LITERATURE
Terminology
What is Poetry?
•A
type
of
literature
that
expresses
ideas,
feelings,
or
tells
a
story
in a specific
form
(usually
using
lines and stanzas)
Point of View in Poetry
Poet
The poet is the writer of the poem.
Speaker/Persona
The speaker of the poem is the
narrator. When the poet creates a
character to be the speaker, that
character is called the persona. The
poet imagines what it is like to
enter someone else's personality.
Example:
Robert
Browning's
My
Last
Poetry Form
Form
The appearance of the words on
the page
Line
A group of words together
one line of the poem
Stanza
A
group
of
lines
on
arranged
Kinds of Stanzas
Couplet
=
a two line stanza
Triplet (Tercet)
=
a
three
line stanza
Quatrain
=
a four line
stanza
Quintet
=
a
five
line
stanza
Sestet (Sextet)
=
a
six
line stanza
Poetry Form
Couplet
A couplet is a pair of lines of
verse
that
form
a
unit.
Most
couplets rhyme aa, but this is not
a requirement.
aa bb cc dd ee ff... etc.
Example:
I THINK that I shall never see
a
A
poem
as
lovely
as
a
tree.
Poetry Form
Sonnet
The term sonnet is derived from the
Provençal
word
sonet
and
the
Italian word sonetto, both meaning
little song.
By the thirteenth century, it had
come to signify a poem of fourteen
lines
following
a
strict
rhyme
scheme and logical structure.
Poetry Form
Petrarchan/Italian Sonnet
In its original form, the Italian
sonnet was divided into an octave
followed by a sestet.
The octave stated a proposition and
the sestet stated its solution with
a clear break between the two.
Poetry Form
Petrarchan/Italian Sonnet
The octave rhymes a-b-b-a, a-b-b-a.
For
the
sestet
there
were
two
different possibilities, c-d-e-c-d-e
and c-d-c-c-d-c.
In time, other variants on
rhyming scheme were introduced.
this
Typically, the ninth line created a
"turn" or volta, which signaled the
change in the topic or tone of the
Poetry Form
Shakespearean Sonnet
The form consists of three quatrains
and a couplet. The couplet generally
introduced
an
unexpected
sharp
thematic or imagistic "turn".
The usual rhyme scheme was a-b-a-b,
c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g.
Example: Sonnet 116
Poetry Form
Villanelle
• It is 19 lines long, but only uses
two rhymes, while also repeating
two lines throughout the poem.
• The
first
five
stanzas
are
triplets, and the last stanza is a
quatrain such that the rhyme scheme
is as follows: "aba aba aba aba aba
abaa."
Poetry Form
Villanelle
• The tricky part is that the 1st and
3rd lines from the first stanza are
alternately repeated such that the
1st line becomes the last line in
the second stanza, and the 3rd line
becomes the last line in the third
stanza.
• The last two lines of the poem are
lines 1 and 3 respectively, making
a rhymed couplet.
Poetry Form
Ballad
A poem that tells a story similar to
a folk tale or legend and often has
a repeated refrain.
Cinquain
A cinquain has five lines.
Elegy
A sad and thoughtful poem lamenting
the death of a person.
Poetry Form
Epic
A long, serious poem that tells the
story of a heroic figure.
Lyric
A short poem usually written
first person point of view
in
expresses an emotion or an idea or
describes a scene. Does not tell a
story.
Poetry Form
Pastoral
A poem that depicts rural life in a
peaceful, idealized way for example
of shepherds or country life.
Ode
A lyric poem, typically addressed to
a particular person or a thing,
usually of a serious or meditative
nature and having an elevated style
About Poetry
Poetry utilizes a broad range of
figurative language, imagery, and
symbolism—all devices requiring that
the
reader
infer
an
unstated
meaning.
We talk of the language as being
"poetic" when it draws heavily on
either indirect expression of ideas
through
imagery,
symbolism,
or
figurative language or it draws
heavily on the sound (whether rhythm
Rhyme Scheme
Couplet
A couplet is a pair of lines of verse
that form a unit. Most couplets
rhyme
aa, but this is not a
requirement.
aa bb cc dd ee ff... etc.
Example:
I THINK that I shall never see
a
A
poem
as
lovely
as
a
tree.
Poetic Devices
• Rhyme
• Similes
• Rhyme Schemes
• Metaphors
• Rhythm
• Hyperbole
• Meter
• Litotes
• Line Length
• Idioms
• Onomatopoeia
• Personification
• Alliteration
• Allusions
• Consonance
• Symbolism
• Assonance
• Imagery
• Refrain
• Diction
Sounds in Poetry
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rhyme
Rhyme Scheme
Rhythm
Meter
Free Verse
Blank Verse
Onomatopoeia
•
•
•
•
•
•
Alliteration
Consonance
Assonance
Refrain
Euphony
Cacophony
Rhyme
• A rhyme is a repetition of
similar sounds in two or more
words.
