MySQL and PHP Integration
Session 6
INFM 718N
Web-Enabled Databases
Agenda
• MySQL
• PHP-MySQL integration
• Relational normalization
• Structured programming
• Software patterns
• Object-oriented design
• Functional decomposition
Business Interaction
Design
rules
Interface
Design
Client Hardware
Web Browser
Client-side Programming
Interchange Language
Server-side Programming
(PC)
(IE, Firefox)
(JavaScript)
(HTML, XML)
(PHP)
Database
(MySQL)
Server Hardware
(PC, Unix)
Getting started with MySQL
• “root” creates database, grants permissions
– By you on WAMP (mysql –u root –p)
– By Charles Goldman on OTAL
– CREATE DATABASE team1;
– GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, INDEX, ALTER, CREATE, DROP ON
team1.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY ‘bar’;
– FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
• Start mysql
– Start->Run->cmd for WAMP, ssh for OTAL
– mysql –u foo –p bar [you can cd to your playspace first, but you don’t need to]
• Connect to your database
– USE team1;
Some Useful MySQL Commands
• Looking around
–
–
–
–
SHOW DATABASES;
SHOW TABLES;
DESCRIBE tablename;
SELECT * FROM tablename;
• Optimization
– SHOW TABLE STATUS \G;
• OPTIMIZE TABLE tablename;
– EXPLAIN <SQLquery>;
• ALTER TABLE tablename ADD INDEX fieldname;
Creating Tables
CREATE TABLE contacts (
ckey
MEDIUMINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
id
MEDIUMINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
ctype
SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
cstring VARCHAR(40) NOT NULL,
FOREIGN KEY (id) REFERENCES persons(id) ON DELETE CASCADE,
FOREIGN KEY (ctype) REFERENCES ctlabels(ctype) ON DELETE RESTRICT,
PRIMARY KEY (ckey)
) ENGINE=INNODB;
To delete: DROP TABLE contacts;
Referential Integrity
• “Foreign key” values must exist in another table
– If not, those records cannot be joined
• Checked when data added to this table
– MySQL “Error 150”
• Triggers when data deleted/changed in other table
– Specify SET NULL, RESTRICT or CASCADE
Populating Tables
INSERT INTO ctlabels
(string) VALUES
('primary email'),
('alternate email'),
('home phone'),
('cell phone'),
('work phone'),
('AOL IM'),
('Yahoo Chat'),
('MSN Messenger'),
(‘other’);
 To empty a table: DELETE FROM ctlabels;
The SQL SELECT Command
• SELECT (“projection”) chooses columns
– Based on their label
• WHERE (“restriction”) chooses rows
– Based on their contents
• e.g. department ID = “HIST”
• These can be specified together
– SELECT Student ID, Dept WHERE Dept = “History”
WHERE Clause
• Each SELECT contains a single WHERE
• Numeric comparison
<, >, =, <>, …
• e.g., grade<80
• Boolean operations
– e.g., Name = “John” AND Dept <> “HIST”
Connecting PHP to MySQL
• On WAMP:
$dbc=mysql_connect (‘localhost’, ‘userid’, ‘password’);
• On OTAL:
$dbc=mysql_connect(‘:/export/software/otal/mysql/run/mysqld.sock’,
‘userid’, ‘password’);
<?php # Script 8.1 - mysql_connect.php
// Set the database access information as constants.
DEFINE ('DB_USER', 'tester');
DEFINE ('DB_PASSWORD', 'tester');
DEFINE ('DB_HOST', 'localhost');
DEFINE ('DB_NAME', 'sitename');
// Make the connection.
$dbc = @mysql_connect (DB_HOST, DB_USER, DB_PASSWORD) OR die ('Could not connect to
MySQL: ' . mysql_error() );
// Select the database.
