Content-area Instruction
and LEP/ELLs:
Ways to enhance instruction
L.I.A.S.C.D. Conference
Melville Marriot
October 17, 2008
Presenters: Terri Brady-Méndez
Valerie Fernández-Pardo
Suffolk BETAC at Eastern Suffolk BOCES
CUP: Common Underlying Proficiency
The Iceberg Analogy
(as developed by Dr. James Cummins,
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education)
Surface Features
of First
Language
Surface Features
of Second
Language
Common Underlying
Proficiency
L2
L1
Second Language Acquisition Process
CUP
(as developed by Dr. James Cummins,
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education)
Basic Interpersonal
Communicative Skills
(BICS)
Cognitive Academic
Language Proficiency
(CALP)
• takes about 2 to 3 years
to develop
• involves “here and now”
learning
• relies heavily on
extralinguistic cues
• depends on contextembedded language
• is cognitively
undemanding
•develops in about 5 to 7
years
•is specific to academic
settings
•relies heavily on linguistic
cues
•requires interpretation of
context-reduced
language
•is cognitively demanding
Cummins’
Model of Language Proficiency
COGNITIVELY UNDEMANDING TASKS
(Relatively Easy)
 Art, Music, PE
 Following oral directions
 Face-to-face conversations
 Viewing exhibits
CONTEXT EMBEDDED
(Many Clues for
Meaning)
 AV Assisted Lessons
 Math Computations
 Science Experiments
 Graphic Organizers
 Telephone conversations
 Reading notes on board
 Following written directions
 Computer tests
CONTEXT REDUCED
(Few Clues for
Meaning)
 Writing compositions
 Reading textbooks/novels
 Explanation of abstract concepts
 Standardized tests
COGNITIVELY DEMANDING TASKS
(Relatively Difficult)
[Adapted from chart developed by D. Parker and M. Calderon for Hawaii Dept. of Education]
L1
L2
CUP
ACADEMIC LANGUAGE
Definition:
Language used in the learning of
academic subject matter in a
formal schooling context;
aspects of language strongly
associated with literacy and
academic achievement,
including specific academic
terms or technical language,
and speech registers related to
each field of study.
Source: TESOL ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students, March 1997
Components of
Academic Language
 Vocabulary
 Grammatical Structures
 Language Functions
Content-compatible Vocabulary
(Tier 2 words)
• Polysemous words: words that sound and are spelled
alike but have different meanings depending on the
context/content area (e.g., consumer in biology and
social studies).
• Compound words: word that result from the
combination of two different words (e.g., offspring,
moonlight)
• Homophones: words that sound the same but are
spelled differently (e.g., genes/jeans).
• Multisyllabic words: words longer than 3 syllables (e.g.,
multisyllabic)
• Word derivations: prefixes or suffixes attached to base
words that alter meaning (e.g., reproduction, preview)
• Cognates: (Spanish/English) words in two or more
languages that may sound or be spelled similarly (e.g.,
classification-clasificación; democracy-democracía)
Content-obligatory Vocabulary
(Tier 3 words)
Definition:
“Words with a usage or word sense
[typically] unique to a specific content
area; e.g., for mathematics,
hypotenuse, trapezoid, quotient,
decimal, digit; for science,
photosynthesis, orbit, stamen, bacteria,
diffusion, osmosis, microscope,
membrane, conifers.”
What might be some words specific to social
studies or technology?
Source: The Language Demands of School: Putting Academic English to the test.
Bailey, A.L., Butler, F.A., Stevens, R. & Lord, C. (2007)
Grammatical Structures
Definition:
“The characteristics of language,
particularly, the structure and
arrangement of works in phrases and
sentences within written discourse – a
sentence, a paragraph, or a longer
portion of language that
communicates ideas or concepts.
Academic language has
grammatical structures and
arrangements that may pose
difficulties for students.”
Source: Project 4.1 Developing Measures of Academic English Language Proficiency.
National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student testing.
Types of Grammatical Structures
• Compound &complex sentences use two
independent or two or more dependent clauses
and special “connector” words.
• Nominalization uses a verb or an adjective as a
noun or noun phrase (e.g., North Pole, global
warming)
• Verb tenses & passive voice
• Multiple prepositional phrases
What kinds of grammatical structures might be
used mostly in Mathematics? In Science? In
Social Studies?
Language Functions
Definition:
“…part of the discourse structure of
language. When looking at a
document…the rhetorical mode or
purpose (e.g., exposition, narration,
persuasion) provides an overall
description of the text. Identification of
language functions (e.g., explanation,
definition, classification) reveals the
mechanism by which the writer or
speaker carries our his/her purpose.”
Source: Project 4.1 Developing Measures of Academic English Language Proficiency.
National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student testing. (2004)
Examples of Language
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identification
Labeling
Enumeration
Classification
Sequencing
Organizing
Definition
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Compare/Contrast
Argumentation
Description
Explanation
Prediction
Inference
Analysis
What kinds of language functions might be used
mostly in Mathematics? In Science? In Social
Studies?
Small & Whole Group
Activity
Analysis of content-area text for:
 Tier 2 and 3 vocabulary
 Grammatical structures
 Language functions
Supporting and observing
content-area teachers
1. Prepare lessons with language and
content objectives in mind
2. Build/scaffold students’ schema/
background
3. Vary techniques to make content
concept and vocabulary clear
4. Model and provide ample
opportunities for students to use
strategies
5. Provide frequent opportunities for
interaction
Adapted by the Suffolk BETAC at Eastern Suffolk BOCES from:
Dobb, Fred (2004). Essential Elements of Effective Science Instruction for English Learners, 2nd edition. California Science Project: Los Angeles, CA.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M.E., Short, D. (2000). Making content comprehensible for English language learners: The SIOP model. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon
Supporting and observing
content-area teachers
6. Practice/Application;
 Use realia and “hands on” materials
7. Lesson Delivery:
 Engage students in 90-100% of the
lesson
8. Review/Assessment
 Provide comprehensive review of
key concepts and vocabulary
 Conduct informal, quick assessments
of comprehension and learning
Adapted by the Suffolk BETAC at Eastern Suffolk BOCES from:
Dobb, Fred (2004). Essential Elements of Effective Science Instruction for English Learners, 2nd edition. California Science Project: Los Angeles, CA.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M.E., Short, D. (2000). Making content comprehensible for English language learners: The SIOP model. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon
Long Island BETACs:
Contact Information
Nassau BOCES BETAC:
Ellie Paiewonsky, Director
Lisa Estrada, Coordinator
Heather Parris-Fitzpatrick, Program Specialist
Tel: (516) 396-2090
Suffolk BETAC at Eastern
Suffolk BOCES:
Terri Brady-Méndez, Director
Valerie Fernández-Pardo, Bilingual Resource Specialist
Christa Stevenson, Bilingual Resource Specialist
Alice Blanch, Bilingual Resource Specialist (P/T)
Tel: (631) 286-6552
Thank you for participating
in our workshop!
Please remember to
complete the Conference
evaluation before you leave
today…
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Content-area Language