• Rhyme helps to unify a poem;
it also repeats a sound that
links one concept to another,
thus helping to determine the
structure of a poem.
• When
two
subsequent
lines
Rhyme
• A rhyme is a repetition of
similar sounds in two or more
words.
• Rhyme helps to unify a poem;
it also repeats a sound that
links one concept to another,
thus helping to determine the
structure of a poem.
• When
two
subsequent
lines
Rhyme: Types
End Rhymes
A word at the end of one line
rhymes with a word at the end of
another line
Whose woods these are I think I
know.
His
house
though;
is
in
the
village
He will not see me stopping here
Rhyme: Types
Perfect Rhymes
A perfect rhyme — also called a
full rhyme or true rhyme — is
when the later part of the word
or phrase is identical sounding
to another.
– The vowel sound in both words
are identical. — e.g. "sky" and
high“
Rhyme: Types
Perfect Rhymes
Perfect rhymes can be classified
according
to
the
number
of
syllables included in the rhyme.
•masculine: a rhyme in which the
stress is on the final syllable
of the words. (rhyme, sublime)
•feminine: a rhyme in which the
stress is on the penultimate
Rhyme: Types
Internal Rhymes
Internal rhyme, or middle rhyme,
is rhyme which occurs within a
single line of verse.
The grains beyond age,
veins of her mother
the
dark
-Dylan Thomas
Once upon a midnight dreary, while
I pondered weak and weary.
Rhyme: Types
Imperfect/Half Rhymes
Occurs when words sound very
similar but do not correspond in
sound exactly.
The final consonants of stressed
syllables agree but the vowel
sounds do not match; thus a form
of consonance.
frowned and friend, hall and hell.
Rhyme: Uses
• Half-rhymes allow a poet a
more subtle range of rhyming
effects,
especially
when
combined with other rhyming
schemes, and help to avoid the
sing-song
chiming
of
full
rhymes.
• Moreover,
half-rhymes
can
introduce a slight note of
discord (a lack of complete
Rhyme Scheme
• A rhyme scheme is the pattern
of rhyme.
• Usually referred to by
letters
to
indicate
lines rhyme.
using
which
• For
example
"A,B,A,B,"
indicates a four-line stanza
in which the first and third
lines rhyme, as do the second
Rhyme Scheme
• Here is an example of this
rhyme scheme from To Anthea,
Who May Command Him Any Thing
by Robert Herrick:
Bid me to weep, and I will weep
A
While I have eyes to see;
B
And having none, and yet I will
keep
A
Rhythm
• Rhythm is a musical quality
produced by the repetition of
stressed
and
unstressed
syllables.
• The beat created by the sounds
of the words in a poem.
• Rhythm
meter,
line
can
be
created
by
rhyme,
alliteration,
length
and
Rhythm: Example
O CAPTAIN! my Captain! our fearful trip
is done;
The ship has weather’d every rack, the
prize we sought is won;
The port is near, the bells I hear, the
people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the
vessel grim and daring:
But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain
lies,
Meter
• A pattern of stressed
unstressed syllables.
and
• Meter occurs when the stressed
and unstressed syllables of
the
words
in
a
poem
are
arranged
in
a
repeating
pattern.
• When poets write in meter,
they count out the number of
Meter: Example
The unstressed syllables are
in blue and the stressed
syllables in red.
Shall I comPARE thee TO a
SUMmer’s DAY?
A
pair
stressed
of
unstressed
and
syllables makes up a
Meter
• Some feet in verse and poetry
have
different
stress
patterns.
For example, one type of foot
consists of two unstressed
syllables
followed
by
a
stressed one.
Another type consists of a
stressed one followed by an
Meter
In all, there are five types of
feet.
Iamb (Iambic)
Unstressed
2 Syllables
Trochee (Trochaic)
Stressed
2 Syllables
+
+
Stressed
Unstressed
Spondee (Spondaic)
Stressed + Stressed
2 Syllables
Anapest (Anapestic)
Unstressed + Unstressed +
Stressed
3 Syllables
Dactyl (Dactylic)
Stressed
Unstressed
3 Syllables
+
Unstressed
+
Meter & Symbols
• stressed
syllables
signified by /
are
• unstressed by u
iambic: u /
Eg: Hello
trochaic: / u Eg: Under
spondiac:
// Eg: Baseball
anapestic: u u /
Eg: Understand
dactylic: / u u
Eg: Canopy
Meter & Line Length
The length of lines–and thus
the
meter–can
also
vary.