@mysql_select_db (DB_NAME) OR die ('Could not select the database: ' . mysql_error() );
// Create a function for escaping the data.
function escape_data ($data) {
// Address Magic Quotes.
if (ini_get('magic_quotes_gpc')) {
$data = stripslashes($data);
}
// Check for mysql_real_escape_string() support.
if (function_exists('mysql_real_escape_string')) {
global $dbc; // Need the connection.
$data = mysql_real_escape_string (trim($data), $dbc);
} else {
$data = mysql_escape_string (trim($data));
}
// Return the escaped value.
return $data;
} // End of function.
?>
<?php # Script 9.15 - login.php (7th version after Scripts 9.1, 9.3, 9.6, 9.10. 9.13 & 9.14)
// Send NOTHING to the Web browser prior to the session_start() line!
// Check if the form has been submitted.
if (isset($_POST['submitted'])) {
require_once ('../mysql_connect.php'); // Connect to the db.
$errors = array(); // Initialize error array.
// Check for an email address.
if (empty($_POST['email'])) {
$errors[] = 'You forgot to enter your email address.';
} else {
$e = escape_data($_POST['email']);
}
// Check for a password.
if (empty($_POST['password'])) {
$errors[] = 'You forgot to enter your password.';
} else {
$p = escape_data($_POST['password']);
}
if (empty($errors)) { // If everything's OK.
/* Retrieve the user_id and first_name for that email/password combination. */
$query = "SELECT user_id, first_name FROM users WHERE email='$e' AND password=SHA('$p')";
$result = @mysql_query ($query); // Run the query.
$row = mysql_fetch_array ($result, MYSQL_NUM); // Return a record, if applicable.
if ($row) { // A record was pulled from the database.
// Set the session data & redirect.
session_name ('YourVisitID');
session_start();
$_SESSION['user_id'] = $row[0];
$_SESSION['first_name'] = $row[1];
$_SESSION['agent'] = md5($_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']);
// Redirect the user to the loggedin.php page.
// Start defining the URL.
$url = 'http://' . $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] . dirname($_SERVER['PHP_SELF']);
// Check for a trailing slash.
if ((substr($url, -1) == '/') OR (substr($url, -1) == '\\') ) {
$url = substr ($url, 0, -1); // Chop off the slash.
}
// Add the page.
$url .= '/loggedin.php';
header("Location: $url");
exit(); // Quit the script.
} else { // No record matched the query.
$errors[] = 'The email address and password entered do not match those on file.'; // Public message.
$errors[] = mysql_error() . '<br /><br />Query: ' . $query; // Debugging message.
}
} // End of if (empty($errors)) IF.
mysql_close(); // Close the database connection.
} else { // Form has not been submitted.
$errors = NULL;
} // End of the main Submit conditional.
// Begin the page now.
$page_title = 'Login';
include ('./includes/header.html');
if (!empty($errors)) { // Print any error messages.
echo '<h1 id="mainhead">Error!</h1>
<p class="error">The following error(s) occurred:<br />';
foreach ($errors as $msg) { // Print each error.
echo " - $msg<br />\n";
}
echo '</p><p>Please try again.</p>';
}
// Create the form.
?>
<h2>Login</h2>
<form action="login.php" method="post">
<p>Email Address: <input type="text" name="email" size="20" maxlength="40" /> </p>
<p>Password: <input type="password" name="password" size="20" maxlength="20" /></p>
<p><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Login" /></p>
<input type="hidden" name="submitted" value="TRUE" />
</form>
<?php
include ('./includes/footer.html');
?>
Arrays in PHP
• A set of key-element pairs
$days = array(“Jan”->31, “Feb”=>28, …);
$months = explode(“/”, “Jan/Feb/Mar/…/Dec”);
$_POST
• Each element is accessed by the key
– {$days[“Jan”]}
– $months[0];
• Arrays and loops work naturally together
Thinking about Arrays
• Naturally encodes an order among elements
– $days = rksort($days);
• Natural data structure to use with a loop
– Do the same thing to different data
• PHP unifies arrays and hashtables
– Elements may be different types
Functions in PHP
• Declaration
function multiply($a, $b=3){return $a*$b;}
• Invoking a method
$b = multiply($b, 7);
• All variables in a function have only local scope
• Unless declared as global in the function
Why Modularity?
