Teaching English as a Second
or Foreign Language
Speaking
Introduction
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For communication.
The most demanding, and the centre of
the four skills.
A variety of demand, such as monitoring,
understanding, contributions thought,
producing that contribution, and
monitoring its effect.
• Acquire the stress, rhythm, and intonation
of English
• It is almost always accomplished via
interaction with at least one other speaker
• Teaching of oral communication skills as a
contextualized sociocultural activity has
become the focal point in many ESL
classroom.
Language comprises four dimensions as
following
• Grammatical competence
including rules of phonology, orthography, vocabulary,
word formation, and sentence formation.
• Sociolinguistic competence
expression and understanding of appropriate social
meaning and grammatical form in different context.
• Discourse competence
how sentence elements are tied together via reference, repetition,
synonym, etc.
• Strategic competence
A repertoire of compensatory strategies that help with a variety
of communication difficulties.
In the Speaking Class
• Students should be allowed and
encouraged to initiate communication.
• when possible.
• Determine the content of their response or
contribution.
• Evaluate their own production and learning
progress.
The oral skills class
•
•
•
•
•
Class Aim
Who are the students?
Why are they there?
What do they expect to learn?
What am I expected to teach.
One basic consideration is the level of the
students, and their perceived needs.
Four- point scale from poor to excellent
confidence, pronunciation, social
conversation, listening ability.
How to enhance students’ skills:
• Extensive authentic practice in class
participation (taking part in discussions,
interacting with
peers and professors, and answering questions).
• From life realistic.
• Give, and request personal information.
Directions, and price.
• Talking family members; tell time; give, and
accept compliments.
Conversation courses
Emphasize• speech acts such as; greeting
(congratulation, hi, hello), and apologizing
(sorry, please forgive me..)
Speaking Naturally
• covering opining an closing a conversation,
introducing and addressing people, giving
invitations, expressing thanks, apologizing,
complimenting, getting attention and
interruption, agreeing and disagreeing,
controlling the conversation, and getting
information.
• Oral activitiesdiscussions, speeches, role
plays, conversations, audiotape oral
dialogue. Journals, and other accuracy base
• DiscussionThe most commonly use activity in the oral
skills class.
• Methodintroduce a topic, via reading or
listening passage, or from videotape, then
asked to get into pairs or groups to discuss,
in order to come up with a solution, or
response, or the like.
• First, planned (versus random), the “right
way” to group is necessary.
• Second, to reach a good solution, each
student should need a specific
responsibility.
• Third, clear about the reasons (what, and
why), and what outcome expected.
Speech-normal type
•
•
•
•
•
Prepare speech
Provided by teacher
Avoid boring in the class, making responsibilities
during speeches, and listener.
Summarize its content.
Note strength, weaknesses, or relate the speech
topic to a personal experiences.
Videotape, audiotape-the language analysis
activities described below can be used to
encourage learners to become aware of their
individual problems with pronunciation, grammar,
vocabulary, and fluency.
The categories of performance
•
Delivery
- Is the volume loud enough or speed appropriate.
•
Interaction/Rapport with audience
- With eye contact, posture, gestures,
nervousness?
• Content and organization
- the gist of main point.
• Language skills
Were there any particular problems with
grammar, fluency, vocabulary, or
pronunciation?
• Language skills
- Were there any particular problems with
grammar, fluency, vocabulary, or
pronunciation
Second type of speech
• Impromptu speech- it is without preparation, rehearsal or
thought in advance.
Role Plays
the third major speaking activity.
• It’s suitable for practicing, the sociocultural variations in
speech acts, such as complimenting, complaining.
•
• There are varieties factors can be used such as practice
prototypical, socioculture.
• Additionally, requiring students to observe native
speakers interacting can supplement in class production
activities such as role plays.
For example, when teaching a unit on
complaints, one assignment might be to have
students go to places where complaints might
be common (the return desk at a discount
store).
Then, they can listen carefully for how
complaints are stated and responded to
perhaps using a checklist that the students
themselves create for observing that
particular speech act.
• One way to approach this activity is to assign
students to find a native speaker (or near- native
speaker) they know such as; a friend, roommate, or colleague, and arrange to tape-record a
20-30 minute interaction with this person.
• The next step is to transcribe a portion of their
interaction. Transcription involves a faithful
reproduction of what was said on the tape onto
paper and can provide a genuine awareness of
what speech is really like.
For evaluation, choosing one of a
interesting topics such as; abortion, gun
control, illegal, immigration, then in pairs
or in groups, survey native speakers about
their opinions.
The results of survey can then be
presented in the form of an oral
presentation, which in turn can be
audiotaped and or videotaped for self peer,
and teacher evaluation.
Audiotaped Oral dialogue
Journal
• The activities discussed so far have
emphasized fluency and meaning
negotiation rather than accuracy.
• Oral dialogue journals are one format
where practice with fluency and attention
to accuracy can be accomplished at the
same time.
Conversations
• one of the more recent trends in oral skills
pedagogy is the emphasis on having
students analyze and evaluate the
language that they or others produce.
