Take out a piece of paper
Name the Seven Dwarves
 Was
the exercise easy or difficult?
It depends on certain circumstantial factors:
•Whether you like Disney movies
•How long ago you watched the movie
•How loud the people are around you when
you are trying to remember
Memory
The Phenomenon of Memory



What is memory? What role does it play in the lives of
humans?
Luis Bunuel, Spanish filmmaker, said, “Memory is
what makes our lives … Without it, we are nothing.”
The Roman statesman Cicero once said: “Memory is
the treasury and guardian of all things.”

To a psychologist, Memory is any indication that
learning has persisted over time. Memory is our ability
to store and retrieve information.

Our capacity for remembering the many voices,
sounds, and songs, flavors, smells, textures, faces,
sights, and events, general knowledge, and procedures
is amazing!!
Your Memory…
Your memory ability is most apparent in your recall of unique
and/or highly emotional moments in your past.
– For example: a vivid memory of a car accident; your first romantic
kiss; your context when you heard some tragic news
When forming memories you must select, process, store, and
retrieve information.
Even more, to understand what you remember and HOW, we
must know how information is encoded.
Encoding, storage, and retrieval are the three aspects of
memory process.
Encoding
The processing of information into the
memory system.
Typing info into a computer
Getting a girls name at a party
Storage
The retention of encoded material
over time.
Pressing Ctrl S and
saving the info.
Trying to remember her name
when you leave the party.
Retrieval
The process of getting the information
out of memory storage.
Finding your document
and opening it up.
Seeing her the next day
and calling her the wrong
name (retrieval failure).
Turn your paper over
Now pick pick out the
seven dwarves
Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy
Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy
Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful
Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop
Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach
Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy
Stubby Poopy
Seven Dwarves
Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory
exercise?
Recall vs. Recognition
 With recall- you must retrieve the
information from your memory (fill-in-the
blank tests).
 With recognition- you must identify the
target from possible targets (multiplechoice tests).
 Which is easier?
Memory … (of course)
 To remember any event requires that we get information
into our brains (encoding), retain that information
(storage), and later get it back out (retrieval).
 A computer encodes, stores, and retrieves too. First, it
translates input (keystrokes) into an electronic language,
much like the brain encodes sensory information into a
neural language.
 Next, the computer stores vast amounts of information on
a disk, from which it can later be retrieved.
 Our memories are less literal and more fragile than a
computer’s. The computer is faster in processing
information.
Memory … once again …

First: Acquisition (to remember you must acquire)





During acquisition, the relevant experience(s) leave some
record or mark in the nervous system – called Memory
Trace
Second: Storage (storing information like a
squirrel’s storing nuts in its many niches)
Third: Retrieval (“trying to remember” – dredge
particular memory trace)
Therefore, it is clear that there can not be any
remembering without prior acquisition (learning).
Memory is the process by which we recollect prior
experiences and information and skills learned in
the past
Memory … once again …


There are different types of memory.
Memory can be categorized according to kinds of
information it stores:




Events (experiences)
General Knowledge
Skills (physical abilities)
These three types are called: Episodic, Generic,
and Procedural
Episodic Memory


Memory of specific events
Memories of things that happen or
experiences


Example: what you ate for dinner last dinner
or taking a quiz last Friday.
Some episodic memories are very
surprising, significant, or traumatic  we
tend to recall these events in great details.
These are called:
Flashbulb memories
Flashbulb Memory




Where were you
when?
1. You heard about
9/11
2. You heard about
the death of a family
member
3. You heard about
the Tsunami Disaster
Generic Memory


General knowledge. For example: we
“remember” that Thomas Jefferson was
the _______ president of the United
States.
Unlike Episodic memory, with Generic
memories we do not usually remember
when we acquire that information.
Procedural Memory

It consists of skills or procedures you have
learned.


Example: riding a bike, skipping rope,
swimming, etc.
Once such a skill has been learned it usually
stays with you for many years. Even if you
do not use it, you are unlikely to forget the
procedure.
How does our brain store longterm memories?

