Introduction to gin.o.mai
Two Terms to know:
1. Positionally: A reference to one’s position
in relationship to something else.
2. Experientially: A reference to one’s
experience in relationship to something
else.
Review of the
Introduction to The Epistle of James
Author: God
Writer: James (brother of Jesus)
Time Period: ~45-50 A.D.
Written To: Those scattered from Jerusalem.
Review of the
Introduction to The Epistle of James
James deals with one topic which he addresses
through four evidences.
1. True Spirituality:
a. Faith in action.
b. Self-Control.
c. Unselfish, Generous, Impartial, Patient.
d. Submits to God through Prayer.
James teaches what True Spirituality means,
and also teaches the mechanics needed in order
to be “Truly Spiritual.”
Review of pistewV
pistewV
faith
pistewV is a feminine noun which means,
“complete dependency, based on response.”
It identifies a relationship between two or more
objects or persons in which one of the objects or
persons is completely dependent upon the other
for some thing or action. i.e.: Sitting in a chair.
Model of Humanity
Model of Humanity which Christ
showed.
God (The Father)
Initiates
Mankind
Responds
Review:
Human Viewpoint vs. Divine Viewpoint
Human Viewpoint (Sight-based):
A process of thought or manner of thinking
which is based on data perceived and developed by the
human senses within the realms of this human world
system.
Divine Viewpoint (Faith-based):
A process of thought or manner of thinking
which is based upon dependence upon Spiritual Truth
Doctrines of God’s World System.
The Faith-Rest Technique
The Faith-Rest Technique is the act of relying upon
God’s promises and doctrines through faith during
circumstances which are humanly difficult or trying.
This is an ability that believers are to develop and
practice. It requires knowledge of God’s Promises
and application of Bible doctrine.
The Faith-Rest technique allows the believer to rest
in faith upon God because of His promises and
doctrines despite the degree of difficulty of his
circumstances.
Review of peirasmoiV
“peirasmoiV” means, “something which attempts to
learn the nature or character of something through
evaluation.”
In that sense, “test” may be a good summary of the
idea.
The understanding is that of a circumstance which
tests an individual’s resolve, nature, or character in an
attempt to discover what it is made of.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
“Let no one say when he is tempted, ‘I am being
tempted by God;’ for God cannot be tempted by evil,
and He Himself does not tempt anyone.”
James 1.13
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
This transition, as it appears in the English Bibles,
by James from dealing with trial to dealing with
temptation is apparently a mistranslation by the
translators.
However, this “mistranslation” is not necessarily
devoid of applicable meaning. Our task tonight
will be to explain the differences between trial
and temptation through our study of James 1:13
The Dilemma
James 1:12
makarioV
anhr oV upomenei peirasmon
Blessed is the man who perseveres under trial…
James 1:13
legetw mhdeiV
Let no one say
peirazomenoV
when he is tempted…
The Dilemma
peirasmon (from verse 12) is from peirasmoV
which refers to “something which attempts to learn
the character of an object through evaluation.”
peirazomenoV (from verse 13) is from peirazw
which means, “to attempt to learn the character of an
object through evaluation.”
The Dilemma
Both peirasmon and peirazomenoV are relatives
being noun and verb counterparts to their
respective roots.
For example:
The run was good. “Run” is a noun, a thing.
Run for your life. “Run” is a verb, an action.
The Dilemma
peirasmon and peirazomenoV are the noun and verb
forms of the same stem, from which they are
formulated.
Therefore, their definition is only differentiated in
their roles as noun and verb, one being a thing, and
the other being an action.
And yet, the translators decided they were to be
translated by two different words, “trial” (vv. 2-12)
and “temptation” (vv. 13-14).
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
The translators have attempted to identify the
difference between the noun and the verb by
using two different words to do so. Therefore,
we need to understand two things.
1. A trial is the result of temptation.
2. Being tempted by something is a trial.
1. A trial is the result of temptation.
1. Temptation comes from peirazomenoV which
means, “to attempt to learn the character of something
by evaluation.”
2. Through tempting, a trial is encountered.
3. The tempted party therefore finds themselves
within the midst of a trial while they are being
tempted.
James 1:2 identifies there are many different types of
trials, “…when you encounter various trials…”
2. Being tempted by something is a trial.
1. Temptation occurs when one is acted upon
himself, or acts upon another object or person, to
attempt to learn its character through evaluation.
2. Through this act being affected upon the believer,
the believer finds themselves within “something
which is attempting to learn the character of an object
through evaluation.”
3. Temptation is not merely, the enticement to sin; it
innately precludes the testing of the an individual.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
A trial is the situation or thing in which one is
being tempted or evaluated. The tempting is the
infliction of the trial upon the individual.
Remember! There are various types of trials
according to James 1:2.