• This is the most fundamental form of oral
communication. Almost all ESL/EFL
students can benefit from a unit on and
practice with informal conversation.
For example, the student gives an
audiocassette tape to the teacher, then
start the oral journal on the tape by giving
some directions for the assignment and
perhaps suggesting a topic, such as asking
student “Tell me about your first day in
New York?”
Be sure to remind students to speak
extemporaneously and explain why. Some
students will want to write their entries
and read them, or turn the tape recorder
on and off, so that they can sound
“perfect”.
This activities is to work unplanned
speaking.
Other Accuracy-Based Activities
• In the past, speaking activities that
focused on accuracy invariably involved
drills (commonly uncontextualized pattern
practice exercises).
• If drills are to be used, they should be
short, simple, and snappy, they should be
used sparingly, and they should lead to
more authentic communication activities.
Teacher can design a activity, for example’
using an interview form, asking the
question with wh-and/yes or no for
answer. A variation on this is an activity
in which students need to “Find someone
who can answer the question, then give
them a sheet of habits or characteristics.
The first student to find someone who
can answer each question wins the game.
Before closing this section, a word about
error correction is in order, explicit error
correction will probably be out of place
because it disrupts the communication
that is going on. Teachers may note
errors that occur at these times for some
later instruction to the class as a whole or
to individual student, as necessary.
Teaching Oral Skills in an EFL Context
• Teaching a heterogeneous (by native language
and ethnicity) class of learners in an Englishspeaking environment.
• Motivation- getting students to speak.
• Confidence- teacher might be not a native speaker,
he/she might not be competent to speak the
language which they teach.
• Authentic- he use of authentic, engaging materials
should be the basis for in-class activities.
Assessment
• The oral skills teacher may be required to make
decision about two kinds of oral assessment. As
following
• First
whenever possible, extended chunks of speech
that have a purpose and that are structured or
organized should be elicited.
• With no planning time-isolated sentences,
spontaneous, production with no planning time.
• Second
giving input to students, whether
it be visual (a picture for description),
aural (directive to “tell me about the most
exciting day you have had”), or
interactive ( e.g., questions in an
interview).
• Finally
the results of oral assessment
should be reported using terms, that are
clearly defined for and understandable to
students. For example, the student level,
and the speaking task itself, note the
difference in specificity between “generally
effective communication and can answer
questions about home family, even in a
work place.
Four large scale good examples
The University of Cambridge Local
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES)
offers two large-scale speaking tests,
which are Oral Interaction test in the
Certificate in Communicative Skill in
English (CCSE).
The test can be taken at one of four levels;
at any given level the test taker is
awarded a Pass or Fail based on the
degree of skill in five areas: accuracy,
appropriate, rangy, flexibility, and size of
contributions.
The Business Language Testing Service
(BULATS)
a language procedure for business and
organizations to asses the English
Language skills of their employees, job
applicant, or trainees. The 12 minutes
face to face speaking test, consisting of as
interview, a presentation, and discuss, is
conducted by a trained examiner and
then rated by the examiner and another
assessor.
The Educational testing Service TOEFL (Test of
English as a Foreign Language), offers the test
of Spoken English (TSE)
The 20 minutes test is conducted and
record on audiotape and is composed of
12 speech-act based tasks that are
presented in a printed test booklet and on
the audiotape. The test answer tapes are
score independently by two trained raters
using the five points:
• rating scale of communicative
effectiveness
• Each point contains description of
functional ability
• Response appropriacy
• Cohesion, and coherence.
• Linguistic accuracy
Oral examination, administered by the
American council on the Teaching of
Foreign Languages (ACTEL)
Is the ACTEL oral Proficiency Interview.
•
The 10-30 minutes tape- recorded
interview is administered (either over the
telephone or face to face by a trained
Oral proficiency the interaction to elicit
the best possible performance from the
candidate.
Conclusion/Future Trends
• In a English speaking world-English is the most
important Language.
• Oral skills are not only critical for communication
in the ESL classroom, they are necessary for
communication in, and with, the English
speaking world.
• Teacher will want to do whatever they can to
promote the development of speaking, listening,
and pronunciation skills in their students.
• In this chapter, there are varieties activities for
us to improve students’ oral skills, in order to
enhance oral proficiency, then can improve
students’ aural skill as well.
How to improve? And what is the
ways students can improve?
• Give an overview of the theoretical basis
for teaching in this area, such as
discussions, speeches, role plays, and
conversations.
What is the future holds for language
teaching in general, and oral skills
pedagogy in particular.
It is reasonable to
assume that the focus on the
sociolinguistic and socioculture dimensions
of oral communication will continue.
Foreword
*Three goals of teaching pronunciation
1. Enable learners to understand
and be understood.
2. Build their confidence in entering
communicative situations
3. Enable them to monitor their speech
based on input from the environment
Introduction
*Pronunciation is the language feature.
*In the past – the articulation of
consonants and vowels & the discrimination
of minimal pairs.
