Educational Technology
Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
James Lehman
Educational Technology
Purdue University
Educational Technology
Past
Today’s Lesson
History
Roots


Educational technology as we know it today
has roots in at least three once-separate
disciplines:
– Systematic instructional design
– Educational media
– Educational computing
Most of this presentation centers on the latter,
although they are intertwined.
Educational Technology - Past
Instructional
Design
Educational
Media
Educational
Computing
Instructional Design Roots

Instructional design was founded on the
pioneering work of individuals such as
Edward L. Thorndike (at right).

Thorndike developed one of the first
“scientific” theories of learning. His was the
original expression of the stimulus-response
framework of learning that gave rise to
behaviorism.
Theoretical Perspectives

The field has been influenced by three major
theoretical perspectives over the last century:
– Behaviorism
– Cognitivism
– Constructivism

Although behaviorism came first, famous
educator John Dewey, a contemporary of
Thorndike, is often credited as the founder of
constructivist thought in education.
Designing Instruction

The growing understanding of the process of
human learning in the 20th century supported
the notion that instruction could be
systematically designed to produce learning.

Concepts such as individualized instruction,
instructional task analysis, and the use of
objectives to describe what students should
learn arose as early as the 1920s and 1930s.
Shifting Paradigms

The behavioral view of learning
dominated instructional design through
the 1940s and 1950s, particularly the
influential work of B.F. Skinner.

In the 1960s, the cognitive view of
learning came to the forefront as work
by people like Robert Gagné began to
displace behavioral thinking.
Shifting Paradigms

In the 1980s, a constructivist perspective of
learning began to exert significant influence
on the field.

Beginning then, more student-centered
approaches, such as discovery learning,
problem-based learning, situated cognition,
and social learning became the subject of
increasing attention in the field.
Educational Media Roots

Media have been of interest in education
since the late 19th and early 20th centuries
when visuals and real objects emerged as a
way to help people learn.
Educational Media Roots

The training effort during World War II,
and subsequent developments,
helped to link instructional design with
mediated and mechanical delivery systems.

\WWII training relied heavily mediated
instruction, a model for later education.
Educational Media Roots

Films, and later radio, TV, and computers
were the object of much excitement because
of the belief that media that could promote
learning.

However, until recently, all media were
separately developed and managed.
Educational Computing Roots


Most developments in computing occurred in
about the last half of the 20th century.
However, precedents were set earlier.
– Abacus, circa 3000 B.C.
– Pascal’s adding machine, 1642
– Jacquard’s loom, 1801
– Babbage’s analytical engine, 1834
– Hollerith’s electric tabulator, 1889
Educational Computing Roots

Early computers developed around the
middle of the 20th century included:
– ABC Computer, developed by Atanasoff and Berry
at Iowa State
– IBM/Harvard Mark I and II developed by Aiken
– ENIAC, developed by Mauchly and Eckert at
Pennsylvania
– EDVAC, developed by von Neumann also at Penn
– Colossus, a British computer secretly built during
WWII to break German codes.
– UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer
ENIAC
Computing - past

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First generation computers used vacuum
tubes.
The 2nd generation used transistors.
The 3rd generation relied on integrated
circuits.
Today’s 4th generation models use very largescale integrated circuitry.
Computing - past



In 1971, Ted Hoff at Intel Corporation
developed the first microprocessor, a
computer on a single silicon chip.
In 1972, handheld calculators began to
appear, Pong - the first video game was
invented, and Wang developed a word
processing system.
In 1973, Xerox PARC researchers invented
the mouse and graphical user interface.
Computing - past

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In 1975, a company called MITS began
marketing the Altair personal computer
kit. IBM introduced the laser printer.
In 1977, led by upstart Apple Computer,
the first ready-to-run personal
computers were released. Microsoft
was founded.
In 1979, the first spreadsheet, Visicalc,
was released and became the first
“killer app” for personal computers.
Computing - past


