People of Asian Ethnicities
A brief overview of the 2013 Census data
Dr Robert Didham
Statistics NZ and Waikato University
What is ethnicity?
Definition (from the NZ Standard of Ethnicity):
–
–
Ethnicity is a measure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry,
nationality or citizenship.
Ethnicity is self perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic
group.
An ethnic group is made up of people who have some or all of the following
characteristics:
• a common proper name [group identity]
• one or more elements of common culture which need not be specified, but may
include religion, customs, or language [functional connections - though this has
since been shown to be seriously problematic]
• unique community of interests, feelings and actions [“unique” is debateable]
• a shared sense of common origins or ancestry, and [shared histories]
• a common geographic origin. [this relates to imagined homelands]
What is ethnicity NOT?
So, if we don’t quite see what ethnicity is …
• … can we get some idea by thinking about
what it is not
Not skin colour
• As this Scot will tell you
Not race (in the current sense)
• A concept this flawed needs no further explanation
• But people are hell-bent on EXPLAINING:
Race is not firmly biologically based but rather is a “construct
of human variability based on perceived differences in biology, physical
appearance, and behavior” (IOM, 1999).
Not citizenship
• NZ citizens, all, but none would necessarily
describe themselves as “NZer”
Not a surrogate for “foreign”
Not “non-English speaking”
• Yes – these folks do all speak excellent English
Not religion
Around Christchurch – not new photos as the last one shows
And not food
• Such as this “ethnic” dish!
Why does this matter?
RW0
D
a
t
a
PF 1
PF 2
PF 3
Where RW = real world and PF = policy field
RW1
D
a
t
a
Census data
• 1851 to 1911 primarily used country of birth
• Ethnicity first collected in 1916
• Early collections tended to concentrate on full
blood and mixed blood
• Terminology changed over time (e.g. race,
ethnic origin, ethnicity)
Broad region of birth
(numbers)
NZ
3500000
Australia
3000000
Pacific
Asia
2500000
UK/Ireland
2000000
Europe
Nth America
1500000
Sth Africa
1000000
Rest of Africa
Middle east (including Turkey)
500000
1858
1861
1864
1867
1871
1874
1878
1881
1886
1891
1896
1901
1906
1911
1916
1921
1926
1936
1945
1951
1956
1961
1966
1971
1976
1981
1986
1991
1996
2001
2006
2013
0
Sth America/Caribbean and other
odds and sods.
nei
Broad region of birth (%)
100
NZ
90
Australia
80
Pacific
70
Asia
UK/Ireland
60
Europe
50
Nth America
40
Sth Africa
30
Rest of Africa
20
Middle east (including Turkey)
10
Sth America/Caribbean and other
odds and sods.
nei
1858
1861
1864
1867
1871
1874
1878
1881
1886
1891
1896
1901
1906
1911
1916
1921
1926
1936
1945
1951
1956
1961
1966
1971
1976
1981
1986
1991
1996
2001
2006
2013
0
1916
Ethnicity
Male
Female
European
Note: pie charts show responses at lowest published level, not number of people
(and generally pie charts are to be avoided)
1956 Ethnicity
Male
Female
European
2013 Ethnicity
Male
Female
New Zealand European
Birthplace matters
European and Asian
100 Years and Over
100 Years and Over
90 Years
90 Years
2006
80 Years
80 Years
70 Years
70 Years
NZBMale
NZBMale
60 Years
50 Years
OSBMale
50 Years
OSBMale
40 Years
NZBFemale
40 Years
NZBFemale
30 Years
OSBFemale
30 Years
OSBFemale
60 Years
20 Years
20 Years
10 Years
10 Years
Less than One Year
Less than One Year
30
20
10
10
20
6
30
100 Years
4
2
2
4
6
100 Years
90 Years
90 Years
2013
80 Years
80 Years
70 Years
70 Years
NZB Asian
60 Years
NZB European
60 Years
50 Years
OSB European
50 Years
NZB Asian
NZB European
40 Years
OSB Asian
OSB European
30 Years
OSB Asian
40 Years
30 Years
20 Years
20 Years
10 Years
10 Years
Less than One Year
Less than One Year
6
30
20
10
10
20
30
4
2
2
4
6
Multiple Ethnicities