• Limit complexity
– Extent
– Interaction
– Abstraction
• Minimize duplication
Sources of Complexity
• Syntax
– Learn to read past the syntax to see the ideas
– Copy working examples to get the same effect
• Interaction of data and control structures
– Structured programming
• Modularity
Code Walkthrough
Syntax
• How layout helps reading
• How variables are named
• How strings are used
• How forms are used
• How output is created
MySQL Integration
• Opening a database
• Handling slashes
• Posing queries
• Using result sets
Structured Programming
• How things are nested
• How arrays are used
Modular Programming
• Functional decomposition
• How functions are invoked
• How arguments work
• How scope is managed
• How errors are handled
• How results are passed
Programming Skills Hierarchy
• Reusing code [run the book’s programs]
• Understanding patterns [read the book]
• Applying patterns [modify programs]
• Coding without patterns [programming]
• Recognizing new patterns
Best Practices
• Design before you build
• Focus your learning
• Program defensively
• Limit complexity
• Debug syntax from the top down
Rapid Prototyping + Waterfall
Update
Requirements
Initial
Requirements
Choose
Functionality
Build
Prototype
Write
Specification
Create
Software
Write
Test Plan
Focus Your Learning
• Find examples that work
– Tutorials, articles, examples
• Cut them down to focus on what you need
– Easiest to learn with throwaway programs
• Once it works, include it in your program
– If it fails, you have a working example to look at
Defensive Programming
• Goal of software is to create desired output
• Programs transform input into output
– Some inputs may yield undesired output
• Methods should enforce input assumptions
– Guards against the user and the programmer!
• Everything should be done inside methods
Limiting Complexity
• Single errors are usually easy to fix
– So avoid introducing multiple errors
• Start with something that works
– Start with an existing program if possible
– If starting from scratch, start small
• Add one new feature
– Preferably isolated in its own method
Types of Errors
• Syntax errors
– Detected at compile time
• Run time exceptions
– Cause system-detected failures at run time
• Logic errors
– Cause unanticipated behavior (detected by you!)
• Design errors
– Fail to meet the need (detected by stakeholders)
Debugging Syntax Errors
• Focus on the first error message
– Fix one thing at a time
• The line number is where it was detected
– It may have been caused much earlier
• Understand the cause of “warnings”
– They may give a clue about later errors
• If all else fails, comment out large code regions
– If it compiles, the error is in the commented part
Run Time Exceptions
• Occur when you try to do the impossible
– Use a null variable, divide by zero, …
• The cause is almost never where the error is
– Why is the variable null?
• Exceptions often indicate a logic error
– Find why it happened, not just a quick fix!
Debugging Run-Time Exceptions
• Run the program to get a stack trace
– Where was this function called from?
• Print variable values before the failure
• Reason backwards to find the cause
– Why do they have these values?
• If necessary, print some values further back
Logic Errors
• Evidenced by inappropriate behavior
• Can’t be automatically detected
– “Inappropriate” is subjective
• Sometimes very hard to detect
– Sometimes dependent on user behavior
– Sometimes (apparently) random
• Cause can be hard to pin down
Debugging Logic Errors
• First, look where the bad data was created
• If that fails, print variables at key locations
– if (DEBUG) echo “\$foobar = $foobar”;
• Examine output for unexpected patterns
• Once found, proceed as for run time errors
– define (“DEBUG”, FALSE); to clean the output
Three Big Ideas
• Functional decomposition
– Outside-in design
• High-level languages
– Structured programming, object-oriented design
• Patterns
– Design patterns, standard algorithms, code reuse
One-Minute Paper
What was the muddiest point in today’s class?
• Be brief!
• No names!
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