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In 1981, IBM made the movement
“legitimate” by releasing the first IBM-PC.
Microsoft, led by Bill Gates, was chosen
to provide the operating system.
In 1982, the computer was chosen Time
Magazine “Man of the Year.” TCP/IP became
the standard for ARPANET.
In 1983, Apple released the Lisa. Though a
commercial flop, it led to the subsequent
Macintosh.
Computing - past
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In 1984, Apple released the Macintosh
computer with a now-famous Orwellian ad
during the Super Bowl. The CD-ROM was
developed by Sony and Philips.
In 1985, Microsoft released the first version of
Windows.
In 1991, Tim Berners-Lee at CERN
developed the World Wide Web.
In 1992, Windows 3.1 was released. It
established Windows as the dominant OS.
Computing - past
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In 1993, Apple introduced the Newton, the first
popular PDA. Mosaic, the first popular web
browser, was released by NCSA.
In 1994, Netscape’s first browser was released.
In 1995, Windows 95 was released, completing
Microsoft’s transition to a Mac-like GUI.
In 1996, the number of Web hosts passed
10,000,000.
In 2000, the number of Web hosts passed
100,000,000.
Education - past


The first experiments in the use of computers
for education date back to the late 1950s and
early 1960s, well before PCs. These early
efforts focused on the computer as a
“teaching machine” useful for drill and
practice and content tutorials.
Patrick Suppes from Stanford is
sometimes credited with being the
“father of CAI” for his early work in this field.
Education - past


The largest early effort was PLATO,
developed by Donald Bitzer and associates at
the University of Illinois beginning in the early
1960s. Authoring tools and many packages
developed for PLATO were ultimately ported
to personal computers.
TICCIT, guided by Victor Bunderson at BYU,
was another large-scale early project. It was
notable for approaching CAI from an
instructional design perspective.
Education - past


When PCs first emerged, emphasis was
placed on teaching children to program. This
was largely due to the lack of prepared
software and availability of programming
languages.
It spawned a “computer literacy” movement, a
term coined by Arthur Luehrmann, which
focused mainly on knowledge of
programming.
Education - past


As educational programs began to
appear, much emphasis shifted to
computer assisted instruction and many of
the ideas first developed by PLATO and
TICCIT.
Another school of thought emphasized
student development of understanding
using education friendly computer
languages such as Logo, developed by
Seymour Papert and associates at MIT.
Education - past

In 1980, Robert Taylor of Teachers’ College,
Columbia, placed computer uses in education
into three categories
– Tutor: the computer acts like a human tutor (e.g.,
CAI as represented by PLATO and other projects)
– Tool: the computer aids in the performance of
everyday work (e.g., word processing)
– Tutee: the computer “learns” what it is taught (e.g.,
programming via Logo or other tools)
Education - past

In more recent years, the emphasis in
educational computing has shifted to subject
matter integration, using the computer as a
tool to support teaching and learning in
specific disciplines. Teaching about
technology takes a back seat to teaching and
learning with technology.
Educational Technology
Present
Today’s Lesson
Trends
Educational Technology Today

Today, instructional design, educational
media, and educational computing are robust
fields of endeavor.

They influence formal and informal education,
the training sector, and segments of society.
Educational Technology Today

What are some educational technology
trends that we can see today?
Discipline Convergence
Instructional
Design
Educational
Media
Educational
Computing
Discipline Convergence
Instructional Educational
Design
Media
Educational
Computing
Discipline Convergence
Educational
Technology
ID Theory Base

Behavioral perspective

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Cognitive perspective
Constructivist perspective
ID Theory Base

Behavioral perspective

Cognitive perspective

Constructivist perspective
ID Theory Base



Behavioral perspective
Cognitive perspective
Constructivist perspective
or an eclectic view
ID Emphasis

Pre-designed education and training
materials

Just-in-time education and training,
learning objects, rapid prototyping, and
collaborative construction of materials
Media Convergence
Media Convergence
Media Convergence
Media Convergence
Computing Developments

Today’s PCs are a significant advance over
the first models.