People of Asian Ethnicities 2013 Census
90 Years
Female
Male
80 Years
70 Years
60 Years
Female Asian and Other
50 Years
Female Asian Only
Male Asian and Other
40 Years
Male Asian Only
30 Years
20 Years
10 Years
Less than One Year
6
4
2
2
4
6
8
Output and analysis of data
• Historic approaches:
–
–
–
–
Proportion of blood – reflects the views at the time
Combinations a common form of output 1916 onwards
Half or more – hides complexity
Prioritisation – only ever used if data sources dictate
• Total response data
– Simplest - tends to hide complexity
• Combinations of ethnicities
– Does add to PopTotal, richest in information
– Many categories (64 at L1, 2.1million at L2, and 2.1*1068
at L4)
Key points to remember
• Always check the questionnaire
– Can often explain apparently strange things (next slide)
• Multiple responses:
– Data does not add to the total
– Always use the number specified as denominator
– (i.e. exclude not specified and residual counts)
• Ethnicities can change
– A person may change their ethnic identification
– People may report different ethnicities in different
contexts
Tickbox tyranny
• Example: Indian
– There is a tickbox labelled “Indian”
– Out of 156,500 people of an Indian ethnicity, 143,500 ticked “Indian”
NZ born
Indian nfd
Bengali
Fijian Indian
Gujarati
Indian Tamil
Punjabi
Sikh
Anglo Indian
Indian nec
Asia born Pacific born Total OSB
percent
24.0
47.6
24.1
76.0
17.7
77.4
0.0
82.3
17.0
0.2
82.4
83.0
22.7
59.1
18.2
77.3
23.7
72.0
0.0
76.3
27.6
71.2
0.0
72.4
23.9
68.1
3.8
76.1
28.3
53.6
0.0
71.7
10.1
21.9
0.7
89.9
Avoid prioritised data
• Multiple responses:
– People may have more than one ethnicity
– A person’s ethnicities may change over time
• Avoid prioritised data whenever possible
– Not a valid treatment of ethnicity
– No information on relative strength of affiliations
– Groups, including Maori, may be disadvantaged
– Hides diversity and complexity
Problem with prioritisation
Percentage losses to groupings
Census 2013
30.0
25.0
0-4 Years - 10-14 Years
20.0
15-19 Years
20-24 Years
15.0
25-29 Years
30-34 Years
35-39 Years
10.0
40-44 Years
45-49 Years - 100 Years and Over
5.0
0.0
Male
Female
European
Male
Female
Pacific
Male
Female
Asian
Male
Female
MELAA
Growth of ethnic groupings
1916-2013
Percent of population
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
Maori
8.0
Pacific
Asian
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
1916 1921 1926 1936 1945 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2013
Census year
Note scale not strictly linear
Asian births and deaths
1998-2012
Births (Asian ethnicity of child)
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
Auckland
3,000
Rest of NZ
Deaths (Asian ethnicity)
2,000
400
300
Auckland
Rest of NZ
200
100
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
0
1998
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
500
2000
0
1999
600
1998
1,000
People of Asian Ethnicities 2013
New Zealand
Auckland
Old Auckland City
(approximately
central Auckland)
City of Migrants – old Auckland City area
Total and Total Asian
NZ Born Total and NZ Born Asian
Chinese and Indian Ethnicities
Auckland Urban Zones
Census 2013
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
Northern Urban Zone
Western Urban Zone
25000
Central Urban Zone
20000
Southern Urban Zone
15000
10000
5000
0
Chinese
Indian
Selected Asian Ethnicities
Auckland Urban Zones
Census 2013
12000
10000
8000
Northern Urban Zone
Western Urban Zone
6000
Central Urban Zone
Southern Urban Zone
4000
2000
0
Filipino
Korean
Japanese
Sri Lankan Cambodian
Thai
Other Asian
Percent NZ Born
Selected Asian Ethnicities
Census 2013
40.0
35.0
30.0
Chinese
Indian
25.0
Filipino
Korean
20.0
Japanese
Sri Lankan
15.0
Cambodian
Thai
Other Asian
10.0
5.0
0.0
New Zealand
Northern Urban Zone
Western Urban Zone
Central Urban Zone
Southern Urban Zone
What are the changes?
•
•
•
•
•
Age structure.