*In recent years – suprasegmental features
(stress, intonation, and so on)
*should be taught as communicative
interaction along with other aspects
The Segmental/Suprasegmental Debate
* Segmental: individual sounds
* Suprasegmental: stress, intonation…
* It’s not sufficient to focus on only
segmental or only suprasegmental
* to know which features should be taught
and which communicative situation should
be used are important issue
Setting Realistic Goals
1. Functional Intelligibility
2. Functional communicability
3. Increased Self-confidence
4. Speech Monitoring Abilities
Setting Realistic Goals
1. Functional Intelligibility
★ Intelligibility:
The spoken English is presented with
accent, and is not distracting the listeners.
-> use “accent addition” rather than
“accent reduction” (not force learners to
eliminate their L1 accent to learn new
second language)
Setting Realistic Goals
2. Functional communicability
★ Learners have a ability to use spoken
English successfully in real communicative
situations.
★ Using survey to elicit students’ needs and
interests
=> What the features do we need to
choose and which pronunciation
practices should be emphasized
Setting Realistic Goals
2. Functional communicability
1. Prominence
2.Topic management
3.Information status
4.Turn-taking
5.Social meanings and roles
6.Degree of involvement
Setting Realistic Goals
3. Increased Self-confidence
★speak and be understood
★Design the materials in real situation:
Control-> Free Production-> Provide
feedback
Setting Realistic Goals
4. Speech Monitoring Abilities
★ Let learners pay attention to their
own speech and others’ speeches
-> learners hear and try to imitate.
A Description of the Sound System of
English
* Traditional (bottom-up) :
sound → syllables → phrases and
thought groups → extended discourse
* the steam of speech (top-down):
sound system is used naturally
=> both segmental and suprasegmental
features
A Description of the Sound
System of English
1. Thought groups :
* use pause to divide speech into
manageable chunk
-> easy to understand the main
point of speech
* Avoid pausing frequently
A Description of the Sound
System of English
1. Thought groups :
*meaningful grammatical unit:
Ex:
I was speaking to him / on the phone yesterday.
(O)
I was speaking to / him on the / phone yesterday.
(×)
A Description of the Sound
System of English
1. Thought groups :
*ambiguous phrases:
Ex:
1. Alfred said / the boss is stupid.
2. Alfred / said the boss / is stupid.
A Description of the Sound
System of English
1. Thought groups :
*speaker’s speed:
1). faster speakers have less pauses
A Description of the Sound
System of English
2. Prominence :
* in thought group, an emphasized
syllable is used by the way of
lengthening and moving the pitch up
or down
Ex: I was SPEAKing to him/ on the PHONE
yesterday.
A Description of the Sound System of
English
2. Prominence :
* depends on context but generally
represents information
1) new:
ex: (I got a postcard from Sue.)
She’s in MEXicao.
A Description of the Sound
System of English
2. Prominence :
* based on communicative context
ex: I am reading.
What word should be emphasized?
A Description of the Sound System of English
3. Intonation :
* the melodic line or pitch
pattern in thought group
* the pitch movement within intonation
contour occurs on the prominent
element
ex: Are you READy yet?
No, I need to call DAVE first.
A Description of the Sound
System of English
3. Intonation :
give “an” appropriate option about
generalized patterns of specific
contexts
A Description of the Sound
System of English
3. Intonation :
* It is dangerous to make one-to-one
associations between a given
emotion and an intonation contour.
A Description of the Sound
System of English
4. Rhythm :
*stress-timed (including longer
<stressed> and shorter <unstressed>
syllables): occurring at regular intervals
.
.
.
ex: She would’ve liked to have gone to the movie.
<-> syllable-timed:
each syllable receives same timing and length.
A Description of the Sound
System of English
4. Rhythm :
* Which words should be stressed
and which unstressed?
-> ★content words (more meaning, nouns, main
verbs, adjectives, and some adverbs) => O
★function words (articles, pronouns,
auxiliary verbs, and prepositions) => ×
A Description of the Sound
System of English
* Rhythm v. s. Prominence
-> Rhythm : “ALL” the syllables (content
words) that receive stress in a
thought group
Prominence : “One” emphasized syllable in a thought group
.
.
.
ex: She attends the University of MARyland.
A Description of the Sound
System of English
4. Rhythm :
* Traditional analytical exercises :
To let students understand the rhythm
BUT: For speakers, there is no time to
do it during the conversation
A Description of the Sound
System of English
4. Rhythm :
*Chelas Flores (1998):
1) apart from words and meaning
2) use written (on the board)
★dots (short syllables)
★dashes (long syllables)
3) pattern orally
★ti (unstressed syllables)
★TA (stressed syllables)
★ TAA (prominent element)
A Description of the Sound
System of English
4. Rhythm :
*Chelas Flores (1998):
Instruction:
1) teacher pronounce some patterns let
students point out on the board
=> draw learners’ attention (internalized)
2) use the actual phrases to let students
distinguish
=> practice meaningful phrases
A Description of the Sound
System of English
5. Reduced Speech :
*to de-emphasize other unimportant
syllables in a thought group
*Two ways to reduce speech:
1) to shorten unstressed syllables
2) to relax the mouth (reduces vowels)
=> let learners speak quickly
A Description of the Sound
System of English
5. Reduced Speech :
* citation form (full, strong, or stressed )
& reduced form (unstressed or weak)
Ex:
citation form
Has He has? /h z/
reduced form
What has he done?