Moore’s Law, originally postulated in 1965,
predicted that the number of transistors on a
integrated circuit would double every 18
months. Though Moore forecast it would hold
true through 1975, it is still holding true today.
Computer Size
Networking
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In 1969, ARPANET, the forerunner of the
Internet, began with 4 hosts
By 1987, there were 10,000 hosts
By 1992, there were 1,000,000
By 1996, there were 10,000,000
Today, there are 250,000,000+
Software - present

Software has improved dramatically since the
introduction of the PC.

Text-based operating systems have given
way to the GUI, originally invented at Xerox
PARC, popularized by the Apple Macintosh,
and now embodied in Windows.

Voice recognition is here but not yet
widespread.
Software - present

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A wide array of powerful productivity tools for
the PC (e.g., word processors, databases,
spreadsheets, desktop publishing software) is
now available.
Educational software has improved greatly in
quality, and many titles are available.
The Web has made huge quantities of
information as well as software readily
available.
Computers in Schools Today
Computers in Schools


There are about 14 million computers in K-12
schools in the U.S. The student-to-computer
ratio fell from about 40:1 in 1985 to less than
4:1 today. The ratio of students to Internet
connected classroom computers is about 8:1.
Dell is the largest single brand (46%),
followed by Apple Macintosh (27%),
HP/Compaq (18%), and Gateway (10%).
Apple, while still strong in the K-12 market,
has slowly been losing market share.
Computers in Schools


Nationally, annual K-12 technology spending
is $5+ billion, down slightly from a high of
nearly $7 billion several years ago.
Per pupil expenditures:
– $71 -- hardware
– $17 -- software
– $9 -- outside services
– $6 -- staff development
Computers in Schools

About 99% of schools, and 87% of
instructional rooms, are connected to the
Internet.

Schools with higher percentages of poor and
minority students lag behind other schools but
only slightly.

Newer technologies are increasing: laptops
(54% of schools), wireless networks (45%),
and instructional whiteboards (30%).
Computers in Schools

Half of schools report that 90% or more of teachers
use computers daily, and 74% of students use it at
least an hour a week.

Better performing schools have somewhat more techsavvy teachers
Above Average
Below Average
Teacher Beginner
Teacher Intermediate
15%
61%
23%
55%
Teacher Advanced
Teacher Use of Internet
16%
80%
12%
72%
Distance Learning

About 25% of schools report having distance
learning programs for students.

28 states have now established state virtual
schools; 12 states have at least one virtual
charter school.

While hard data are not available, it appears
that online course management systems are
spreading from higher ed to K-12.
Why Use Technology in Education?

Motivation
– Attention, engagement, control

Unique instructional capabilities
– Finding information, visualizing, linking learners

Support for new instructional approaches
– Cooperative learning, problem solving, shared intelligence

Increased teacher productivity
– Record keeping, better materials, freeing time

Required skills for an information age
– Information literacy, visual literacy, technology literacy
Source: Roblyer, M. D. (2004). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching.
Horizon Technologies
Laptop Computers

Laptop computers offer more flexibility that
desktops; 54% of schools are now using
laptops.
Handheld Computing

Handheld devices, like Palm Pilots and
Pocket PCs, are proliferating and growing in
sophistication. About 8% of schools provide
them for teachers, and about 4% use them
with students.
Wireless Connectivity


IEEE 802.11 – wireless LANs support fairly
wide range (up to hundreds of feet) and
reasonably fast connections (11 Mbs for b
and 54 Mbs for g).
Bluetooth – emerging wireless standard for
short-range connectivity to a variety of
devices, such as printers
Broadband

DSL and cable modems, for example, provide
much faster connectivity to network resources
than standard 56K telephone modems. About
45% of homes and 84% of schools report
having broadband Internet connections.
Web Technologies

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DHTML
XML
Java
C# (part of Microsoft’s .NET)
Open source
Speech and Writing Recognition