It is imperative that we understand the difference
in definitions between the noun and verb forms
of these words.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
mhdeiV
peirazomenoV
legetw
“Let no one say when he is tempted…”
The opening phrase of verse 13 is all backwards
in English. Literally it reads,
mhdeiV
peirazomenoV
legetw
“not one being tempted
say…”
The emphasis in the original language is on
mhdeiV (pronounced, “mae-deis”) which means
“not one.”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
mhdeiV
peirazomenoV
“not one being tempted
legetw
say…”
With that emphasis in mind we are able to
understand the severity of James’ statement to
the diaspora.
Thus we understand the importance of what
James is about to teach.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
mhdeiV
peirazomenoV
“not one being tempted
legetw
say…”
James uses a participle to identify his subject as
those who are being acted upon by “something
which is attempting to learn their character through
evaluation.”
The “acted upon” part of that expanded definition
is the result of the passive voice.
Voice in Koine Greek
Voice is used in Koine Greek to express how the subject
operates in relationship to the verb. There are three types of
voice in Koine Greek:
1.
2.
3.
Active Voice – the subject performs the action.
Middle Voice – the subject participates in the action.
Passive Voice – the subject is acted upon by the action.
“peirazomenoV” is in the passive voice. This
identifies the subject as one who “is being acted
upon by something which is attempting to learn its
character through evaluation.”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
mhdeiV
peirazomenoV
“not one being tempted
legetw
say…”
Our subject then, are those who are being “acted
upon by something which is attempting to learn their
character through evaluation.”
Since the subject is built into the verb, we must
examine legetw to understand what the subject is
doing.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
mhdeiV
peirazomenoV
“not one being tempted
legetw
say…”
legetw (pronounced, “leh-geh-toh”), means “to
speak” or “to say.” It emphasizes the verbal
communication of a thought.
It is an imperative active verb in the present
tense.
Mood in Koine Greek
Mood is used in Koine Greek to establish the
atmosphere of an action or state of being. There are
four types of mood in Koine Greek:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Indicative Mood- identifies reality
Optative Mood- identifies desire
Imperative Mood- identifies command
Subjunctive Mood- identifies possibility
“legetw” is in the Imperative Mood.
This identifies it as a command.
Voice in Koine Greek
Voice is used in Koine Greek to express how the subject
operates in relationship to the verb. There are three types
of voice in Koine Greek:
1.
2.
3.
Active Voice – the subject performs the action.
Middle Voice – the subject participates in the action.
Passive Voice – the subject is acted upon by the action.
“legetw” is in the active voice. This
identifies the subject as one who “performs
the action of speaking.”
Tense in Koine Greek
Tense is used to identify the type of action in
Koine Greek more so than the time of action.
There are many tenses and combinations of
tenses.
Simply described, the present tense identifies a
continuous type of action. An action which starts
and then keeps going with no reference made to
when it finishes
legetw is a present tense verb which means,
“continuously speak.”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
mhdeiV
peirazomenoV
“not one being tempted
legetw
say…”
Our understanding of James’ opening statement then
is, “Not one being acted upon by something which is
attempting to learn its character through evaluation
perform the continuous action to speak.”
James is introducing something which he says none
undergoing temptation should speak. His emphasis
is on not a single one speaking the statement he is
introducing.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
Oti apo Qeou
peirazomai
“I am being tempted by God”
Again the English has the order all backwards. It
reads thusly in the original text:
Oti apo
Qeou peirazomai
“That away from God
I am being tempted”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
Oti apo
Qeou
“That away from God
peirazomai
I am being tempted”
Oti (pronounced “ho-tee”) is a conjunction which
connects James’ first statement with his second.
It links the command “no one…say” with the
content of what it is which is not to be said.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
Oti apo
Qeou
“That away from God
peirazomai
I am being tempted”
apo (pronounced, “ah-po”) is a preposition which
literally means, “away from.” It denotes the
source or origin from which something came.
It is coupled with Qeou (pronounced, “The-oo”)
which means, “God.”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
apo
away from
Qeou
God
We get the understanding then that the source or
origin of something is from Qeou, God.
What is that something which came from God?
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
Oti apo
Qeou
“That away from God
peirazomai
I am being tempted”
It is the action of being tempted. peirazomai
(pronounced, “pei-rahdz-oh-mai”) is a verb which
means, “to attempt to learn the character of an object
through evaluation.”
James is saying that no man is to say that God is the
source of the tempting of those being tempted.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
So far, James has said that no one is to say that
the source of their testing is from God.
“Not one being acted upon by something which is
attempting to learn its character through evaluation
perform the continuous action to speak that ‘away
from the source of God I am being acted upon by
something which is attempting to learn the my
character.’”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
As is typical in the original language, the text not
only gives a command, but explains why that
command is valid and able to be carried out.
