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Server Technologies II
LAMP
Partly adapted from notes by Dr. Randy M. Kaplan
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Overview
◊ This set of notes are in these sections
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LAMP Overview
PHP Introduction
PHP Basic Syntax
Installing PHP
PHP Configuration
Installing MySQL
PHPMyAdmin
MySQL Basics
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LAMP Overview
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The LAMP Stack
◊ LAMP comes from
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L = Linux
A = Apache
M = MySQL
P = Perl/PHP/Python
◊ The LAMP stack is open source software
that enables rapid development of webbased and database-based applications
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Installing LAMP
◊ Apache needs to be installed with some
special entries in its configuration script
and files
◊ Before we get to mySQL, we’ll need PHP
to help administer mySQL
◊ Therefore assume that we’ll be using PHP
• The P in LAMP can refer to any web-friendly
programming language
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Installing LAMP
◊ To install the LAMP stack you will need to
install
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Linux
Apache
MySQL
PHP or Perl or Python
◊ Linux is presumably already installed
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Installing LAMP
◊ There’s a sneaky way to install LAMP all
at once on Windows, Linux, and other
platforms
• WAMP (as in Windows, Apache, MySQL,
PHP)
• See also here for other options, e.g. MAMP
for Mac OS X, XAMPP for Linux/UNIX, etc.
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PHP Introduction
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PHP
◊ “PHP is a widely-used general-purpose
scripting language that is especially suited
for Web development and can be
embedded into HTML”
• PHP is a recursive acronym (!) for
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
• PHP is available from http://www.php.net
• PHP is on version 5.3.5 as of 6 Jan 2011
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PHP Platforms
◊ PHP can be used on all major operating
systems, including
• Linux
• Many Unix variants (e.g. HP-UX, Solaris and
OpenBSD)
• Microsoft Windows
• Mac OS X (should this be under Unix variants?)
• RISC OS
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PHP Binaries also exist for
◊ AS/400
◊ Mac OS X
◊ Novell NetWare
◊ OS/2
◊ RISC OS
◊ SGI IRIX 6.5.x
◊ Solaris (SPARC, INTEL)
◊ Solaris OpenCSW packages
From http://www.php.net/downloads.php
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PHP Web Servers
◊ PHP has support for most web servers
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Apache
Microsoft IIS and PWS
Netscape and iPlanet servers
O’Reilly Website Pro server
Caudium, Xitami, OmniHTTPd, and others
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PHP database support
◊ PHP can communicate with almost any
database management system
• Adabas D, dBase, Empress, FilePro (readonly), Hyperwave, IBM DB2, Informix, Ingres,
InterBase, FrontBase, mSQL, Direct MS-SQL,
MySQL, ODBC, Oracle (OCI7 and OCI8),
Ovrimos, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Solid, Sybase,
Velocis, Unix dbm
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What can PHP do?
◊ PHP is mainly focused on server-side
scripting, so you can do anything any
other CGI program can do
• Collect form data, generate dynamic page
content, send and receive cookies, etc.
◊ But PHP can do much more
Summarized from http://www.php.net/manual/en/intro-whatcando.php
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What can PHP do?
◊ Command line scripting
• You can make a PHP script and run it without
any server or browser
◊ You only need the PHP parser
• This type of usage is ideal for scripts regularly
executed using cron (on Unix or Linux) or
Task Scheduler (on Windows)
• Scripts can also be used for simple text
processing tasks
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What can PHP do?
◊ Writing desktop applications
• PHP is probably not the best language to
create a desktop application with a graphical
user interface, but it can be done
◊ Use PHP-GTK to write such programs
• WinBinder is a (Windows only) alternative to
PHP-GTK
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What can PHP do?