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Current generation speech recognition
programs, Dragon NaturallySpeaking and
IBM ViaVoice, are pretty good when trained
by an individual.
AT&T and others are developing generic
speech recognition technologies that require
no training.
Tablet PCs boast decent handwriting
recognition.
Virtual Reality

Virtual reality systems give the user the
illusion of operating within a threedimensional environment that responds to the
user’s motion within it.
Distributed Intelligence

An increasing range of appliances and
objects are becoming equipped with a
computer processor and so be capable of
“smart” interaction with people. Some people
refer to this as ubiquitous computing.
Electronic Ink / Paper / Books


eBooks, portable devices that can hold
downloaded books, are already available.
Electronic ink or paper is a developing
technology in which microcapsules,
embedded within a thin film that can be
mounted in tablet or possibly even something
like normal paper, can display print in
response to electrical signals.
Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology, involving manipulation at the
molecular level, is among the most highly
touted of coming technologies
– Chip development (Intel predicts a 1-billion
transistor, 20 GHz chip by 2007)
– Nanotubes
– Miniature machines, such as robots
– Materials assembly
Educational Technology
The Future
Distributed Learning
Predicting the Future

Predicting the future can be a notoriously
tricky proposition. A few examples:
– “Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.”
» Lord Kelvin, President, Royal Society, 1895
– “Everything that can be invented has been
invented.”
» Charles Duell, U.S. Office of Patents, 1899
– “I think there is a world market for maybe five
computers.”
» Thomas Watson, Chairman, IBM, 1943
Source: Time magazine, July 15, 1996
Predicting the Future
 Given
the trends and horizon
technologies discussed, how do
you think these will affect education
and training in the future?
Education - future
Education - future


Some experts argue that with the emergence
of multimedia software and the delivery
vehicle of the Internet, schooling as we know
it has become obsolete. They suggest we
should do away with schools as they now
exist.
This is one extreme position.
Education - future
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
Others argue that computer technology is just
a flash in the pan, the latest in a long line of
educational technology innovations that have
promised more than they delivered. They
suggest we should forget about technology
and get back to schooling as usual.
This is another extreme position.
Education - future

It is possible to envision a more moderate
future that lies between these extremes.
F
U
T
U
R
E
Education - future

Computers and, increasingly, smaller
computing devices will become commonplace
tools for teachers and students. They will
connect wirelessly and become an integral
part of the teaching and learning process.

The greatest emphasis will be given to using
technology tools for real work on authentic
tasks.
Education - future

In a few years, increased processing and
storage capacity along with software
advances are likely to make voice interfacing
with computing devices more widespread,
perhaps even commonplace.

Full multimedia capability, including routine
access to and storage of video, will also be
possible.
Education - future

With access to huge stores of multimedia
information, education will focus less on
information delivery and more on finding,
evaluating, and using information.

The teacher’s role will increasingly shift from
the “sage on the stage” to the “guide on the
side.”
Education - future

With improving technology and increasing
networking, education will become available
anytime and anywhere.

Higher education, of necessity, will work to
reach growing non-traditional audiences.

K-12 is likely to embrace distributed learning
support of education much as colleges do
today, and distance education will meet niche
needs in the K-12 setting.
Education - future


Life-long learning will become the norm, and
technology will be one tool that helps
educators reach those who need continuing
education.
Pressures from the private sector may
jeopardize some higher education institutions
or even drive marginal ones out of business.
But, larger institutions will likely persist.
Education - future

Given the prevalence of the Internet as a
resource and delivery system, instructional
design will increasingly focus on it and on the
design of systems and learning environments
that help individuals access available
resources and training just-in-time, use
granular modules to flexibly meet differing
needs, and facilitate people working together
to solve problems.
Education - future

Computers and allied technologies are
unlikely ever to replace traditional face-toface teaching and learning. There is much to
be said for face-to-face mentoring and
acculturation.

But, technology probably will change the face
of the teaching and learning landscape that
we know today.
Education - future

It is incumbent upon educators today to begin
preparing for the changing education
paradigms of tomorrow.
The End
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Educational Technology - Past, Present, and Future