The Pacific World Fig. 15-CO (a), p. 402 Table 15-1, p. 404 Fig. 15-1, p. 405 Fig. 15-3a, p. 406 Fig. 15-3b, p. 406 Fig. 15-4, p. 407 Fig. 15-5a, p. 407 Fig. 15-5b, p. 407 Fig. 15-7, p. 408 3 Types of Pacific Islands • Continental – were connected to continents in past (New Guinea, Australia, main islands of Fiji) • High Islands – mostly volcanic (Parts of Tahiti, Hawaii) • Low Islands – coral islands (Tuvalu and Marshall Islands) Aitutaki, Cook Islands Tavarua, Fiji Fig. 15-9, p. 409 Fig. 15-11, p. 412 European Colonization Cook “Discovered:” Tahiti, Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, others. (Click for journal entries) HMS Resolution Colonization brought: • Disease and alcohol • Christianity • Cash Crop Plantations Table 15-2, p. 413 Figure 15-B, p. 414 Island Environmental Issues • Sensitive Ecology: isolation caused evolution of thousands of unique, but fragile species • Invasive Species: introduced species (cats, mongooses, dogs, snakes, rats) devastating local critters • Mining and Atomic Testing • U.S., French, and Australian Military Bases – Nuclear Warships Nauru – devastated by phosphate mining Fig. 15-12, p. 418 Hawaiian Birds – devastated by introduced species and habitat loss Of Hawaii's 88 historic and prehistoric land bird species, 68 percent or 60 species are now extinct. Po’ ouli Bird 1973 - discovered 1974 - added to Endangered Species List December,2004 - last one dies in captivity Some of the many other extinct Hawaiian birds: Bikini Atoll – U.S. Atomic Bomb Test, 1956 Figure 15-D, p. 420 Pacific Island Economies In Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia,poor countries are the majority: • Tourism • Cash crops • Military services and bases • Fish exports • Mineral Exports • Mining and Atomic Testing • Manufacturing (clothing) limited to Fiji and Cook Islands. Pacific Island Economies Australia, New Zealand: • Developed market economies • Services (Finance, Insurance, Media) – especially in Australia • Agriculture (wine, wheat, sheep, cattle, venison, antler felt) – especially important in New Zealand • Tourism in both countries • Mineral Exports in Australia Pacific Island Political Issues Indigenous Rights Fiji – unrest between IndoFijians and Ethnic Fijians • 2004 Coup Hawaii • Demands for land and political power by native Guarding Trial of Coup Leaders, Fiji Hawaiians New Caledonia • Continuing independence efforts against French Rule Bougainville’s (Australian colony) Revolutionary Army (BRA) fought Papua New Guinea between 1988-1998 for independence • 20,000 of 200,000 died in war George Speight SUMMARY • The Pacific World region (often called Oceania) encompasses Australia, New Zealand, and the islands of the mid-Pacific lying mostly between the tropics. Tropical rain forest climates and biomes are most common, but Australia and New Zealand have several temperate climate and biome types. • The Pacific islands are commonly divided into three principal regions: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. • The Pacific World is ethnically complex, having been settled by people with various Asian origins. Polynesia was the last to be populated. Papua New Guinea is the world’s most linguistically diverse country. Christianity is the majority faith in this region. • Although countless islands are scattered across the Pacific Ocean, there are three generally recognized types: continental islands, high islands, and low islands. Continental islands are either continents themselves (such as Australia) or were connected to continents when sea levels were lower (such as New Guinea). Most high islands are volcanic. Low islands are typically made of coral, a material composed of the skeletons and living bodies of small marine organisms that inhabit tropical seas. SUMMARY • The island ecosystems of the Pacific region are typically inhabited by endemic plant and animal species—species found nowhere else in the world. Island species are especially vulnerable to the activities of humankind such as habitat destruction, deliberate hunting, or the introduction of exotic plant and animal species. • Europeans began to visit and colonize the Pacific islands early in their Age of Exploration and brought mainly negative impacts to island societies. However, a steady process of decolonization has accompanied a recent surge of Western interest and investment in the region. • There are ethnic conflicts, related mainly to maldistribution of income, between Malaitans and indigenous Guadalcanalans on the Melanesian island of Guadalcanal, and between indigenous Fijians and Indo-Fijians on Fiji. Interest in securing more income from minerals has pitted the people of New Caledonia against the ruling power, France, and the people of Bougainville against Australian corporate interests in Papua New Guinea. SUMMARY • Aside from a few notable exceptions, the poverty typical of less developed countries prevails throughout most of the Pacific region. • In general, the Pacific islands’ economic picture is one of nonindustrial economies. Typical economic activities include tourism, plantation agriculture, mining, and income derived from activities connected with the military needs of occupying powers. Several countries are profiting from offshore banking and 1-900 telemarketing. • During the 1940s and 1950s, the United States used the Bikini atoll in the Marshall Islands as one of its chief testing grounds for nuclear weapons. Strong negative reaction arose throughout the region in the 1990s as the French resumed underground testing of nuclear weapons on the Mururoa atoll in French Polynesia. That testing has since ceased. The United States relies on the region for testing of its Star Wars missile technology. Many inhabitants of French and American military zones are fearful of the economic impacts that might accompany the withdrawal of military presence. • Some of the low island countries are fearful that global warming might create higher sea levels that will inundate them, and Tuvalu considered legal recourse against the United States and Australia for failing to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.