◊ Server-side scripting is the most traditional
and main target field for PHP
◊ You need three things to make this work, a
PHP parser (CGI or server module), a web
server and a web browser
• You need to run the web server, with a
connected PHP installation
• You can access the PHP program output with
a web browser, viewing the PHP page
through the server
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PHP output types
◊ A PHP server often outputs HTML, but it
can also output
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Images
PDF files
Flash movies
Any text, such as XHTML or other XML file
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PHP Basic Syntax
Summarized from http://www.php.net/manual/en/language.basic-syntax.php
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PHP example
◊ <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title>Example</title>
</head>
<body>
<?php
echo "Hi, I'm a PHP script!";
?>
</body>
</html>
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PHP example
◊ The <?php and ?> are start and end
processing instructions (a.k.a. opening
and closing tags)
• The PHP server interprets them, and sends
HTML to your web browser  key concept!
◊ PHP is done server-side, whereas
JavaScript is done on the client
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PHP is server interpreted
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%^$%^# semicolons!
◊ Notice the commands end with a
semicolon, like most C-ish languages
• PHP requires instructions to be terminated
with a semicolon at the end of each statement
• The closing tag of a block of PHP code
automatically implies a semicolon
You do not need to have a semicolon terminating
the last line of a PHP block, it adds an extra
whitespace if you do
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Short and long tags
◊ You’ll see examples of PHP with start and
end processing tags like these
• <?
Stuff ?>
◊ These are called short tags, which by
default are enabled, but should be avoided
• short_open_tag = On
◊ Please use the officially correct long tags
• <?php
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Script tags
◊ Note: If you are embedding PHP within
XML or XHTML you will need to use the
<?php ?> tags to remain compliant with
standards
◊ Other allowed opening and closing tags
define the script language
• <script language="php"> stuff </script>
• FrontPage prefers this
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Accidental closing tags
◊ One aspect of PHP that you need to be
careful of, is that ?> will drop you out of
PHP code and into HTML even if it
appears inside a // comment
• This does not apply to /* blah */ multi-line
comments
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Comments
<?php
echo 'This is a test'; // This is a oneline c++ style comment
/* This is a multi line comment
yet another line of comment */
echo 'This is yet another test';
echo 'One Final Test'; # This is a oneline shell-style comment
?>
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Comments
◊ PHP supports three different styles: 'C',
'C++' and Unix shell-style (Perl style)
• // This is a one-line c++ style comment
• /* This is a multi line comment
yet another line of comment */
Don’t try to nest them!
• # This is a one-line shell-style comment
One-line comments go to EOL or end of php block
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Installing PHP
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Prerequisites for building PHP
◊ The following software is needed to build
PHP
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An ANSI C compiler
flex: Version 2.5.4
bison: Version 1.28 (preferred), 1.35, or 1.75
A web server
Any module specific components (such as
GD, PDF libs, etc.)
From http://www.php.net/manual/en/install.unix.php
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Installing PHP
◊
Download the PHP source – follow the standard
procedure for installing a new software application
1. gzip -d httpd-2_0_NN.tar.gz
2. tar xvf httpd-2_0_NN.tar
3. gunzip php-NN.tar.gz
4. tar -xvf php-NN.tar
5. cd httpd-2_0_NN
6. ./configure --enable-so
For multi-core processors add --enable-shared-core
7. make
8. make install
http://www.php.net/manual/en/install.unix.apache2.php
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Installing PHP
◊ PHP uses an ini file – a kind of
configuration file
◊ A configuration file is supplied in the
source directory
◊ Copy the php.ini file to the appropriate
directory
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/lib/php.ini
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http.conf Modifications for PHP
◊ Here’s the Apache connection
• The http.conf file needs to be modified so that
Apache knows what to do when it encounters
PHP
• Lines are added to the .conf file where similar
lines are placed (have a look at the default
http.conf file)
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http.conf Modifications for PHP
◊ Load the PHP 5 module
LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
◊ Handle how file types are to be processed
AddHandler application/x-httpd-php
.php
AddHandler application/x-httpd-php-source
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Stop and Restart Apache
◊ Once you have modified the http.conf file,
in order to recognize the new setting you
will need to stop and restart the server
◊ Use apachectl to accomplish this
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Testing PHP and Apache
◊ One way to test to see if Apache is
correctly in place is to write some PHP
and see if it runs as it should
◊ A quick and dirty test would be the
canonical “Hello World” program in PHP
◊ A better test is to continue configuration of
the LAMP stack so that you can see some
significant functionality demonstrated
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PHP Configuration
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PHP configuration file
◊ There is a configuration file in PHP, php.ini
• It’s in the path designated by the environment
variable PHPRC
• Under Linux/Unix, its default location is
/usr/local/lib or <install-path>/lib
• On Windows, it’s in the Windows directory
◊ For the server versions of PHP, it’s read
only once when the web server is started
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Sample php.ini file
; any text on a line after an unquoted semicolon (;) is ignored
[php] ; section markers (text within square brackets) are also
ignored
; Boolean values can be set to either:
;
true, on, yes
; or false, off, no, none
register_globals = off
track_errors = yes
; you can enclose strings in double-quotes
include_path = ".:/usr/local/lib/php"
; backslashes are treated the same as any other character
include_path = ".;c:\php\lib"
Notice that path statements do not include the actual file name
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php.ini file syntax
◊ Notice that the syntax in the PHP
configuration file is different from within
PHP scripts!
