Position Papers Research and Argument Materials/Strategy 1. Journal/Notebook w/ lined paper. 2. Pencils, highlighters. 3. Flashdrive or Cloud Storage (Google, Dropbox, iCloud, etc). 4. Have Journal/Notebook out and be working on your draft when we start class. The ?: Violent Games ● Are these good or bad for kids? ● Is the sale of violent video games protected by the first amendment? o Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association Day 1 Debate Positions Violent games. Good or bad? Debating Positions Two sides to debate in an argument “High Jinks: Shoot-Out” -violent role-playing games -moral dilemma when kids play games that simulate violence. Partners, decide sides Partner 1 Teens should be allowed to play violent games. Partner 2 Teens should NOT be allowed to play violent games. Notes on your side while we read. As we read “High Jinks” take notes, highlight, underline, circle information to defend your side. Prepare to debate! Partners take turns debating your side. New Positions/Switch Sides Partner 1 Role-playing games with simulated violence are perilous for kids. Partner 2 Role-playing games with simulated violence are diverting/entertaining/ motivating for kids. Evidence Collection Find information that will support and defend your new position. Notes, highlight, circle, etc. Partner Pairs Find someone who is the same as you. Compare/share notes! Debate Round 2 Rehearse new argument using new collection of evidence. Get back with your original partner and debate again! Sports Programs Good position paper example What worked well? Clearly state position Different arguments in different sections Ordered logically Pick a position/side Tomorrow we start drafting... Drafting Plan 1. Which position is your strongest argument? 2. Clarify overall claim. 3. How will you argue that position? 4. Intro? Body? Conclusion? 5. How will you address counterclaim? 6. Where is your evidence? Day 2 Flash Draft Violent Games harmful or entertaining? Talk through your argument w/ your partner. Do you have a claim? Evidence? Analysis? Pencils out, start drafting! Remember to introduce your audience to the topic, state a clear claim, support the claim with evidence found in the “High Jinks” article, and be fair to other viewpoints (counterclaims). Flash Drafting Partner Feedback Meet w/ partner, read each others’ flash drafts. What’s working well? What can be improved? Argument Writing Checklist Let’s take a look at this checklist. ID at least two growth areas. How can you get better?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?! Journals/Notebooks Out Let’s go through the basic steps to write an argument. How-To Argue Good example argument Message to School Board Flash Draft! Intro, claim, evidence, counter, analysis. ● ● ● ● ● Intro topic, state clear claim, reason/evidence, be fair. Gather, sort, and rank evidence using your position as a lens. Rethink position, and defend using reason and evidence. Choose strongest argument and plan it. Write strong introduction that: ○ Hooks reader (explain importance, compelling fact, statistic, etc) ○ Specific context/backstory ○ Name position clearly (maybe state other positions) ○ Orient reader to overall line of argument (preview) How-To Write a Position Paper Notes What are you missing? HW: Research Find strong position papers on your side. Find arguments/stories for your side. Take notes, prepare to use their strategy in your new draft. Day 3 Angling Evidence Supporting specific points w/ proof! Pro Strategy ● look at the notes you took from the investigations you did last night. ● what strategy did the pros use? o not just the facts, but how they spun the facts to help their argument. The judge...makes a pie chart of death--the order of killing assignments, which he or she then distributes to squads shortly before opening day. “I’m looking for some good massacres early,” this year’s judge said as the competition began, the second week in May…”I’ve arranged at least one boyfriend-girlfriend kill that should be interesting.” Angle the evidence. Which side do these support? “Angled” for violent games This evidence shows that role-playing games, including these violent ones like Killer, are good for kids. For example, some kids end up taking on leadership positions, with a lot of responsibility in those games and they show a lot of initiative, like when the judge in this game thought carefully about the order of the killing assignments. “Angled” against violent games This evidence shows that these violent role-playing games are not good for kids. In particular, they give kids too much power Killer sets up the squads and the order of the killings, and that means he sets upperclassmen against lower classmen, he sets girlfriends and boyfriends against each other-it’s just too much power for one kid to have over his classmates. Evidence alone is often neutral. Take what you find and spin it your direction. Take this and spin it. Partner 1: Good Partner 2: Bad In 2007, Jake Protell, a freshman, distinguished himself by ferreting out the itinerary of a field trip that two targets were taking to Tel Aviv. Protell took a car to the Newark Airport, found the victims before they passed