/ z/
A Description of the Sound
System of English
6. Linking :
*adjustment speakers make between
words in connected speech
ex: Why don’t you find out?
↓
fine doubt
-> link the syllables together in order to
pronounce it easily
A Description of the Sound
System of English
6. Linking :
*plurals, verb form and tense,
possessive (to be conveyed by endings)
ex: They live in Miami. (Present)
﹀
They live-din
Miami. (Past)
﹀
-> focus on linked sound
A Description of the Sound
System of English
7. Consonants :
*Three dimensions
1) Place of articulation:
Where the sound is made?
2) Manner of articulation
How the sound is made?
3) Voicing
Whether the vocal cords are vibrating
or not
A Description of the Sound
System of English
7. Consonants :
* decide whether phonetic
symbols are necessary
-> some letters are the same as the
phonetic representation
BUT: certain sounds are not.
ex: thumb /θ/, shop / /, and so on
A Description of the Sound
System of English
7. Consonants :
*Clustering: a segment is deleted
and changed
ex: strengths, texts, facts, and handbag
-> learners should know how consonant
cluster and there are acceptable cluster
reduction.
A Description of the Sound
System of English
7. Consonants :
*difficulty with sounds that don’t exist
in learners’ L1
ex: th, l ,and r sounds
-> focus on sounds in context
A Description of the Sound
System of English
8. Vowels :
* the syllable core
* constitute a syllable or a word
ex: eye
* articulation is with smooth airflow
A Description of the Sound
System of English
8. Vowels :
* Some challenges in teaching
1) English has more vowels than others.
2) a lot of variation in vowels between
dialects
ex: doll and ball -> same pronunciation
3) glide movement : eye (diphthong)
4) most vowels can be spelled in many
different ways ex: /i/-> ee or ea
A Description of the Sound
System of English
8. Vowels :
* Some challenges in teaching
5) vowels sounds are usually reduced in
unstressed syllables.
ex: mo1to2r
-> o1 is stressed
o2 is unstressed (tore=>ter)
=> use the relaxing of the articulators to
reduce or weaken the vowel
A Description of the Sound
System of English
8. Vowels :
* Instruction
1) show each vowel with key word
(and numbers)
2) repeat key words until remember
3) unnecessary to introduce any phonetic
-> easier to refer the key or the number
rather than vowels
A Description of the Sound
System of English
9. Word stress :
*There are primary stress(
.),
.
secondary stress(
) and almost no
stress(.) in a word
ex: .
. ..
.
com mun i ca tion
A Description of the Sound
System of English
9. Word stress :
*three factors
1) historical origin of a word
2) the part of speech
3) affixation
A Description of the Sound
System of English
9. Word stress :
* In general terms
1)the root or base of a word, less on prefix
ex: beLIEVE, preDICT, comPLAINT
2)compound nouns : primary stress on the
first, secondary stress on the second
ex: BUS stop, AIRplane
A Communicative Framework
for Teaching Pronunciation
1) Description and Analysis
*use the chart (vowels, consonant,
organ of speech)
*present the rules inductively or deductively
ex: present –ed or provide multiple examples
and let learners figure out the rules
A Communicative Framework
for Teaching Pronunciation
2) Listening Discrimination
*contextualized minimal pair
discrimination exercise
ex:
a. He wants to buy my boat. Will you sell it?
b. He wants to buy my vote. That’s against the law!
-> teacher say “a” or “b”, and listener has to
response with the appropriate answer.
A Communicative Framework
for Teaching Pronunciation
2) Listening Discrimination
*falling or rising intonation
ex:
You can’t
Rising
↗
Falling
↘
-> let listeners choose which intonation they
hear
A Communicative Framework
for Teaching Pronunciation
2) Listening Discrimination
*Using a transcript with a short
listening passage -> learners mark and
circle
a) teacher just focus on one or two
features at a time
b) focus listener’s attention
A Communicative Framework
for Teaching Pronunciation
3) Controlled Practice
*learner’s attention focus on form
*poems, rhymes, dialogues, dramatic
monologues are used .
A Communicative Framework
for Teaching Pronunciation
4) Guided Practice
*learner’s attention focus on meaning,
grammar, communicative intent and
pronunciation.
-> maintain control of the pronunciation target
A Communicative Framework
for Teaching Pronunciation
5) Communicative Practice
*activities should be balanced
between form and meaning (role play,
debates…)
*the attention should focus on one or two
features at a time
*Instruction: set up the objective
ex: liking
-> feedback
Some Teaching Techniques
1). Contextualized Minimal Pair Practice :
* contextualized sentences and
rejoinder, not just isolated words
ex1:
This pen leaks.
Then, don’t write with it.
This pan leaks.
Then, don’t cook with it.
Some Teaching Techniques
2). Cartoons and Drawings :
* to give hints for production
* to use humorous cartoons story to
elicit short plays (rhythm and role play)
* to let learners read and analyze
Some Teaching Techniques
3). Gadgets and Props :
*to help learners understand some
features.