• Comments start with a semicolon, and can
start mid-line
• Section markers [anything between square
brackets] are also ignored
• Most lines are directive = value format
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PHP configuration file
◊ The php.ini file has core directives, and
may have extensions
• The default php.ini file has well documented
dozens of options from which you can choose
◊ The php.ini file must have that name!
• You can have multiple versions in different
directories (hence the PATH importance)
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PHP directives
◊ Directive names are case sensitive
◊ The value assigned can be
• A string, a number
• A PHP constant (e.g. E_ALL or M_PI)
• An INI constant (On, Off, True, False, Yes, No
or None)
• An expression (e.g. E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE)
• A quoted string ("foo")
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User configuration file
◊ The php.ini file pertains to the entire PHP
install
◊ Individual users may have a personal
configuration file, “.user.ini”
• user_ini.filename = ".user.ini“
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Shy PHP
◊ Your PHP install can hide itself from the
outside world (e.g. for security reasons) by
changing this default setting
• expose_php = On
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Php.ini sections
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Language Options
Resource Limits
Error handling and logging
Data Handling
Unicode settings
Paths and Directories
File Uploads (to allow or not)
Fopen wrappers (allows treatment of URLs as files)
Dynamic Extensions
Module Settings (incl. mySQL and cookie settings)
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Installing MySQL
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Install MySQL
◊ MySQL is an open source, enterprise
class, database management system
◊ It is fully compliant with the SQL standard
although, unlike products like Oracle that
have opted for a rich base of features,
MySQL has opted for simplicity
◊ All basic functionality is available – with
perhaps a bit less “slickness” than other
products
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Getting MySQL
◊ MySQL is available from
http://www.mysql.com/
• The MySQL Community Server is the free
version
• The MySQL Enterprise Subscription is about
$600/year per server
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Download an Installable Image
◊ In the case of MySQL, building (compiling)
the database management system does
not result in major benefits unless the
platform you are using is special
• Downloads are available from here
• The current version is 5.5.9
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MySQL Installation
◊ In the case of windows, the installation
package comes in a zipped file
• In the zip file is another named setup.exe
• Double click (Windows) this file and an
installer will launch and walk you through
installation
◊ Once the MySQL server is started, you
can check to see if it is running using the
command line client
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MySQL Installation
◊ When you install MySQL, an All Programs
menu option is added to start the
command line client
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PHPMyAdmin
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PHPMyAdmin
◊ One of the benefits of open source is that
programmers are free to develop tools of
their own choosing to benefit the
community
• One such tool is PHPMyAdmin, currently on
version 3.3.9.2
• PHPMyAdmin is available from here
• It’s compatible with PHP 5 and MySQL 5
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PHPMyAdmin
◊ We demonstrated earlier how to test
MySQL using the command line to fire up
a client so that we could enter some SQL
