Designing and Developing
Interactive Multimedia
EDCI 663
Educational Technology
Purdue University
Systems Approach
Preliminary Planning
Initial Steps
A ssess N eed s an d
Id en tify
In stru ction al G oals
A n alyz e
In s tru c tion al Tas k
A n alyze
L earn ers
C on sid er S u itab ility
of M ed iu m
Assess Needs
Begin by determining an instructional
need that you plan to address.
Is there a gap between what learners
should be able to do and what they can
How can you assess the need for
Identify Goals
Educational goals are broad, overall
purposes or plans for instruction.
Example: “Students should understand the
process by which new cells are duplicated
from older cells.”
Identify the general goals you have for
your instructional unit.
Analyze Audience
Audience analysis
Who will your learners be?
What are their characteristics?
Be as specific as you can be in identifying
as many relevant characteristics as you
How can you analyze your audience?
Task Analysis
Instructional task analysis
What content will you need to present?
What content already exists? Can you
modify it? What must be created?
Is certain content prerequisite to other
content? How will you sequence or
otherwise organize your content?
Multimedia Suitability
Is multimedia appropriate?
Does your instructional goal warrant the
use of multimedia?
What will multimedia contribute?
Is the contribution of the multimedia worth
the extra time and expense required to
create it?
Beginning Design
Early Design Steps
G ath er
R esou rces
W rite
P erform an ce
O b jectives
D evelop
A ssessm en t
M easu res
Gather Resources
Resource acquisition is one of the most
important processes in multimedia
development. Assemble your:
Still Images
Organize Resources
In addition to acquiring the resources, it
can be equally important to properly
organize and label them.
Use a consistent naming scheme and
store like items in folders for easy
Educational objectives are specific
statements of what students will be able
to do upon completion of the instruction.
Example: “The student will be able to name
four stages of mitosis and describe the
processes that occur at each stage.”
Writing Objectives
Well-written objectives specify three
component parts, although some parts
may be assumed:
 Performance
 Conditions
 Criteria
Objective Example
Given a diagram of a plant or animal
cell, the student will be able to correctly
label at least seven major cell
organelles or structures.
Write objectives for your own content
that include performance, conditions,
and criteria.
Develop Assessments
As you create your objectives, also
develop means of assessing them, e.g.,
write quiz or review questions.
Developing assessments at the outset
will help you to see where your
objectives may need to be adjusted and
insure that you provide appropriate
Design Steps
P lan U ser In terface
an d
In stru ction al S trateg ies
D evelop F lowch arts
an d S toryb oard s
S elect A u th orin g
E n viron m en t
Plan User Interface
Mimic real-world
Flexibility - provide
multiple ways of
doing things
Provide status cues
Aesthetics – use
clean design and
nice colors
Help – provide help
for users
Instructional Strategies
Identify key mechanisms for promoting
learning, e.g.,
Embedded questions with informative
 Use of structured content presentation,
such as simple to complex build-up
 Use of metaphors
 Elaborative construction activities
Flowcharts and
Flowcharts are used to identify logical
program flow.
Storyboards are used to depict what
program frames will look like.
Authoring Environment
For practical reasons, this step often occurs
earlier but, when possible, it is best to match
the authoring environment to specific project
Programming languages
Multimedia/hypermedia development tools
Authoring systems
Development Steps
C reate
M u ltim ed ia
P rog ram
F orm ative
E valu ation
W rite
S u p p ortin g
M aterial
Create Program
Learner control
Clear organization
Sequencing and
High-quality media
Makes use of
Rapid pacing /
information dense
Clear and simple
Team approach
Formative Evaluation
Throughout the process, evaluate each
step, and use that information make
Formative evaluators should include:
SMEs and peers
Example users
Support Material
As the final program is taking shape,
prepare documentation to support the
Printed matter
Online documentation and help
Implement and
Implement Program
The final step is to actually implement
the program with the intended users. In
the real world, this can involve
significant logistical, maintenance, and
support issues.
Summative Evaluation
As a final step, you should evaluate the
performance of the finished product with
the actual target users. This evaluation
is meant to confirm that the product
does what it is supposed to do.
The End

Planning for Distance Education