Following
are
the
types
of
meter
and the1 line
length:
•Monometer
•Pentameter
5
Foot
Feet
•Dimeter
2 Feet
•Hexameter
6 Feet
•Trimeter
3 Feet
•Heptameter
Feet
•Tetrameter
4
•Octameter
7
8
Meter & Line Length
The line contains five feet in
all, as shown below.
1
2
3
4
5
ShallI..|..comPARE..|..theeTO..|..aSUM..|..mer’s DAY?
A foot containing an unstressed
syllable followed by a stressed
syllable (as above) is called
an iamb. Because there are five
Free Verse Poetry
• Unlike metered poetry, free
verse poetry does NOT have any
repeating patterns of stressed
and unstressed syllables.
• Does NOT have rhyme.
• Free verse poetry is
conversational - sounds
someone talking with you.
very
like
• A more modern type of poetry.
Blank Verse Poetry
• Is
any
verse
comprised
of
unrhymed lines all in the same
meter,
usually
iambic
pentameter.
You
stars
nativity,
that
reign'd
at
my
Whose influence hath allotted death
and hell,
Now
draw
up
Faustus
like
a
foggy
mist
Into
entrails
of
yon
labouring
Onomatopoeia
• Is a word that imitates or
suggests the source of the
sound that it describes.
Example:
Merriam
Onomatopoeia
by
Eve
Alliteration
• Consonant sounds repeated
beginnings of words
at
Tyger, tyger burning bright,
In the forest of the night;
What immortal hand or eye
Could name thy fearful symmetry?
In what distant deeps or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
the
Consonance
• Consonance is the repetition
consonant sounds within words.
of
• Consonance
is
very
similar
to
alliteration, but the distinction
between
the
two
lies
in
the
placement of the sounds.
• If the repeated sound is at the
start
of
the
words,
it
is
alliteration. If it is anywhere
else, it is consonance. In most
cases, consonance refers to the end
Assonance
• Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or
lines of poetry.
• Like alliteration, it is the sound
rather than the letter used that is
important.
• (Often creates near rhyme.)
Lake
Fate
Base
Fade
(All share the long “a” sound.)
Example
“Shall ever medicine thee to that
Refrain
• A refrain is a repeated part of a
poem, particularly when it comes
either at the end of a stanza or
between two stanzas.
There lived a lady by the North Sea
shore,
Lay the bent to the bonny broom
Two daughters were the babes she bore.
Fa la la la la la la la la.
As one grew bright as is the sun,
Lay the bent to the bonny broom
So coal black grew the other one.
Euphony
• When the sounds of words in a line
create an effect that is pleasing
to the ear.
• Euphony
is
refers
to
pleasant
spoken sound that is created by
smooth consonants such as "ripple'.
Example:
To Autumn - by John Keats
Season
of
mists
fruitfulness,
and
mellow
Close bosom-friend of the maturing
sun;
Cacophony
• A cacophony is a mix of harsh,
displeasing, hissing or clashing
sounds.
Sometimes
cacophony
is
accidental, and sometimes it is
used intentionally for artistic
effect.
Example:
Jabberwocky
by
Lewis
Carroll
'Twas brillig, and the slithy
toves
Did
gyre
and
gimble
in
the
Figurative Language
• When language is used this way, it
is not intended to be interpreted
literally
or
directly
as
the
meaning is not equivalent to that
of its component words.
• In our daily life, we use phrases
such as “once in a blue moon” and
“15 minutes of fame” which are not
to
be
understood
literally,
although the actual meanings are
derived from what is described.
Figurative Language
• Similes
• Metaphors
• Extended Metaphors
• Hyperbole
• Litotes
• Idioms
• Personification
Simile
Implied
similarity
between
two
things or people being compared,
using ‘like’ or ‘as’.
A Red, Red Rose
- Robert Burns
O My Luve's like a red, red rose,
That's newly sprung in June;
O My Luve's like the melodie
That's sweetly played in tune.
Metaphors
The thing that is described is
referred to as the thing to which it
is being compared.
“All the world’s a stage, and we are
merely players.”
- William Shakespeare
Extended Metaphor
A metaphor that goes several lines
or possible the entire length of a
work.
Example: I Know Why the Caged Bird
Sings - Maya Angelou
Hyperbole
Is an exaggeration used to aid
imagery, usually used in humorous
poems
or
light-hearted
prose.
Hyperbole can make/emphasise a point
in an entertaining way, or it can be
used to make fun of someone or
something.
Example: Shel Silverstein Hyperbole
Poem
Litotes
Understatement
basically
the
opposite of hyperbole.
Often it is
ironic. The speaker's words convey
less emotion than is actually felt.