• Although this might be a good way for those
who live and breathe SQL, some help might
be a good thing to have
• PHPMyAdmin is one such tool that offers help
in the management of MySQL
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PHPMyAdmin
◊ PHPMyAdmin is a GUI based interface for
managing MySQL
• It goes a little further because with it we can
carry out extensive data manipulation
• It is written in PHP and its interface
mechanism is browser-based
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PHP Beyond “Hello World”
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Our first PHP script: hello.php
<html>
<head>
<title>PHP Test</title>
</head>
<body>
<?php echo '<p>Hello World</p>'; ?>
</body>
</html>
From http://us3.php.net/manual/en/tutorial.firstpage.php
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About Hello World
◊ Notice the file is hello.php, not hello.html
◊ The file does not have to be executable,
just a plain boring text file
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phpinfo function
◊ Make a call to the phpinfo() function and
you will see a lot of useful information
about your system and setup such as
available predefined variables, loaded
PHP modules, and configuration settings
• <?php phpinfo(); ?>
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$_SERVER
◊ $_SERVER is a reserved PHP variable
that contains all web server information
• <?php
echo $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];
?>
◊ May get a response of
• Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0;
Windows NT 5.1)
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Superglobal variables
◊ More generally, $_SERVER is a
superglobal variable
• They are available throughout any script
• The others are: $GLOBALS, $_GET,
$_POST, $_FILES, $_COOKIE, $_SESSION,
$_REQUEST, and $_ENV
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Environment Variables
◊ Environment variables ($_ENV) are data
from the PHP parser’s host system
◊ For example, we can find the host name
• <?php
if (isset($_ENV["HOSTNAME"]))
$MachineName = $_ENV["HOSTNAME"];
else if (isset($_ENV["COMPUTERNAME"]))
$MachineName = $_ENV["COMPUTERNAME"];
else $MachineName = "";
?>
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Environment Variables
◊ This example determines if a particular
variable name has been set (isset)
• Then assigns the correct variable to the local
variable $MachineName
◊ The if / elseif / else structure is
from C
• Note that the if and elseif lines don’t have
semicolons
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Environment Variables
◊ We can get the user name like this
• <?php
echo 'My username is ' .$_ENV["USER"] . '!';
?>
◊ Or get cookie information from $_COOKIE
• <?php
// Print an individual cookie
echo $_COOKIE["TestCookie"];
// Another way to debug/test is to view all cookies
print_r($_COOKIE);
?>
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Other PHP functions
◊ There are zillions (approximately) of
functions predefined for use by PHP
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Audio Formats Manipulation
Authentication Services
Calendar and Event Related Extensions
Command Line Specific Extensions
Compression and Archive Extensions
Credit Card Processing
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Other PHP functions
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Cryptography Extensions
Database Extensions
File System Related Extensions
Human Language and Character Encoding
Support
• Image Processing and Generation
• Mail Related Extensions
• Mathematical Extensions
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Other PHP functions
• Non-Text MIME Output
• Process Control Extensions
• Connecting to Java, other Internet apps,
general networking (sockets, TCP, etc.)