O gar
QeoV apeiraston estin
kakwn
for
God cannot be tempted by evil
Again the English is a little backwards, and a
little misleading.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
The literal rendering of the text is this:
O
gar QeoV apeiraston estin
the for God untemptable is
kakwn
evil
Koine Greek does an amazing job with
syntactical relationship structure. So while this
doesn’t make sense in English, that’s ok. It wasn’t
designed to be interpreted through English
syntactical structure.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
The literal rendering of the text is this:
O
gar QeoV apeiraston estin
the for God untemptable is
kakwn
evil
However, in order to emphasize the Greek syntax
we must highlight the relationships.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
After grouping the syntactical constructs together
appropriately we have a more understandable
literal understanding:
gar o
QeoV estin apeiraston kakwn
for the God is
untemptable (with) evil
The conjunction gar (pronounced, “gar”) is
causal and therefore denotes the cause behind the
command (Don’t say it because the God is…).
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
o
the
QeoV estin apeiraston kakwn
God is
untemptable (with) evil
The phrase, “o QeoV estin apeiraston”
(pronounced, “ho Theh-os es-tin a-pei-ras-ton”)
literally means, “The God exists being incapable of being
tempted.”
Which makes logical sense. A supreme and
sovereign infinite ruler should not be subject to
anything.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
o
QeoV estin apeiraston kakwn
the God is
untemptable (with) evil
kakwn (pronounced, “kah-kohn”) is not literally
“evil” in the sense of wickedness (which is
ponhroV).
Instead, kakwn refers to something which is
inherently worthless. That is something which
has no value within itself.
Human Viewpoint vs. Divine Viewpoint
“Good” based upon Human Viewpoint:
Defined as something which is “desired or
approved of; that which is pleasant or nice.”
“Good” based upon Divine Viewpoint (agaqoV):
Defined as something which is “valuable or
beneficial within its nature.”
Human Viewpoint vs. Divine Viewpoint
“Bad” based upon Human Viewpoint:
Defined as something which is “undesired or
disapproved of; that which is unpleasant.”
“Bad” based upon Divine Viewpoint (kakoV):
Defined as something which is “inherently
worthless, possessing no beneficial properties
within itself.”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
o
QeoV estin apeiraston kakwn
the God is
untemptable (with) evil
kakwn (pronounced, “kah-kohn”) is from the root
word, kakoV which means, “inherently worthless.”
God is not able to be tempted by anything which
is inherently worthless in its nature.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
peirazai de autoV
oudena
And He himself does not tempt anyone
peirazai (pronounced, “pei-rah-dzai”) is a present
active indicative verb which means, “to attempt to
learn the character of an object through evaluation.”
Its subject is “God” in this grammatical
construction.
Tense in Koine Greek
Tense is used to identify the type of action in Koine
Greek more so than the time of action.
There are many tenses and combinations of tenses.
Simply described, the present tense identifies a
continuous type of action. An action which starts
and then keeps going with no reference made to
when it finishes.
peirazai is a present tense verb which means, “to
continuously attempt to learn the character of something
through evaluation.”
Voice in Koine Greek
Voice is used in Koine Greek to express how the subject
operates in relationship to the verb. There are three types of
voice in Koine Greek:
1.
2.
3.
Active Voice – the subject performs the action.
Middle Voice – the subject participates in the action.
Passive Voice – the subject is acted upon by the action.
“peirazai” is in the active voice. This identifies
the subject (God) as the One who “performs the
action of continuously attempting to learn the
character of something through evaluation.”
Mood in Koine Greek
Mood is used in Koine Greek to establish the
atmosphere of an action or state of being. There are
four types of mood in Koine Greek:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Indicative Mood- identifies reality
Optative Mood- identifies desire
Imperative Mood- identifies command
Subjunctive Mood- identifies possibility
“peirazai” is in the Indicative Mood.
This identifies it as reality.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
Therefore peirazai means, God “really performs
the continuous action to attempt to learn the character
of something through evaluation.”
Yet, peirazai is not the only word in this
sentence. It is affected by de autoV oudena.
de is a conjunction of soft contrast which links
two constructs together which are slightly
different in nature or meaning.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
In this passage, de is connecting the statement that
God is untemptable by inherently worthless things,
to peirazai de autoV oudena.
autoV (pronounced, “au-tos”) is a personal emphatic
pronoun which is used to express emphasis on the
person performing an action.
It means “himself” in this passage and adds emphasis
to the statement such as does the English, “I will do
it myself.”
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
oudena (pronounced, “oo-dehn-ah”) literally means,
“no one.”
It is in the accusative case which identifies it as the
direct object, and therefore, the recipient of the
action of the verb peirazai.
The accusative case also declares boundaries around
an object for the sake of creating specificity about
what is actually receiving the action of the verb.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
oudena comes at the tail end of the construct and
drastically changes the constructs meaning.
When coupled together with its syntactical
colleagues, the last construct of verse 13 reads,
“but He (God) really performs the continuous action
to attempt to learn the character of something through
evaluation Himself to no one.”
In other words, God, Himself, really performs the
continuous action to tempt no one.
Trial vs. Temptation (part 1)
Therefore we are commanded as believers not to
believe that the source of our trials or the source
of tempting is God.
There are two other options which we will
identify before this study on Trials vs.
Temptation is completed. Both of which will be
discussed next session as we study verse 14.
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