*use kazoos to highlight intonation
*use Cuisenaire rods to illustrate
rhythm
Some Teaching Techniques
4). Rhymes, Poetry, and Jokes :
*let learners learn a strong beat
*let learners learn pronunciation and
spelling at the same time
*to illustrate and practice some
features
Some Teaching Techniques
5). Drama :
*various components of communicative
competence can be practiced
=> particularly effective
Some Teaching Techniques
6). Kinesthetic Activities :
*use basic hand gestures (fingers)
* The Wizard of Oz :
learners use movement to repeat
(stand up & take a step)=> internalized
* Acton (1984): mirroring (imitate)
=> helping fossilized learners
An Integrated Whole-Body
Approach to Teaching Pronunciation
*combine spoken fluency approach
and use of drama => spoken interaction
* using short videotaped interactions
Media and Technology
1) Audio
★
the basic way to record learners’
sound or speech
=> review, find out errors & give feedback
Media and Technology
2) Video
★
contain the author teaching
pronunciation lessons or actors
performing a scene with experience
Media and Technology
3) Computer Software
★
a lot of functions
★
visual feedback is not necessary
★
record learners’ voice
★
some programs need cost
Media and Technology
4) Internet
★
provide a continually expanding
websites
★
voice-encoding technology
=>decrease the need for exchanging tapes
★
Need more plug-ins in order to connect
more websites (sound card, headphones,
speakers and a microphone)
Assessment
1. Diagnostic Evaluation:
*use passages and free speech sample
*The steps
1) read the passages which contain
features and sounds
2) elicit learners by a topic, questions,
and an illustration
3) learners have time to prepare for
answering, and teachers evaluate by
oral interview recording
Assessment
2. Ongoing Feedback:
*gives learners’ progress & points out
where need to improve.
*There are three major ways
1) Self-Monitoring:
★
guide learners to self-correct by
mentioning error silently.
Assessment
2. Ongoing Feedback:
*There are three major ways
1) Self-Monitoring:
a) Gestures
b) Pronunciation correction signs
c) Charts
★ record students’ speech (with selfanalysis sheet) => effective
Assessment
2. Ongoing Feedback:
*There are three major ways
2) Peer Feedback:
★in minimal pair activity:
four members rather than two members
=> more reliable and convinced
★ in role play:
two members in a group are enough
=>unnecessary to share the pronunciation
difficulty
Assessment
2. Ongoing Feedback:
*There are three major ways
3) Teacher Feedback:
★gestures, pronunciation correction
signs
★audiocassettes or computers sound
files
Assessment
2. Ongoing Feedback:
*There are three major ways
3) Teacher Feedback:
★Three
types of errors should be corrected
 breakdown in communication
 pattern
 pronunciation points
Assessment
3. Classroom Achievement Tests:
*evaluate learners’ progress
=> more focus than diagnostic
assessment
* similar with classroom teaching tasks
=> reduce the effect of unfamiliar format
on learner performance
Assessment
3. Classroom Achievement Tests:
*oral performance should be
recorded
=> easier for teachers to evaluate and
learners to review and revise
Conclusion
* The goals of teaching pronunciation:
1. to understand and be understood.
2. Build their confidence in entering
communicative situations
3. to monitor their speech based on input
from the environment
=> learners can communicate smoothly
Developing Children’s Listening
and Speaking in ESL
Introduction
How Children Differ From Adults As
Language Learners
How ESL Children Approach Oral
Language
Techniques and Resources
Further Directions
Introduction
Child second language learners could differ
from adults. Consider these anecdotes:
Repeating: children preferred to sing same
song over and over again.
For example: a group of 7 children sing “I’m a little
teapot” use their arm to show the tea pour out (movement)
And the group starts again.
Introduction
 Decline to speak foreign language:
children may refuse to speak in English
and use their native language.
For example: a girl who already in school for six
months and still declines to speak in English. She
hides under the table during group lessons .She
speaks under her breath in Japanese to the other
foreign children.
Introduction
Hard to control the class:
each activity lasts no more than ten
minutes
For example: children are usually in
movement making (holding) something
or walking in the classroom, because
students attention span.
How children differ from adults
as language learners
Materials
Adult
Magnets, art supplies
Magnets, art supplies
Children Hamsters, costumes
Stuffed animals
How children differ from adults as
language learners
 Activities need to be child centered and
communication should be authentic:
something that interest students and they want to
listen and speaking in English
Many authors advise teachers to teach ESL holistically and
to focus on the whole child. Several themes repeatedly
come up:
• Six-year-olds
Provide a rich context, including movement, the
senses, objects and pictures, and a variety of activities
• Seven-year-olds
Teach ESL holistically, integrating the four skills.
• Eight-year-olds
Focus on meaning, not correctness.
• Eight-year-olds
Treat language as a tool for children to use for their
own social and academic ends.
• Eleven-year-olds
Treat learners appropriately in light of their age
and interest.
• Eleven-year-olds
Use language for authentic communication not as
an object of analysis.
• Twelve-year-olds
Focus on collaboration and social development.