• Search Engine Extensions
• Server Specific Extensions
• Session Extensions
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Other PHP functions
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Text Processing
Variable and Type Related Extensions
Web Services
Windows Only Extensions
XML Manipulation
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PHP Programming
Programming variables
◊ PHP does not require (or support) explicit
type definition in variable declaration
◊ A variable's type is determined by the
context in which the variable is used
Programming variables
◊ PHP has four basic variable types
• boolean (TRUE or FALSE, case-insensitive)
• integer (between +/- 2.15E9 or 2^31)
• float (floating-point number, aka double)
Precision varies with platform
• string (1 character = 1 byte, hence no
Unicode direct support in PHP5)
 Often use single quotes ‘ ‘, with a backslash before a literal quote \’
or to get a literal backslash \\
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Programming variables
◊ PHP is very lax about variable typing
◊ Declarations aren’t needed
• <?php
$a_bool = TRUE;
// a boolean; True also works
$a_str = "foo"; // a string
$an_int = 12;
// an integer
echo gettype($a_bool); // prints out: boolean
echo gettype($a_str); // prints out: string
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Programming variables
• // If this is an integer, increment it by four
if (is_int($an_int)) {
$an_int += 4;
}
// If $bool is a string, print it out
// (does not print out anything)
if (is_string($a_bool)) {
echo "String: $a_bool";
}
?>
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PHP arrays
◊ An array in PHP is a series of commaseparated key => value pairs
• <?php
$arr = array("somearray" => array(6 => 5,
13 => 9, "a" => 42));
echo $arr["somearray"][6];
// yields 5
echo $arr["somearray"][13];
// 9
echo $arr["somearray"]["a"]; // 42
?>
• Key must be an integer or string;
value may be any type
Objects
◊ PHP 5 is object oriented
◊ ‘new’ instantiates an object from the class
◊ <?php
class foo {
function do_foo() {
echo "Doing foo."; }
}
$bar = new foo;
$bar->do_foo();
?>
Objects
• <?php
class MyClass { }
class NotMyClass { }
$a = new MyClass;
var_dump($a instanceof MyClass);
var_dump($a instanceof NotMyClass);
?>
◊ Yields:
bool(true)
bool(false)
Resources
◊ A resource is a special variable, holding a
reference to an external resource
◊ Resources are created and used by
special functions (link is to index of them)
• The function is_resource() can be used to
determine if a variable is a resource
• get_resource_type() will return the type of
resource it is
Resources
◊ Relevant creation resources include
• mysql_connect() (Link to MySQL database)
• mysql_pconnect() (Persistent link to MySQL)
• mysql_db_query(), mysql_list_dbs(),
mysql_list_fields(), mysql_list_processes(),
mysql_list_tables(), mysql_query(),
mysql_unbuffered_query()
(MySQL result)
Resources
• odbc_connect() (Link to ODBC database)
• odbc_pconnect() (Persistent link to ODBC
database)
• odbc_prepare() (ODBC result)
NULL variables
◊ NULL (or null) variables and values are
allowed
• <?php
$var = NULL;
?>
◊ See also the functions is_null() and unset()
◊ The is-exactly-equals comparison (===)
can also check a null or boolean variable
Timing processing
◊ <?php
$v = NULL;
$s = microtime(TRUE);
for($i=0; $i<1000; $i++) {
is_null($v); }
print microtime(TRUE)-$s;
print "<br>";
$s = microtime(TRUE);
for($i=0; $i<1000; $i++) {
$v===NULL; }
print microtime(TRUE)-$s;
?>
◊ Results:
0.017982006072998
0.0005950927734375
Using "===" is 30x quicker than is_null()
Variable empty or not?
◊ Compare empty(), is_null(), and !isset()
◊ $var = "";
empty($var) is true
is_null($var) is false
!isset($var) is false.
Type juggling
◊ <?php
$foo = "0"; // $foo is string (ASCII 48)
$foo += 2;
// $foo is now an integer (2)
$foo = $foo + 1.3; // $foo is now a float
(3.3)
$foo = 5 + "10 Little Piggies"; // $foo is
integer (15)
$foo = 5 + "10 Small Pigs";
// $foo is
integer (15)
?>
◊ Strings with a period, e, or E (e.g. 1e-3 or 23.4) are
interpreted as float, otherwise the leading integer value
is used
Variables
◊ Variables in PHP are represented by a
dollar sign followed by the name of the
variable
• The variable name is case-sensitive
◊ A variable can be assigned by reference.
• This means that the new variable "points to"
the original variable
Variables
• Changes to the new variable affect the original, and
vice versa
• Only named variables may be assigned by reference
◊ <?php
$foo = 'Bob'; // Assign the value 'Bob' to $foo
$bar = &$foo; // Reference $foo via $bar.
$bar = "My name is $bar"; // Alter $bar...
echo $bar;
echo $foo;
// $foo is altered too.