through security, and dispatched them using two bathtub “squirt fish.” “I had to get special permission from the judge for the squirt fish, because I didn’t want to take my gun anywhere near an El Al counter,” Protell, now a junior, recalled, as he paced Pierrepont Street, three water guns shoved inside the pocket of a hoodie. Unpack the Evidence Explain and angle to support your claim. Use clever and creative thinking to make a case. When researching, think about how you could use almost anything to help your claim. Check these out. How can you use? “Do Games Like ‘Grand Theft Auto V’ Cause Real-World Violence” “Essential Facts about Games and Violence” “How online gamers are solving science’s biggest problems” “Shooting in the Dark” “Violent video games may stop crime by keeping criminals busy playing violent video games” New draft. Use your notes, research, and aim to angle the evidence in your favor. Don’t hesitate to change your mind or re-angle your original claim. Anchor Chart Notes ● Argumentative essay; intro topic, state clear claim, reason/evidence, be fair to other viewpoints. ● Use position as a lens to gather, sort, and rank evidence. ● Choose strongest argument and make a plan intro, evidence, and conclusion. ● Strong introduction that: o Hooks reader o Provides context o Name position clearly o Orient reader to overall argument ● Angle evidence explaining how it supports the point of view you want. Start Writing! We will be publishing in a few days... Partner Review Read what your partner has. Where is evidence needed? Guide to Citing References Use this guide, that I’ll pass you, to use APA style to give credit where credit is due. Keep these with you! Effective Intros Read yours to a partner. What is working? Quotes in Introduction One strategy is to use a quote in your intro to help the audience understand some of the debate taking place. Weave a quote or two into your introductions to see if it works. Add this strategy to your intro notes. suggests reveals indicates portrays states demonstrates illustrates makes clear argues proves Verbs to describe importance/relevance of quote. Quotes Set up the source, tell a little bit of background that angles it, quote important lines of phrases. According to Guy Martin, a journalist for The New Yorker, high school kids playing Killer will travel extensively for the game, and he suggest that this travel shows initiative. For examplel, martin reveals that “Protell took a car to Newark airport.” Earlier in the arciale, Martin noted that “Protell, a freshman, distinguished himself” (2009, 27). HW First two pages of most current draft done. Write long about a quote. Explain it, analyze it, how can it help you? Day 4 Connotative Language Painting a tone Using words to create tone The kids from St. Ann’s move across the five boroughs and beyond as they play this game. Some kids travel as far as Connecticut, other kids to New Jersey. They gather information from other kids, they get parents to help, they involve cab drivers; these kids take this game seriously. Improved version w/ toned words The subversive kids from St. Ann’s range across the five boroughs and beyond like wolves as they play this pack game. Some privileged kids travel as far as Connecticut, other well heeled kids ot New Jersey. They gossip with other kids, they coerce parents to help, they bribe cab drivers; these kids take this ferocious game seriously. Your turn to practice Add words, remove words, use a thesaurus to find synonyms. Adjectives, verbs, and/or comparisons. Metaphors/Similes Take the above basic paragraph and create an admiring tone. Admiring tone The innovative kids from St. Ann’s move courageously across the five boroughs and beyond as they play this ambitious game. Some daring kids travel as far as Connecticut, other brave kids to New Jersey. They collaborate ingeniously with other kids, they generously involve parents, they befriend neighborhood cab drivers; these kids take this inventive and determined kids take this groundbreaking game seriously. Your turn to do. Work with a current draft to add connotative language. Set the tone for your piece With your partner, set a plan for your work. What is your tone? Optical Illusion/Metaphor Arguments viewed in different ways depending on perspective. What do you see? Painting a Tone w/ Language The young men who opened fire at Columbine H.S., at the movie theater in Aurora Colo and in other massacres had this in common; they were video gamers who seemed to be acting out some dark digital fantasy. It was as if all that exposure to computerized violence gave them the idea to go on a rampage-or at least fueled their urges. Use evidence against itself sometimes Opponents of violent games often try to demonize the games themselves, making the case that it’s the games, not the players, that cause the trouble. These opponents often pepper their arguments with strong language to evoke certain emotions in their audience. For example, Benedict Carey of The New York Times, in his article “Shooting in the Dark,” chooses words such as massacres, dark digital fantasy, and rampage to describe the video games played by the Columbine shooters. His word choices connotate a world of evil and violence to sway his audience against video games. It’s as if Carey is trying to imply that the games themselves are responsible for the real world violence. However what Carey fails to recognize is that it is the players, not the games, that cause violence in the real world.”