Memories do NOT reside in single specific
spots of our brain.
•They are not electrical (if the electrical activity
were to shut down in your brain, then restartyou would NOT start with a blank slate).
Sensory Memory
The immediate, initial recording of sensory
information in the memory system
Stored just for an instant, and most gets
unprocessed
Examples:
•You lose concentration in class during a lecture. Suddenly you hear a significant
word and return your focus to the lecture. You should be able to remember what
was said just before the key word since it is in your sensory register.
•Your ability to see motion can be attributed to sensory memory. An image
previously seen must be stored long enough to compare to the new image. Visual
processing in the brain works like watching a cartoon -- you see one frame at a
time.
•If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the words at the
beginning of a sentence in order to understand the sentence as a whole. These
words are held in a relatively unprocessed sensory memory.
Short-Term Memory
Memory that holds a few items briefly
Seven digits (plus or minus two)
The info. will be stored into long-term or
forgotten
How do you store things from short-term to long-term?
Rehearsal
You must repeat things over
and over to put them into
your long-term memory.
Working Memory
(Modern day STM)
Another way of describing the use of
short-term memory is called working
memory.
Working-Memory has three parts:
1.
2.
3.
Audio
Visual
Integration of audio and visual (controls
where you attention lies)
Long-Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless
storehouse of the memory system.
Review the three stage process of
Memory
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
The current theory of how our long-term
memory works.
•Memory has a neural basis.
•LTP is an increase in a synapse’s firing
potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
In other words, if you are trying to remember a phone
number, the neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the
synapse. The neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and
essentially learns to fire in that distinct way. It is a form of
rehearsal (but for our neurons).
Stress and Memory
Stress can lead to
the release of
hormones that
have been shown
to assist in LTM.
Similar to the idea
of Flashbulb
Memory.
Types of LTM
The Hippocampus
Damage to the
hippocampus disrupts
our memory.
Left = Verbal
Right = Visual and
Locations
The hippocampus is
like the librarian for
the library which is
our brain.
Memory is a process of encoding, storage,
and retrieval.
There are two theoretical approaches that explain
memory.
The first is called: Stage Theory – emphasizes a systematic
process of memory of WHERE an item goes and HOW it
is transferred and stored.
There are three stages to memory:
Sensory Memory  Short-term Memory  Long-term
Memory
The second is called: The Organizational View – emphasizes
HOW memories are processed and organized in the
brain.
Stage Theory of Memory


Three stages of memory storage that differ in function,
capacity and duration
Control processes - control movement of information
within and between memory stores
Maintenance Rehearsal
Sensory
Input
Sensory
Memory
Attention
Encoding
Working or
Long-term
Short-term
memory
Memory Retrieval
Sensory Memory Store
*
Sensory Memory is the first stage and it consists of
the immediate, initial recording of information that
enters through our senses.
*Capacity – Large (can hold many items at once)
* Divided into two subtypes:

Iconic memory – Momentary sensory
memory of visual stimuli (like photographic
snapshots of sensory images).
 Echoic memory – Momentary sensory
memory of auditory stimuli (mental traces of
sounds, echoes).
*Duration - .3 sec for visual info & 2 sec for
auditory info
Short-term (Working) Memory
Function - conscious processing of information
– where information is actively worked on
Capacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items)
Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds)
Code - often based on sound or speech even with
visual inputs
Sensory
Input
Attention
Sensory
Memory
Working or
Short-term
Memory
Long-term Memory
The final stage in the processing of memories.
This is where information is stored permanently
after adequate rehearsal.
If you want to remember something more than
just briefly you have to take certain steps to
store it in your PERMANENT storage place.
Rehearsal/Practice
– Maintenance Rehearsal – simple repetition
– Elaborative Rehearsal – deep processing of material
Retrieval
Long-Term Memory
Once information passes from sensory
to working memory, it can be encoded
into long-term memory
Maintenance Rehearsal
Sensory
Input
Sensory
Memory
Attention
Encoding
Working or
Long-term
Short-term
memory
Memory Retrieval
Long-Term Memory
Function - organizes and stores information
– more passive form of storage than working
memory
Unlimited capacity
Duration - thought by some to be permanent
Maintenance Rehearsal
Sensory
Input
Attention
Sensory
Memory
Encoding
Working or
Long-term
Short-term
memory
Memory Retrieval
Long-Term Memory
Encoding - process that controls movement
from working to long-term memory store
Retrieval - process that controls flow of
information from long-term to working
memory store
Maintenance Rehearsal
Sensory
Input
Sensory
Memory
Attention
Encoding
Working or
Long-term
Short-term
memory
Memory Retrieval
Encoding :
Getting the information in our heads!!!!
Two ways to encode information
Automatic Processing
Effortful Processing
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental information.
You encode space, time and word meaning
without effort.
Things can become automatic with practice.
For example, if I tell you that you are a jerk, you
will encode the meaning of what I am saying to
you without any effort.
Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention and
conscious effort.
Rehearsal is the most common effortful
processing technique.
Through enough rehearsal, what was
effortful becomes automatic.
Things to remember about
Encoding
1. The next-In-Line effect: we seldom
remember what the person has just said
or done if we are next.
2. Information minutes before sleep is
seldom remembered; in the hour before
sleep, well remembered.
3. Taped info played while asleep is
registered by ears, but we do not
remember it.
Spacing Effect
We encode
better when we
study or practice
over time.
DO NOT
CRAM!!!!!
Take out a piece of paper and….
List the U.S. Presidents
The Presidents
Washington
J.Adams
Jefferson
Madison
Monroe
JQ Adams
Jackson
Van Buren
Harrison
Tyler
Polk
Taylor
Fillmore
Pierce
Buchanan
Lincoln
A.Johnson
Grant
Hayes
Garfield
Arthur
Cleveland
Harrison
Cleveland
McKinley
T.Roosevelt
Taft
Wilson
Harding
Coolidge
Hoover
FD.Roosevelt
Truman
Eisenhower
Kennedy
L.Johnson
Nixon
Ford
Carter
Reagan
Bush
Clinton
Bush Jr.
Hargrave
Serial Positioning Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last
and first items in a list.
Presidents
Recalled
If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it
would probably look something like this.
Primacy and Recency Effects
Primacy and Recency effects: when we try to
remember a series of information, our
memories of the first and last bits of info. tends
to be sharpest. This primacy (first) and recency
(last) effects.
Types of Encoding
Semantic Encoding: the
encoding of meaning, like the
meaning of words
•Acoustic Encoding: the encoding
of sound, especially the sounds of
words.
•Visual Encoding: the encoding of
picture images.
Which type works best?
Self-Reference Effect
An example of how
we encode meaning
very well.
The idea that we
remember things (like
adjectives) when they
are used to describe
ourselves.
Tricks to Encode
Use imagery: mental pictures
Mnemonic Devices - Memory aids using
imagery and organizational devices.
"Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."
Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
*** Peg-word System
*** Method of Loci
Give me some more examples….
Chunking
Organizing items
into familiar,
manageable units
Often it will occur
automatically
1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1
Do these numbers mean anything to you?
1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 how about now?
Chunk- from Goonies
Retrieval
How do we recall the information
we thought we remembered?
Let’s Jog Our Memory!!!!!!!
Recall versus
Recognition
I probably cannot recall the
Smurfs, but can I recognize them?
Lazy Smurf or Lethargic Smurf
Papa Smurf or Daddy Smurf
Handy Smurf or Practical Smurf
Brainy Smurf or Intellectual Smurf
Clumsy Smurf or Inept Smurf
Retrieval Cues
 Things
that help us
remember
•We often use a process
called priming (the
activation of
associations in our
memory) to help us
retrieve information.
PRIMING EFFECT
 Priming
effect occurs when people
respond faster or better to an item if a
similar item preceded it.
•For the most part, the priming effect is
considered involuntary and is most likely an
unconscious phenomenon.
Repetition Priming
Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is
easier (quicker) to recognize a face or word if you
have recently seen that same face or word.
Semantic Priming
Semantic priming refers to the fact that it is
easier (quicker) to recognize someone or word
if you have just seen someone or a word closely
associated.
Context Effects
 It
helps to put yourself
back in the same context
you experienced
(encoded) something.
 If you study on your
favorite chair at home,
you will probably score
higher if you also take the
test on the chair.
Rest
Snore
Sound
Tired
Bed
Comfort
Awake
Eat
Wake
Dream
Slumber
Night
Last
Déjà Vu
 That
eerie sense that you
have experienced
something before
 What is occurring is that
the current situation cues
past experiences that are
Is déjà vu really a
glitch in the Matrix? very similar to the present
one- your mind gets
confused.
Mood-Congruent Memory
 The
tendency to recall experiences that
are consistent with one's current good or
bad mood.
 If you are depressed, you will more likely
recall sad memories from you past.
 Moods also effect that way you interpret
other peoples’ behavior
Forgetting Theories