?>
Predefined variables
◊ The superglobal variables are predefined, as are
•
•
•
•
•
$php_errormsg — The previous error message
$HTTP_RAW_POST_DATA — Raw POST data
$http_response_header — HTTP response headers
$argc — The number of arguments passed to script
$argv — Array of arguments passed to script
Detecting settings
◊ To detect user settings (video resolution,
browser type, etc.) try this link
(link removed)
Expressions
◊ Most logical comparison operators are
allowed
• < > >= <= != ==
• === (identical, equal to and same type)
• !== (not equal to or not same type).
◊ These can also be used on arrays
Ternary expressions
◊ <?php
$first ? $second : $third
?>
• If the value of the first subexpression is
TRUE (non-zero), then the second
subexpression is evaluated, and that is the
result of the conditional expression.
Otherwise, the third subexpression is
evaluated, and that is the value.
Increment/decrement operators
◊ ++$a Increments $a by one,
then returns $a
◊ $a++ Returns $a, then
increments $a by one
◊ --$a Decrements $a by one,
then returns $a
◊ $a-- Returns $a, then
decrements $a by one
Nesting assignments
◊ An assignment statement has a value of
the value assigned, so it’s possible to nest
them
• <?php
$a = ($b = 4) + 5; // $a is equal to 9 now, and
$b has been set to 4.
?>
Execution operator
◊ PHP supports one execution operator:
backticks (``)
• Not single-quotes(‘’)!
• PHP will execute the contents of the backticks
as a shell command (e.g. bash, csh)
• The output will be returned (i.e., it won't
simply be dumped to output; it can be
assigned to a variable)
Execution operator
• Use of the backtick operator is identical to
shell_exec()
◊ <?php
$output = `ls -al`;
echo "<pre>$output</pre>";
?>
Error control operator
◊ The only error control operator is the at
symbol, @
◊ Using it before an expression (variables,
function and include() calls, constants,
etc.) prevents error messages from
appearing
Error message logging
<?php
session_start();
function error($error, $return=FALSE) {
global $php_errormsg;
if(isset($_SESSION['php_errors'])) {
$_SESSION['php_errors'] = array(); }
$_SESSION['php_errors'][] = $error; // Maybe use
$php_errormsg
if($return == TRUE) {
$message = "";
foreach($_SESSION['php_errors'] as
$php_error) {
$messages .= $php_error."\n";
}
return $messages; // Or you can use use
$_SESSION['php_errors']
} }
?>
Logical operators
◊ And $a and $b
◊ Or $a or $b
◊ Xor $a xor $b
◊ Not ! $a
◊ And $a && $b
◊ Or $a || $b
◊ Why are there two Ors and two Ands?
Logical operators
◊Cute example using ‘or’
<?php
//If the connection was success, "Connected
to database" will be shown.
//If the connection was failed, "Unable to
connect" will be shown.(NOTE: The @ will
hide error messages)
@mysql_connect("localhost", "root",
"password") or die("Unable to connect");
echo "Connected to database";
?>
String operations
◊ The period is critical for string operations,
specifically concatenation
• <?php
$a = "Hello ";
$b = $a . "World!"; // now $b contains
"Hello World!"
$a = "Hello ";
$a .= "World!";
// now $a contains
"Hello World!"
?>
Control statements
◊ Many control structures are available
•
•
•
•
•
•
if else elseif/else if
while
do-while
for
foreach (nice for arrays)
switch (case statement)
Custom functions
◊ Functions can be user-defined, like in most
languages
◊ <?php
function foo($arg_1, $arg_2, /* ...,
*/ $arg_n)
{
echo "Example function.\n";
return $retval;
}
?>
MySQL Basics
mySQL structure
◊ mySQL is running on a host, which may
be different from the client host you’re
using to access it
◊ mySQL contains databases
• Each database typically includes many tables
A table has one or more fields (columns)
Every data entry in a table is a record (row)
Connecting
◊ You connect to MySQL via a given host server
and user name with the mysql command
• shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
• Enter password: ********
◊ You should get a welcome message
• Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
• Your MySQL connection id is 25338 to server version:
5.1.39-standard
• Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the
buffer.