• Advanced beginners
Focus on the value of the activity, not the value of
the language.
How ESL Children Approach Oral
Language
• Children enjoy rhythmic and repetitive
language.
• They play with the intonation of a sentence,
and most are willing to sing.
• Less awareness of languages difference.
Techniques and Resources
• Using Songs, Poems, and Chants ( add some
gestures, body movement)
• “Mother Goose” is suggested poem
• The principle of choosing poem:
-- to pick the one that you like
Techniques and Resources
• Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:
-- Chants have a strong and catchy
rhythm.
• “You Did It Again”
-- two voices, and express simple past
forms of irregular verbs
Techniques and Resources
1.Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:
--- children’s folklore
→ the value should fit with your own and
requirement of school.
Techniques and Resources
1.Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:
* The advantages of using chants
 vocabulary :
hear pronunciation → practice the sound
 rhythm, intonation, and stress :
English chants exaggerate each pattern
Techniques and Resources
1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:
 grammar structure :
hear and produce the same parts
 culture :
take “You Did It Again” example-pick up the undesirability of breaking or
learn to apologize
Techniques and Resources
1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:
* beginners : listen
1. Introduce vocabulary and context clearly
2. Provide visuals and objects
3. Have other students role-play the chant
--- enjoy the rhythm of the language
and being a part of the large group
Techniques and Resources
﹡Intermediate and Advanced :
→ participate
1. Most learners take part in the chanting
and singing, thus memorizing the text
2. Students choose only to listen can still
benefit
Techniques and Resources
Consideration for choosing song:
1. Choose the song you like (feeling)
2. Fit with ESL or interdisciplinary thematic
focus
3. Language of a song seems archaic
4. Choose songs with movement
Techniques and Resources
1.Using Songs, Poems, and Chants:
* The way of teaching:
1. start with vocabulary and context
2. listening
3. repeating independent recitation
4. repeating singing
-- similar with audiolingual method
Techniques and Resources
1. Using Songs, Poems, and Chants
The step of teaching:
1. Familiarize the children with the
vocabulary and content by using pictures
and objects.
2. Recite the poem or chant. Sing or play a
tape of the song .
6. Divide learners into two groups: let
children perform.
7. Practice the chants, songs, or poems about
five minutes a day .
8. Make costumes and props.
9. Have the class present the songs,
poems or chants to other children.
3. Recite (sing, play) a line at a time, and
learner repeat after you.
4. Recite the whole text with the class.
5. If the context has two parts: you take
one, and learners take the other .
Techniques and Resources
2. Dramatic Activities:
Using drama more easily than through
explanations or instructions.
Beneficial for children no matter have
big or small part in the production
Children are more willing to participate
drama activities than adults
Techniques and Resources
2. Dramatic Activities:
* role play
--- grow out of a story or told in class
--- assign students parts
--- act out the story
Techniques and Resources
2. Dramatic Activities:
* instruction of using any kind of stories or
chants:
1. read original story
2. read the script aloud
3. assign each learner to each part
4. learner can make up costume
5. make up skits orally or in writing by
themselves
Techniques and Resources
3. Storytelling
• Stories are a powerful means of language teaching.
Ex1: Teacher can tell the story using a book a
picture and movement puppets to attract
learners attention.
Ex2: tell a version of a familiar story by a different
author and illustrator.
Techniques and Resources
3. Storytelling
Ex3: children can listen to the story using taperecorded together or individually using
earphones, and then they can retell it or
write a script for the story.
Techniques and Resources
3. Storytelling (game)
Ex4: teacher choose story→ rewrite sentence (memory)
→recite sentence → make sentence in order
→recite the entire story.
Ex5: story retelling
Ex6: chain story
students begins a story → adding sentence → orally
or in writing
Techniques and Resources
4. Gesture and Movement
★ Children need to move around more than adults
do.
---teacher can combine gesture and movement with
songs , poem or chant, with drama, and with stories.
Ex: teacher can say yes by raising one hand and no by
looking down at the floor.
With young children, teacher can break up 5~10mins for
1~2mins of physical exercise or dancing.
Techniques and Resources
Total Physical Response
• Teacher commands students to do some
movement or models them. Gradually
students are able to carry out a variety of
commands.
• Students in the process acquire receptive
language, especially vocabulary and
grammar.
Techniques and Resources
• TPR fits with in Natural Approach
• Grammar is not overtly taught, the focus is
on comprehension, and input is supposed
to be comprehensible.
ex: if children are studying the water cycle
command such as Touch/Point to/Pick can be
carried out using pictures or word cards.
Total Physical Response
• TPR Storytelling is a method of second or foreign
language teaching that includes action, pantomime
and other techniques.
• Teacher teach vocabulary of the story through the
gesture. (Each word has its own gesture)
---Students practice in pairs, and then teacher tell ministory to students with gestures. A month later, teacher
will tell another mini-story which is related to before,
students will understand better because the previous
stories and gestures.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Storytelling
* Example of Storytelling
Tammy has a cat in the chair.
The cat run away.
Tammy looks everywhere for the cat.
She comes back and sit down.
Oh! The cat is asleep in the chair.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Storytelling
• Later students can tell story by themselves
while others act it out.