Example:
The grave's a fine a private place,
But none, I think, do there embrace.
- Andrew Marvell, "To His Coy
Mistress”
"I'm really glad that you have come to
Idioms
• An expression where the literal
meaning of the words is not the
meaning of the expression.
It
means something other than what it
actually says.
Example: Idioms for Idiots
Personification
• This
technique
involves
giving
human traits (qualities, feelings,
actions
or
characteristics)
to
inanimate
objects,
animals
or
natural phenomena.
Example: April Rain Song – Langston
Hughes
Other Poetic Devices
• Allusions
• Symbolism
• Imagery
• Diction
• Denotation
• Connotation
• Euphemisms
• Caesura
• Enjambment
Allusion
• An allusion is the reference to a
figure or event in history or
literature that creates a mental
image in the mind of the reader. It
stimulates ideas, associations, and
extra information in the reader's
mind with only a word or two.
Example:
Arnold
Dover Beach – Matthew
‘Sophocles long ago
Heard it on the A gaean, and it
Symbolism
• When a person, place, thing, or
event that has meaning in itself
also represents, or stands for,
something else.
• Symbolism can take place by having
the theme of a story represented on
a physical level. A simple example
might be the occurrence of a storm
at a critical point, when there is
conflict
or
high
emotions.
Similarly, a transition from day to
Imagery
• The creation of images using words.
Poets
usually
achieve
this
by
invoking comparisons by means of
metaphor or simile or other figures
of speech.
• Use of language that appeals to the
senses. Most images are visual, but
they can also appeal to the senses
of sound, touch, taste, or smell.
• In his famous line from ‘Sonnet 18’
Shakespeare creates an image by
Diction
• Refers to both the choice and the
order of words. Can be split into
vocabulary and syntax. The basic
question to ask about vocabulary is
"Is it simple or complex?" The
question to ask about syntax is "Is
it ordinary or unusual?“
• A work's diction forms one of its
centrally
important
literary
elements, as writers use words to
convey action, reveal character,
Diction: Types
• Formal Diction:
– Words that appear a bit more elegant
or extravagant. Often formal diction
will contain
– words that
syllables).
are
polysyllabic
(many
• Neutral Diction:
– Words that appear ordinary and that
you hear everyday. Contractions are
often used in
– poetry that has neutral diction, as
well as a simpler vocabulary.
Diction: Types
• Informal Diction:
– Words and phrases that are slang
expressions, or the colloquial – the
language of relaxed activities and
friendly conversations.
• A poem that uses slang expressions
can be just as powerful as a poem
that uses a lot of big words.
• Word order matters—sometimes for
clarity of meaning (a solo guitar
Denotation &
Connotation
• Denotation is when you mean what you
say, literally.
• Connotation is created when you mean
something else, something that might
be initially hidden. The connotative
meaning of a word is based on
implication, or shared emotional
association with a word.
• Often there are many words that
denote approximately the same thing,
but their connotations are very
Denotation &
Connotation
Example
Innocent is often associated with a
lack of experience, whereas genuine
is not.
• Connotations are important in poetry
because poets use them to further
develop
or
complicate
a
poem's
meaning.
Denotation &
Connotation
Example
Innocent is often associated with a
lack of experience, whereas genuine
is not.
My Papa’s Waltz – Theodore Roethke
Euphemisms
Euphemism is the substitution of a
soft agreeable expression instead of
one that is harsh or unpleasant. For
example 'pass away' as opposed to
'die'.
Example:
Browning
My
Last
Duchess
by
Robert
Much the same smile? This grew; I gave
commands;
Then
all
smiles
stopped
together.
Caesura
• Is a grammatical pause or break in a
line of poetry (like a question
mark), usually near the middle of
the line.
• A caesura is usually dictated by
sense
or
natural
speech
rhythm
rather than by metrics.
• In poetry scansion*, a caesura is
usually indicated by the symbol //.
• The caesura can also be used for
rhetorical effect, as in "To err is
Caesura
Example:
An
Alexander Pope
Essay
on
Man
by
Know then thyself II, presume
not God to scan;
The proper study of Mankind II
is Man.
Plac'd
middle state,
on
A
being
rudely great:
this
isthmus
darkly
wise,
of
a
and
Enjambment
• A run-on line of poetry in which
logical
and
grammatical
sense
carries over from one line into the
next. An enjambed line differs from
an end-stopped line in which the
grammatical and logical sense is
completed within the line.
• In the opening lines of Robert
Browning's "My Last Duchess," for
example, the first line is endstopped and the second enjambed:
Enjambment
Example:
That's my last Duchess painted
on the wall,
Looking as if she were alive. I
call
That piece a wonder, now....
Descargar

POETRY TERMINOLOGY