• mysql>
Connecting
◊ If you’re on the mySQL host already, can
omit the host parameter
• shell> mysql -u user –p
◊ If your mySQL configuration allows
anonymous logins, then this will work
• shell> mysql
Disconnecting
◊ To leave mySQL, QUIT (or \q) works
• mysql> QUIT
• Bye
◊ On UNIX/Linux, control D also exits
mySQL command principles
◊ A command normally consists of an SQL
statement followed by a semicolon
• There are some exceptions where a
semicolon may be omitted; QUIT is one
◊ When you issue a command, mysql sends
it to the host server for execution and
displays the results, then prints another
mysql> prompt to indicate that it is ready
for another command
mySQL command principles
◊ mysql displays query output in tabular
form (rows and columns)
• The first row contains labels for the columns
• The rows following are the query results
• Normally, column labels are the names of the
columns you fetch from database tables
• If you're retrieving the value of an expression
rather than a table column, mysql labels the
column using the expression itself
mySQL command principles
◊ mysql shows how many rows were
returned and how long the query took to
execute, which gives you a rough idea of
server performance
• These values are imprecise because they
represent wall clock time (not CPU or
machine time), so they are affected by factors
such as server load and network latency
Case sensitivity
◊ mySQL is case insensitive
◊ These are all equivalent commands
• mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
• mysql> select version(), current_date;
• mysql> SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;
mySQL examples
◊ mySQL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
+-----------------+--------------+
| VERSION()
| CURRENT_DATE |
+-----------------+--------------+
| 5.1.2-alpha-log | 2005-10-11 |
+-----------------+--------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql>
mySQL examples
◊ mySQL as a calculator for expressions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mysql> SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5;
+------------------+---------+
| SIN(PI()/4)
| (4+1)*5 |
+------------------+---------+
| 0.70710678118655 | 25
|
+------------------+---------+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)
Multiple commands
◊ Many commands can appear on one line, separated by semicolons
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mysql> SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW();
+-----------------+
| VERSION()
|
+-----------------+
| 5.1.2-alpha-log |
+-----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
+---------------------+
| NOW()
|
+---------------------+
| 2005-10-11 15:15:00 |
+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Waiting for semicolon
◊ Commands can span multiple lines, since
mySQL won’t do anything until after a semicolon
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mysql> SELECT
-> USER()
-> ,
-> CURRENT_DATE;
+---------------+--------------+
| USER()
| CURRENT_DATE |
+---------------+--------------+
| [email protected] | 2005-10-11
|
+---------------+--------------+
Oh, nevermind!
◊ To cancel a partial command, add \c in it
• mysql> SELECT
• -> USER()
• -> \c
• mysql>
◊ If \c is inside a text string, it will not
cancel the command
• ‘this is a string with \c in it’
Text strings
◊ You can write strings surrounded by either
“'” or “"” characters (for example, 'hello' or
"goodbye")
◊ mysql lets you enter strings that span
multiple lines
• mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table
WHERE name = 'Johnson• '> Smith' AND age < 30;
Text strings
◊ When you see a '> or "> prompt, it means
that you have entered a line containing a
string that begins with a “'” or “"” quote
character, but have not yet entered the
matching quote that terminates the string.
• This might mean you left out a closing quote
mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE
name = 'Smith AND age < 30;
'>
Text strings
◊ Hence a prompt of '> or "> may mean that
mysql expects to see the rest of an
unterminated string
◊ How resolve this?
• Often best to close the string, then cancel the
command
'\c
• Why not just close the string?