• Next step, teacher tells a main story which
students later retell and revise.
• Last, students create their own stories.
In the second, or third year, grammar is taught by telling the
stories from another point of view. Requiring the learner to
change tenses, pronouns, and so on.
Techniques and Resources
Teaching Grammar
• In EFL situation, class is perhaps the only place
where students speak English, many teacher are
careful about t nothing errors ,and plan lessons
and homework in response.
• In Unties States, where many teachers favor the
Natural Approach, errors are often seen as
indicator of children’s knowledge, but not
necessary to correct.
Errors in grammar ,vocabulary and
pronunciation
Ignore the errors
Make a mental note
Rephrase the sentence
Rephrase and expand
Present a lesson to a group or the whole
class later on
Future Directions
Research may further document the
success of an approach that relies on
gesture , movement, humor ,and stories
Speaking
Elements of Speaking
•
Be able pronounce correctly.
•
Using appropriate stress and
intonation.
•
Speak in connected speech.
Different speaking events
• Transactional- with main purpose conveying
information and facilitating the exchange of
goods, and service.
• Interpersonal- good relationship with people.
• Interactive- two or more people or
interacting, two way transfer of
information.
• Non-interactive- such as leave a
message on an answer phone.
•
The planned of speaking- such as
a wedding party or lecture- Formal.
•
The unplanned of speaking- for
example, we speak to some one
spontaneously.
Conversational strategies
• When we make the conversation, we can
add the umm or well, to continue our talk.
• Conversation opening, conversation
interrupting, and conversation closings.
Survival and repair strategies
• Using certain way to ask question
(e.g. how should I say? how should I put it?)
• Formulaic expressions, just like the paraphrase
(it’s a kind of….).
All-purpose phrase, for example: what the word
for something you play a guitar with? The
answer is “Plectrum”.
Real talk
The textbook only has one sentence
example. but real talk has many (e.g.
Who does it? Is it the supplier?).
Speaking strategies
• To supply more important phrases.
• To analysis transcripts of real speech,
• directing their attention to how the
speaker ask questions,
• respond to the questions of the others,
and etc.
Function language
• -Using fixed phrases such as; Catch you
later, back in a second, etc.).
• -Language for use, we also use pitch
change, intonation and stress to convey
different meanings.
Adjacency pairs
It’s similar to tag question, for example
it’s beautiful, isn’t it? Or you like me,
don’t you?
Film and Video
•
They can see how intonation
matches facial expression
•
What gestures accompany certain
phrases (e.g., SHAKE ONE’S HEAD
when someone say I don’t know).
•
Film allows students entry into a
whole range of other communication
words (how they close they are, and
what sort of food people eat).
Students and speaking
•
•
•
•
Good atmosphere class
Get on each other well
Learner with an appropriate level
Participate freely and enthusiastic
Reluctant students
• Helping the student who is reluctant to
speak in front of other students, they might
be shy, and not predisposed to
expressing themselves in front of other
people.
Preparation
• To make a preparation to “speak” it will
enhance the fluency in conversation or
speech.
• Planning and rehearsal for speaking
success-the chance to think about what
they are going to say and how to say.
• Making a feature of the conversation
thinking –in-our-heads ( imagination).
• Brainstorming in a buzz of groups,
sharing opinion, then they will know
what they want to talk.
The value of repetition
• Repeat speaking tasks- the first time
like the rehearsal, it makes students
with more confidence, student can
think about how to reword things or get
a feel for how it sounds.
• Students get a chance to analysis what
they have done if the repetition works
even better.
•
Student will get better in their
presentation when we ask them to tell
stories, the repetition obviously draft and
re- draft student’s writing as well as
student rehearsal their conversation.
Big groups, and small groups
• If the student who reluctant to present
front of the big class, teacher can
make
a small group, that can make for
dialogue or discussion.
Mandatory participation• To compulsory participation, when groups
do a task, that is students who sit back
and let everyone else do the work, could
the students were equally engaged in a
task (for example, student speaks equally
or some wants to speak, and some of not.)
• Using diagonally downwards game, asking
students practice with each other,
choosing a good topic such as; holiday,
my family, etc.
The roles of teacher
• Prompter- Student might get lost
when they are speaking to the next, we
can leave them to struggle out of such
situations. Or we might be help them,
giving them suggestion.
• Participant- Just at right time, not
involve too much.
• As a good animators, asking students
to produce language.
• Involve in group or role play, discussion
with students together.
• Introduce new information to help the
activity running.
• Ensure student engagement and
generally maintain a creative
atmosphere.
• Dominating the speaking to themselves.
• Teachers may in direct conversation
with their students- one to one.
• Near-equal participant-In the large
group, teacher might talk to student
one to one.
Feedback provider
• Helpful and gentle correction get
students out of difficult
misunderstanding and
hesitations.
• An important part for teacher’s job to
organize speaking activities is to
make sure that the students
understand exactly what they are
supposed to do.
• There are three kind of mistakes
students are easy to make-mistake
(they can correct by themselves),
error (mistakes which they can not
correct by themselves), and attempts
(that is when a student tries to say
something but don’t know how to say
it).