Encoding failure
Role of time
Interference theories
Forgetting as Encoding Failure

Information never encoded into LTM
X
Forgetting as Retrieval Failure


Not all forgetting is due to encoding failures
Sometimes information IS encoded into LTM, but
we can’t retrieve it
X
Role of Time : Decay Theory




Memories fade away or
decay gradually if unused
Time plays critical role
Ability to retrieve info
declines with time after
original encoding
Problem: Many things
change with time.
Something else may
change and actually cause
forgetting: Interference
Interference Theories




“Memories interfering with memories”
Forgetting NOT caused by mere passage of time
Caused by one memory competing with or
replacing another memory
Two types of interference
Two Types of Interference
Typ es of in terferen c e
R etroac tive
In terferen c e
P roac tive
In terferen c e
Retroactive Interference

When a NEW memory interferes with
remembering OLD information

Example: When new phone number interferes with
ability to remember old phone number
Example: Learning a new language interferes with ability to remember
old language
Types of Retrieval Failure
Retroactive
Interference
 The disruptive effect of
new learning on the
recall of old
information.
When you finally remember
this years’ locker combination,
you forget last years’.
Proactive Interference


Opposite of retroactive interference
When an OLD memory interferes with
remembering NEW information
Example: Previously learned language interferes with ability to remember
newly learned language
Types of Retrieval Failure
Proactive
Interference
 The disruptive
effect of prior
learning on the
recall of new
information.
If you call your new girlfriend
your old girlfriend’s name.
Motivated Forgetting

We sometimes revise our own histories
Honey, I did stick to my diet today!!!!!!
Motivated Forgetting
Why does is exist?
One explanation is
REPRESSION:
 in psychoanalytic
theory, the basic
defense mechanism
that banishes anxietyarousing thoughts,
feelings and memories
from consciousness.
Forgetting
Memory Construction


We sometimes alter
our memories as we
encode or retrieve
them.
Your expectations,
schemas,
environment may
alter your memories.
Misinformation Effect

Incorporating misleading information into
one’s memory of an event
My parents told me for years I
met Frank Sinatra.
I have the memory- but it never
happened!!!
Source Amnesia
(Source Attribution)

Attributing to the
wrong source an
event we have
experienced,
heard about,
read about or
imagined
Amnesia
•
•
Amnesia: is a severe memory loss caused
by brain injury, shock, fatigue, illness, or
repression.
Types of amnesia:



Childhood Amnesia (Infantile Amnesia)
Anterograde Amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia
Improving Memory
Drill and Practice – repetition is one effective
way to transfer information from sensory
information to short-term memory and then to
long-term memory.
Mechanical Rehearsal and Elaborative
Rehearsal
Minimize interference
Making connections to prior
knowledge/information
Form unusual associations – humorous or
odd connections
Use mnemonic devices – systems for
remembering information
Activate retrieval cues – mentally recreate
situations and moods
Forgetting and Memory Improvement
Forgetting: is the failure to recognize or recall
information that had been learned previously.
–
Forgetting sometimes involves decay – the fading away of a
memory.
Recognition: the easiest memory task, is to simply
identify objects/events/bits of info previously learned
or encountered.
Example: matching quiz
Recall: is more difficult than recognition. It is the
reconstruction of learned information in the mind.
Example: short answer quiz
Relearning: is to learn again something that once was
learned but has been forgotten.
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Memory - Santa Ana Unified School District