SQL commands
◊ Naturally most mySQL commands are directly
from SQL (or here or lots of books)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
+----------+
| Database |
+----------+
| mysql
|
| test
|
| tmp
|
+----------+
Database permissions
◊ Check your privileges to use a database
with the USE command
• mysql> USE test
• Database changed
◊ Notice the lack of semicolon; it’s optional
for this command
◊ And USE must be the only command on
the line
PHP and mySQL
◊ The key PHP extension to connect it to
mySQL is the mysqli class
• <?php
$link = mysqli_connect( 'localhost',
'user', 'password',
'world'); /* default db */
if (!$link) { printf("Can't connect to
MySQL Server. Errorcode: %s\n",
mysqli_connect_error());
exit; }
From Zend developer zone
PHP and mySQL
◊ mysqli_connect is an improved version of
mysql_connect, for PHP5 and mySQL4.1
or higher
◊ Do not use mysql_pconnect; it doesn’t
play nicely with LAMP
PHP and mySQL
◊ /* Send a query to the server */
if ($result = mysqli_query($link, 'SELECT
Name, Population FROM City ORDER BY
Population DESC LIMIT 5')) {
print("Very large cities are:\n");
/* Fetch the results of the query */
while( $row =
mysqli_fetch_assoc($result) ){
printf("%s (%s)\n", $row['Name'],
$row['Population']);
}
/* Destroy the result set and free the
memory used for it */
mysqli_free_result($result); }
PHP and mySQL
◊ This example would produce output like
• Very large cities are:
Mumbai (Bombay) (10500000)
Seoul (9981619)
São Paulo (9968485)
Shanghai (9696300)
Jakarta (9604900)
PHP and mySQL
◊ Close a mySQL connection like this
• /* Close the connection */
mysqli_close($link);
?>
Prepared statements
◊ mySQL has two useful types of prepared
statements
• Bound parameter prepared statements
• Bound result prepared statements
◊ Both help you create queries that are more
secure, have better performance, and are
more convenient to write
Bound parameter prepared statements
◊ Bound parameter prepared statements allow
query templates to be created and then stored
on the MySQL server
• The body of the query is only sent to the MySQL
server once
• When a query is needed, data to fill in the template is
sent to the MySQL server, and a complete query is
formed and then executed
• To execute the query, only the data to fill in the
template needs to be delivered to the MySQL server
Bound result prepared statements
◊ Bound result prepared statements allow the
value of variables in a PHP script to be tied to
the value of fields of data in a query result set
•
•
•
•
•
Create a query
Ask the MySQL server to prepare the query
Bind PHP variables to columns in the prepared query
Ask the MySQL server to execute the query
Request that a new row of data be loaded into the
bound variables
Prepared statement example
• <?php
$mysqli = new mysqli("localhost",
"user", "password", "world");
if (mysqli_connect_errno()) {
printf("Connect failed: %s\n",
mysqli_connect_error());
exit();
}
Prepared statement example
• /* prepare statement */
if ($stmt = $mysqli->prepare("SELECT
Code, Name FROM Country WHERE Code LIKE
? LIMIT 5")) {
$stmt->bind_param("s", $code);
$code = "C%";
$stmt->execute();
Prepared statement example
•
/* bind variables to prepared
statement */
$stmt->bind_result($col1, $col2);
/* fetch values */
while ($stmt->fetch()) {
printf("%s %s\n", $col1, $col2);
}
/* close statement */
$stmt->close();
Prepared statement example
• /* close connection */
$mysqli->close();
?>
◊ This example uses the object oriented
format of commands instead of the
procedural syntax
• $mysqli = new mysqli("localhost",
"user", "password", "world");
• $link = mysqli_connect( 'localhost',
'user', 'password', 'world');
OO versus procedural syntax
◊ $mysqli->connect_error vs
mysqli_connect_error
◊ mysqli->close vs mysqli_close
◊ mysqli->query vs mysqli_query
◊ mysqli_stmt->bind_param vs
mysqli_stmt_bind_param
From Section 2.7 of the PHP API
Binding parameters
◊ In the binding of parameters (bind_param),
each variable to be bound needs a
character to define its type
BIND TYPE
i
d
b
s
COLUMN TYPE
All INT types
DOUBLE and FLOAT
BLOBs
All other types
References
◊ PHP
• PHP Manual
• Server processing image
• PHP configuration file
◊ MySQL
• Tutorial
• Installation guide
◊ PHPMyAdmin
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