? Watch/listen to arguments. Commercials, news, online videos, family members. Notice how strong words can evoke emotions. Continue/start writing, drafting, revising your paper. It’s due in just a few days! Homework Day 5 Powerful Conclusions Powerful Conclusions Notes ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Restate the claim Leave readers thinking Show how claim affects your own life Suggest further way of acting/thinking Show how position has shifted Demonstrate fairness to other viewpoints Describe significance of your argument Additional insight, implications, questions, challenges With money, comes a great deal of selfishness. Some people think that money leads to bliss, and that bliss will ultimately lead to greater altruism and concern for the common good. However, the vast majority of people who fall upon great wealth tend to behave in increasingly selfish ways. There are those in the wealthiest tier of society who are known as altruistic. People such as Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett give copious amounts of money to charities. However, these billionaires make sure to take care of themselves first. They live self-centered lives of greedy wealth, despite so many who are living in poverty. These examples show that money leads to selfishness. Example from high schooler. Thomas is his name. Thomas’s Conclusion Working well Tips Thomas’s Conclusion Working well ● Restate claim ● Connects claim to others’ lives ● Uses strong words to evoke feelings Tips ● Could suggest call to action ● Could say who really needs to hear this argument ● Could end with a final thought or reflection Your Conclusion? ● Partner up ● T-Chart your partner ● Looking at conclusion notes, which strategy do you want to use/include? ● Work time. Working well Tips T-Chart intro, evidence, conclusion w/ partner Preparing for Final Edit/HW 1. File saved using your last name. 2. Text is Times New Roman/12 point. 3. Double space lines. 4. Indent paragraphs. 5. Class, Name, Paper, Date a. Top right corner. 6. Start writing/words four lines from top. Day 6 Ready to Publish? Convention Check Time to Polish ● ● ● ● Academic spelling, capitalization, ending punctuation. Spell/Grammar check, read all the way through to identify/fix problems. Double check citations/references. Double spaced, Times New Roman, 12pt font, 1-inch margins, paragraph indent. ● Read whole thing out loud to partner, checking for/fixing long confusing sentences or adding transitions/missing words. Transitions/Citations ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● One reason that… Another important reason… Surprisingly… It turns out that… This is significant because… Evgen more importantly… Of even greater significance… An example of this is.... To the point that… Supporting the point that... Work on drafts These are due tomorrow! Day 7 How to unleash your speech Inspirational speech Cory Booker Learn from the master. Jot notes about what he’s doing well. Tips for Rehearsing Speeches ● ● ● ● markup speech slow down eye contact breath between paragraphs ● tone of voice ● stand tall ● move around ● gestures to emphasize points ● change volume depending on point 1. Annotate text w/ notes, underlines, circles, numbers, stars, etc. 2. Pick a tip/technique and apply to a section/paragraph. 3. Practice speaking w/ partner. Preparation/Practice Example speech Regardless of whether or not one enjoys games that have violence in them, the time has come to admit that they can be damaging. The world we live in today has too much violence in it. In the time of Trevon Martin...of Columbine…, acting as if any shooting can be just a game, is irresponsible. It’s irresponsible to teach teens that when you shoot...someone, they get back up. It’s irresponsible to teach them that it’s okay to play at something that people face for real. it would be better to give kids real guns and set them out hunting their own food than to teach them that guns are playthings that don’t really hurt anyone. Did you notice anything good? Try this out..(handout) ● Partner 1: choose a technique, prepare ● Partner 2: choose a different technique, prepare. ● Partner 1: Go! ● Partner 2: Go! Speech Practice/Prep Go ahead and begin practicing your own speech using your research paper. Annotate the written copy of your speech, identify techniques you want to try, and do it! Focus on eye contact, slowing down, and emphasizing your major points/arguments. Come prepared to deliver a speech publically to the class or show a TED Talk style video of your speech. You must also bring two copies of your position paper. 1. Final perfect copy 2. Annotated draft used for speech HW Day 8 Time to celebrate! Groups of 4 ● Take turns giving your speeches or playing your videos. ● Be prepared to turn in a copy of your final paper and an annotated rough draft after you present your speech. GAME OVER Well done!