
Temperament
– a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Social Development
Basic Trust (Erik Erikson)
– a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
– said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with
responsive caregivers
Self-Concept
– a sense of one’s identity and personal worth
Social Development- Child-Rearing Practices
Studies by Stanley Coopersmith (1967), Diana Baumrind
(1996) and John Buri (1988) reveal that children with the highest
self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have
warm, concerned, AUTHORITATIVE parents.
Although most studies are done with white middle-class families,
studies in other cultures with other races in more than 200
cultures worldwide confirm these findings.
Authoritarian
– parents impose rules and expect
obedience
– “Don’t interrupt”
– “Why? Because I said so.”
Authoritative
– parents are both demanding and
responsive
– set rules, but explain reasons
– encourage discussion
Permissive
submit to children’s desires
make few demands
use little punishment
Rejecting-neglecting
disengaged
expect little
invest little
Social Development- Child-Rearing Practices
Authoritarian
ADVANTAGE: little time
DISADVANTAGE: frail obedient children who may feel hopeless; children
may become rebellious and grow to have an insecure outlook on life.
Authoritative
ADVANTAGE: children who talk and discuss, incorporate understanding;
children grow to be confident and trusting of the world.
DISADVANTAGE: takes time to explain and discuss
(1) Parent’s behavior
may be influencing child.
(2) Child’s behavior may
be influencing parents.
• Three
Self-reliant,
explanations Authoritative Self-reliant,
Socially
parents
Authoritative
competent
for correlation
Socially competent
parents
child
child
between
(3) Some third factor may be
authoritative
influencing both parents and child.
High education,
parenting and
ample
social
Self-reliant,
income, harmonious
Authoritative
competence
Socially competent
marriage, common
parents
genes
child
Adolescence
• Adolescence
– the transition period from childhood to adulthood
– extending from puberty to independence
• Puberty
– the period of sexual maturation
– when one first becomes capable of reproduction
• Primary Sex Characteristics
– body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
• ovaries- female
• testes- male
• external genitalia
• Secondary Sex Characteristics
– nonreproductive sexual characteristics
• female- enlarged breasts, hips
• male- voice quality, body hair
• Menarche (meh-NAR-key)
– first menstrual period
The Heinz Dilemma
In a county in Europe, a poor man named Valjean could find no work, nor could his
sister and brother. Without money, he stole food and medicine that they needed.
He was captured and sentenced to prison for 6 years. After a couple of years, he
escaped from the prison and went to live in another part of the country under a
new name. He saved money and slowly built up a factory. He gave his workers
the highest wages and used most of his profits to build a hospital for people who
couldn’t afford good medical care. Twenty years had passed when a tailor
recognized the factory owner as being Valjean, the escaped convict whom the
police had been looking for back in his hometown.
Should the tailor report Valjean to the police?
Why or why not?
Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
As moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the
self to the wider social world.
Postconventional
level
Morality of abstract
principles: to affirm
agreed-upon rights
and
personal ethical
principles
Conventional
level
Morality of law and
social rules: to gain
approval or avoid
disapproval
Preconventional
level
Morality of selfinterest:
to avoid punishment
or gain concrete
rewards
5. “Although turning Valjean in may not
be perfectly just, leaving such
decisions up to each person’s
judgment would result in greater
injustice” (Affirms agreed-upon rights)
4. “There has to be respect for the law”
(duty to society/avoids dishonor or guilt)
3. “If you don’t report him, everyone will
think you are just as much a criminal” (gains
approval/avoids disapproval)
2. “The tailor may get a reward for
turning in a criminal.” (gains/rewards)
1. “The tailor will be in trouble if he
doesn’t tell the police.” (avoid
punishment)
NOTE: the authors gave no Stage 6 response. This is partly because none of
the answers reflected Stage 6 responses. Kohlberg and Colby conclude that,
“the question of whether Stage 6 should be included as a natural
psychological stage will remain unresolved until research is conducted
with a special sample of people likely to have developed beyond Stage 6.”
Lawrence
Kohlberg 19271987 Harvard
University
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial
Development
Approximate
age
Stage
Erik Erikson
Freudian ego-psychologist
1902-1994
Description of Task
Infancy
(1st year)
Trust vs. mistrust
If needs are dependably met, infants
develop a sense of basic trust.
Toddler
(2nd year)
Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and
and doubt
do things for themselves, or they
doubt their abilities.
Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt
(3-5 years)
Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks
and carry out plans, or they feel
guilty about efforts to be independent.
Elementary Competence vs.
(6 yearsinferiority
puberty)
Children learn the pleasure of applying
themselves to tasks, or they feel
inferior.
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial
Development
Approximate
age
Stage
Description of Task
Adolescence
(teens into
20’s)
Identity vs. role
confusion
Young Adult
(20’s to early
40’s)
Intimacy vs.
isolation
Middle Adult
(40’s to 60’s)
Generativity vs.
stagnation
Late Adult
(late 60’s and
up)
Integrity vs.
despair
Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by
testing roles and then integrating them to
form a single identity, or they become
confused about who they are.
Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate
love, or they feel socially isolated.
The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family
and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.
When reflecting on his or her life, the older
adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or
failure.
In each stage, conflict arises
between newly emerging
personality needs and social
demands and culminates in a
crisis, not in the sense of a
catastrophe but rather
represents a turning point in Erikson noted,
development.
however, that all the
personality
components develop to
some extent throughout
life, even before their
critical stages.
To some extent, they
may develop in parallel
and are interdependent
even before the relevant
crises are resolved.
Social Development
• Identity
– one’s sense of self
– the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and
integrating various roles
• Intimacy
– the ability to form close, loving relationships
– a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early
adulthood
ADULTHOOD
“Consider, friend, as you
pass by, as you are now, so
once was I. As I am now,
you too shall be. Prepare,
therefore, to follow me.”
--Scottish tombstone epitaph
Adulthood- Physical Changes
• Menopause
– the time of natural cessation of menstruation
– also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her
ability to reproduce declines
• Alzheimer’s Disease
– a progressive and irreversible brain disorder
– characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning,
language, and finally, physical functioning
Adulthood- Cognitive Changes
Reasoning
ability
score
60
Cross-sectional method
suggests decline
55
50
45
Longitudinal method
suggests more stability
40
35
25 32 39 46 53 60 67 74 81
Age in years
Cross-sectional method
Longitudinal method
• Cross-Sectional
Study
– a study in which
people of different
ages are compared
with one another
• Longitudinal Study
– a study in which the
same people are
restudied and
retested over a long
period
Adulthood- Cognitive Changes
Intelligence
(IQ) score
105
Verbal scores are
stable with age
100
95
90
85
Nonverbal scores
decline with age
80
75
20 25
Verbal scores
Nonverbal scores
35
45
Age group
55
65 70
• Verbal
intelligence
scores hold
steady with age,
while nonverbal
intelligence
scores decline
(adapted from
Kaufman &
others, 1989).
Adulthood- Cognitive Changes
• Crystallized Intelligence
– one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
– tends to increase with age
• Fluid Intelligence
– ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly
– tends to decrease during late adulthood
The stages Kubler-Ross identified are:
Many people have tried to
explain what grief is; some
have even identified certain
stages of grief.Probably the
most well-known of these
• Denial (this isn't happening to me!)
• Anger (why is this happening to me?)
• Bargaining (I promise I'll be a better person if...)
might be from Elizabeth
• Depression (I don't care anymore)
Kubler-Ross' book, "On
• Acceptance (I'm ready for whatever comes)
Death and Dying."
Many people believe that these stages of grief are also
experienced by people who have lost a loved one.
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