Classroom speaking activities
• Acting from a script, communication
games, Discussion, prepared talks,
questionnaires, Simulation and role-play.
Acting from a script
• According to the text book or outside
material (choose from teacher), asking
students to act out dialogues (they have
written themselves).
Playscripts
• Treat the play or role play as “real” acting.
Teacher likes a theater director, drawing
attention to appropriate stress, intonation
and speed.
• As a drama actor with preliminary
stages which included relaxing, breathing,
exercises and learning how to laugh with each
other.
•
• With intermediate stage they worked
as emotion, action, gesture and how to
show crying and laughing.
• With the presentation stage, they work
on the script itself, student found that
using drama (and having students write
about in their portfolios), enhance
student’s motivation.
• Drama- will train student as a “whole”
people who with emotional, and
intellectual characteristics of their
personalities.
Acting out dialogues
• Giving time to student, rehearsal as well,
and preparing the presentation. Choose
the presenter who is not the shyest one.
Make sure teacher need to create the right
kind of supportive atmosphere in the class.
Communication games
•
Information gap games
Using puzzle, draw a picture or in a map
with the RD, and building and find out
the difference between pictures.
Television and radio games
•
Asking question as TV show or radio“Can you use it in the kitchen?” or “is it
bigger than a person?” The answer is not
long; as yes or no. they get the points if
they guess the answer in 20 questions or
fewer.
Discussion
• Buzz groups
• Instant comment
• Formal debates
• Unplanned discussion
• Reaching a consensus
Prepared talks
• Students make presentation
• Decide on criteria and give feedback
• Give students tasks
Simulation and role-play
• To encourage general oral fluency
• Students need to be given enough
information
• Three advantages
Example 1: Experts
Activity: communication game
Focus: controlled language processing
Age:
any
Level: elementary above
Pre- choose 4-5 students and choose a
subject
During-class make questions and teacher
checks
Post- “experts” use one word to answer
Example 2: Films
Activity: questionnaire
Focus: lexis and grammar; interacting with
others
Age:
young adult and above
Level: lower intermediate and above
Pre- choose 5-6 films and make the
questionnaire
During- discuss and interview
Post- ask student what have they found out
Example 3: My home town
Activity: communication game
Focus: lexis and grammar; language processing;
information processing
Age:
any
Level: elementary
 Pre- make sure students know some
vocabularies
 During- students write the name of the town
 Post- asking each other about the towns
Example 4: Whose line is it anyway?
Activity: improvisation game
Focus: language processing, interacting with
others
Age:
young adult and above
Level: upper intermediate and above
Pre- who the students is (e.g. police
officer, nurse, teacher)
During- where a conversation between
these two is taking place.
Post- teacher asks the students what they
are talking about.
Example 5 : London map
Activity: information gap
Focus: finding the differences between two pieces of
information
Age:
adult
Level: upper intermediate
 Pre- give students two minutes to write down
as many sights of London as they can.
 During- provide different maps for two students.
 Post- students tell the differences in the pictures,
others are in the writing.
Example 6 : Time capsule
Activity: decision- making
Focus: information processing; interacting with others
Age:
teenage and above
Level: elementary and above
 Pre- general discussion
 During- students share ideas in group and make
the decision
 Post- the whole class listens to the suggestions
and comes to a decision
Example 7: The debate
Activity: discussion; making speeches
Focus: making a compelling argument
Age:
young adult plus
Level: intermediate
Pre- think about the topic, point out their
viewpoint and arguments
 During- students rehearse arguments in teams
 Post- make a short closing speech and votes the
motion
Example 8: Travel agent
Activity: role -play
Focus: interacting with others ; information processing
Age: any
Level: intermediate and above
 Pre- role play
 During- act out the scene in pairs
 Post- compare what happened in the role play
(e.g. What did they find difficult/easy?)
Example 9: The interview
Activity: simulation
Focus: interacting with others ; lexis and grammar ;
process language
Age:
adult
Level: intermediate and above
 Pre- discussing general interview issue
 During- put students in two groups ,
Interviewers group and Interviewees’
group
 Post- give feedback, question asked, interviewee
managed, right kind of language used.
Making recording
*Camera and the microphone can become a
central learning aid
=> students work cooperatively together
using a wide variety of language both in
the process and the product
Example 10: News bulletin
Activity: presenting information clearly
Age:
young adult and above
Level: elementary and above
 Pre- watch news bulletins and analyse the
language
 During- writing and editing the script
 Post- film their broadcasts
Example 11: Put it on screen
Activity: filming a scene
Focus: acting from a script; interpreting text
Age:
any
Level: any
 Pre- study an extract from a novel or work with a
coursebook dialogue
 During- students film the scene they have just
read
 Post- film a scene involves discussion.
Getting everyone involved
*ways of avoiding this danger:
• The group: if more than one video camera is
available, divide a class into groups.
• Process: participation in the decision–making
process by insisting that no roles are
chosen until the last moment.
• Assigning roles: assign a number of different roles
as in a real film crew.
Thank you for your listening
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Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language