English as a Global Language
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Гореликова А.П.
Учитель английского языка
Гимназия № 631 2014г.
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Main world languages
English-Speaking Countries
Language families
The Indo=European Family
Western Germanic languages
Romance Languages
Slavic Languages
Exercise 1
Some History of English
What are the main languages spoken
on the main five continents of the
Earth? Name some of them.
What languages do they speak in
these countries?
France
Germany
Denmark
Poland
Ireland
Argentina
Spain
Portugal
Austria
Norway
Brazil
Scotland
Italy
Hungary
Switzerland India
Chile
Japan
English spoken in the world
as the 1st or 2nd official language
The English language
Also considered as the most important language in the
world, English is widely spoken in many countries.
Currently, there are around 400 million speakers who
have English as their mother tongue, and other 200
million who speak it as their second language,
together making English the second most natively
spoken language in the world, after Mandarin
Chinese.
English is also widely spoken in
other countries
Did you know?
What makes English a global language today:
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1,000,000,000 people use some English every day.
80% of the world’s computer info is in English
Half of the world’s phone calls are made in English
It is the language of Air Traffic Control in 157
countries
75% of letters and correspondence are in English
It is the language of business and commerce - it is
used as a working language by all large
multinational companies
It is used in modern music and entertainment
in science and technology
Over half of the world’s newspapers are in this
language.
The Babel Tower
There are more than 5000 languages in the world.
Most of them belong to language families.
A language family is a group of related
languages that developed from a common
historic ancestor, referred to as proto
language (proto means 'early' in Greek).
The ancestral language is usually not known
directly, but it is possible to discover many of its
features by applying the comparative
method that can demonstrate the family status
of many languages.
The term Indo-European was introduced in 1816 by
Franz Bopp of Germany and referred to a family
of languages in Europe and Asia (including
Northern India, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and
Bangladesh) that were found to have a remarkable
structural relationship.
It turns out that Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Old Irish,
Gothic, Old Bulgarian, Old Prussian, and other
languages share surprising attributes, meaning
that most European languages and many of the
languages of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, and India belong to the IndoEuropean family.
Compare these Words of some Indo-European
Languages
Sanskrit
Latin
English
Russian
matar
mater
mother
матер(инский)
pitar
pater
father
папа
nasikaa
nasus
nose
нос
triiNi
trēs
three
три
duhitaa
filia
daughter
дочка
The Indo-European family is divided into several
branches or subfamilies. It consists of
numerous Indo-Iranian languages, including
Sanskrit, Hindi, and Farsi (Persian);
Greek; Baltic languages such as Lithuanian and
Latvian; Celtic languages such as Breton, Welsh,
and Scottish and Irish Gaelic;
Romance languages such as French, Spanish,
Catalan, and Italian;
Germanic languages such as German, English, and
Swedish; and
Slavic languages such as Russian, Polish and
Serbian.
A Germanic language
Due to the fact that the history of the
English language really started when
Germanic tribes of Angles and Saxons
invaded the British Isles, English belongs
to the Germanic family of languages.
Comparative Analysis of the Western Germanic
Languages
English
Frisian
(Nerherlands)
Dutch
German
bread
brood
bröd
Brot
fox
foks
vos
Fuchs
sit
sitte
zitten
sitzen
book
boek
boek
Buch
red
read
rood
rot
sleep
sliepe
slapen
schlafen
hand
han
hand
hand
three
trije
drie
drei
help
helpe
helpen
helfen
heart
hert
hart
herz
Romance Languages and Francophonia
The Slavic Languages
Find the names that are missing:
English today possesses about
one million words, including:
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1.The Anglo-Saxon Base
2. Celtic Borrowings
3. Scandinavian
Borrowings
4. French Borrowings
5. Latin Borrowings
6. Greek Borrowings
7. Borrowings from other
languages
1
2
3
5
6
7
4
Russian, Czech
Some history of English
Phase 1: Celtic tribes
Celtic words:
Thames (Tamesa), Kent,
Avon, coomb, Craig
Phase 2: Germanic tribes
Saxon words:
ask, and, help, house,
boat, summer
see the film
Phase 3: Scandinavian invasions
Scandinavian words:
leg, skin, dog, heaven
Phase 4: the Norman Conquest
In 1066 the Norman prince William
became the first British king.
He brought along the era of
the French language spoken
in the government, in the army
and in court.
see the film
French borrowings:
army, parliament, court,
government, pork,
beef, colour, etc.
Greek borrowings:
Greek was one of the ancient languages of learning, and the Roman
Empire learned much from the Greek tradition
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Pre-conquest: abbot, monk, priest, apostle, devil
Through French: agony, aristocracy, enthusiasm, metaphor,
Through Latin: ambrosia, nectar, phenomenon, rhapsody
Technical terms: anatomy, barometer, microscope, homeopathy
General vocabulary: fantasy, cathedral, charismatic, idiosyncrasy
Science names: physics, psychology, geography, geology
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Renaissance and after:
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PHOTO- + -graph, -genic, -lysis, -kinesis
BIO- + -ology, -genesis, -metry, -scope
TELE- + -phone, -pathy, -graphic, -scopic
STEREO- + …….. CRYPTO- + . . . . .
HYDRO- + . . . . . . HYPER- + . . . . .
HYPO- + . . . . . . NEO- + . . . . . .
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Phase 5: Age of Great Explorations (16 c)
Starting from the 16 century,
British ships travelled all over the world
and brought with them new exotic things,
for which there were no words
in the English language.
So, they borrowed the object together with the word.
Phase 5: Age of Great Explorations and after
compass
chocolate
Guess from what languages
the following words come :
bungalow
tea
pajamas
robot
sputnik
coffee
boss
Phase 6: Further expansions: the British Empire
they used to say: “The sun never sets over the
British Empire”
The expansion of the British Empire caused the spread
of English as the language of commerce
practically in all the corners of the world.
In many places the local population spoke
their own versions of English
(lingua franca)
omic, politic, scientific and military power of the USA? Or is it because english is particularly
Phase 7: Further expansions: the emergence
of the USA as a world power.
After World War 2 , a massive emigration to the USA and
the establishment of this country as a world power
contributed to the further
growth of the influence of the English language in the world.
Now other languages start actively borrowing from English.
Today we can say that it has truly become a world language.
But this does not mean, of course, that other national languages
will die out.
Words borrowed from English
today:
Give examples of words borrowed from English today:
Sports (football, goal ………..
 Computers (software, ……………….
 Domestic appliances (toaster, mixer, …….
 Electronics, communication (iPod, pager….
 Business and economics (broker, dealer,….
 Music and entertainment (soundtrack, rock…
 Science and Technology (conveyer,…….
 Other fields ………….
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What made English so widespread:
Do you really think that if English is so widespread, it is due to
the economic, politic, scientific and military power of the USA?
The answer is not that simple:
English has become so widespread also because of its
specific linguistic qualities:
Flexibility: English is particularly flexible (one word can
serve as different parts of speech: water to drink, to
water flowers, a water lily - so it is easy to use)
 Grammatical simplicity: very few verb endings, no gender,
no cases, simple grammar structure – compare it with another
language you learn
 Openness: English easily borrows words from other languages
due to its simplicity and flexibility
 Morpholological structure: English is morpholologically
simple (the basic vocabulary is almost entirely monosyllabic,
or has two-syllable words, which makes it easy for foreigners
to learn)
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