Birthplace
Language
Qualifications
Families and interethnic partnering
Age Structure Changing
2006 Census
2013 Census
% Change
Number of people with one or more Asian
ethnicities:
354,552
471,711
Up 33%
Number of Asian 65 years and over:
16,071
27,309
Up 70%
Number of Asian under 5 years:
23,913
35,898
Up 50%
Birthplace
people with ethnicities in the Asian grouping
•
•
•
•
Population
Born in NZ:
Born in Overseas:
Born in Asia:
Born in Pacific:
2006
70,650
281,044
240,537
31,338
2013
105,728
360,893
306,202
43,738
%
50
28
27
40
• Ten years or more in NZ and specified born
overseas:
79,458 162,599 105
Language
people with ethnicities in the Asian grouping
• Speaks English: 393,237 (83%)
– Compared with 2006: 290,469 (82 %)
• Speaks one or more other languages: 325,677
(69%)
– Compared with 2006: 254,763 (72 %)
Languages
people with ethnicities in the Asian grouping
• Top languages other than English:
Asian
(including
Asian NZB) Total NZ
Chinese (nth and nfd)
92,142
9,951
95,013
Hindi
64,314
6,585
66,312
Cantonese
43,977
8,433
44,625
Tagalog
28,467
831
29,016
Korean
25,722
2,250
26,376
Panjabi
19,578
2,961
19,752
Gujarati
17,271
4,146
17,505
Japanese
12,279
2,364
20,151
Other Languages
people with ethnicities in the Asian grouping
Other languages in the top 40 (of over 170) include:
• Other important languages of Asia:
–
–
–
–
Tamil, Telegu, Kannada, Malayalam,
Sinhala, Marathi, Bengali
Thai, Khmer, Bahasa Malay, Vietnamese
Min, Tieu-Chow, Hakka, Wu
• Colonial and local languages
– French, Spanish, Maori, Samoan, Fijian
• With increasing number of speakers of:
– Lao, Burmese, Cebuano, Pashto, etc
Percent not speaking English
Selected ethnicities 2013
Pakistani
Nepalese
Bangladeshi
Afghani
Korean
Japanese
Sri Lankan
Indian
Female
Chinese
Male
Thai
Malay
Laotian
Indonesian
Burmese
Vietnamese
Cambodian
Filipino
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Percent not speaking English
people aged 65 years and over
Pakistani
Nepalese
Bangladeshi
Afghani
Korean
Japanese
Sri Lankan
Indian
Female
Chinese
Male
Thai
Malay
Laotian
Indonesian
Burmese
Vietnamese
Cambodian
Filipino
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Qualifications
30
Percent Distribution 2013
25
20
15
10
NZ Born
Overseas Born
Pacific Islands
5
0
Asia
Qualifications
People of Asian Ethnicities 2013
90,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
NZ Born
Overseas Born
20,000
10,000
0
Pacific Islands
Asia
Percent University Graduates
Selected ethnicities by sex 2013
60
50
40
30
Male
Female
20
10
0
Percent Older University Graduates
Selected ethnicities by sex, 65plus, 2013
70
60
50
40
Male
30
20
10
0
Female
Families and interethnic partnering
Opposite-sex couples, 2013 Census
Both partners born overseas (93,015 couples)
Female Asian
92%
6%
Female not Asian
2%
Male born overseas, female born in NZ (4,545 couples)
Male Asian
Male Not Asian
27%
14%
59%
Male born in NZ, female overseas (14,796 couples)
Male Asian
Male Not Asian
11%
86%
3%
Both partners born in NZ (6,279 couples)
Male Asian
Male Not Asian
18%
46%
36%
Total (121,026 couples)
Male Asian
Male Not Asian
76%
18%
6%
Male Asian
Male Not Asian
Families and interethnic partnering
Opposite-sex couples, 2013 Census
Both partners born overseas (22,524 couples)
Male Pacific
Male Not Pacific
Female Pacific
90%
6%
Female not Pacific
4%
Male born overseas, female born in NZ (8,502 couples)
Male Pacific
40%
Male Not Pacific
11%
50%
Male born in NZ, female overseas (5,373 couples)
Male Pacific
Male Not Pacific
27%
54%
20%
Both partners born in NZ (17,454 couples)
Male Pacific
Male Not Pacific
22%
33%
45%
Total (55,191 couples)
Male Pacific
Male Not Pacific
54%
20%
26%
Key themes to take to the workshops
1. Treating the “Asian Ethnic Group” as if homogenous can be misleading and prejudicial
2. High level of diversity with the grouping of ethnicities.
3. Among people of the same ethnicity there is substantial diversity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Age and gender differences
Educational differences
Health histories
Migration histories and family connectedness
Transnational connections
Language skills and settlement outcomes
4. Ethnicity may not be the best way to distinguish need groups or to define health or education
delivery
1. Birthplace and years in NZ may be bigger factors
2. Location within NZ and intercommunity connections influence uptake of facilities
3. Age may be a key factor
5. Mental health, diabetes and HIV risks vary across groups
1.
2.
3.
4.
Migration histories and local exposure to racism
Economic well-being
Access to health care and education varies
Specific groups have different risk factors and support requirements
6. Intersecting policy fields
1.
2.
3.
4.
In particular immigration, education and health policies need to interface more openly
Access to social assistance becoming less transparent and less flexible
Eligibility for education assistance influences settlement and personal development
Link between skills as a factor in migration process alongside real world employment opportunities and
flexibility is career development
That’s all folks
For now anyway
Feel free to contact: [email protected]
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Broad region of birth