CULTURE
THINK LOCALLY, ACT
GLOBALLY
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“NOBODY CAN
THINK GLOBALLY”
Geert Hofstede
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WHEN IN ROME, DO
AS THE ROMANS?
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WHAT IS CULTURE?
• “The Collective Programming of the Mind”
• “A Shared System of Meaning, Ideas, and
Thought”
• “What is Familiar, Recognizable, Habitual”
• National versus Organizational Culture
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DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL
CULTURES
• POWER DISTANCE
• INDIVIDUALISM
• MASCULINITY
• UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
• LONG TERM versus
SHORT TERM
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DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL
CULTURES
• POWER DISTANCE • The degree to which a
society accepts the
idea that power is to
be distributed
unequally.
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DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL
CULTURES
• UNCERTAINTY
AVOIDANCE
• The degree to which a
society feels
threatened by
ambiguous situations
and tries to avoid them
by providing rules and
refusing to tolerate
deviance.
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DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL
CULTURES
• INDIVIDUALISM
• The degree to which a
society believes that
individuals’ beliefs
and actions should be
independent of
collective thought and
action.
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DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL
CULTURES
• MASCULINITY
• The degree to which a
society focuses on
assertiveness, task
achievement and the
acquisition of things
as opposed to the
quality of life.
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DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL
CULTURES
• LONG TERM vs.
SHORT TERM
• The extent to which a
society exhibits a
pragmatic futureoriented perspective
rather than a
conventional historic
or short-term point of
view.
• High = persistence,
ordering
relationships
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by status, thrift,
having a sense of shame.
• Low = personal steadiness and stability,
protecting your “face”, respect for tradition
and reciprocation of greetings, favors and
gifts.
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SCANDINAVIA
POW ER
D IS T A N C E
U N C E R T A IN T Y
A V O ID A N C E
IN D I V ID U A L I S M
M A S C U L IN I T Y
DENM ARK
18
23
74
16
F IN L A N D
33
59
63
26
NORW AY
31
50
69
8
SW EDEN
31
29
71
5
Χ
56
66
44
48
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Uncertainty Avoidance
Index
A Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance plot
Small Power Distance
Weak Uncertainty
Avoidance
JAM
DEN SWE
IRE
Large Power
Distance Weak
SIN Uncertainty
Avoidance
HOK
Masculine
GBR
CANUSA
NZL
NET
NORAUL
SWI
FIN
IND
IDO
SAF
MAL
PHI
EAFWAF
IRA THA EQA
PAK TAI
ARA
GER
AUT
ISR
Small Power
Distance Strong
Uncertainty
Avoidance
Masculine
ITA
BRA VEN
PAN
COS ARG SPA KOR
JAP
GUA
GRE
Power Distance
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Index
Large Power
Distance Strong
Uncertainty
13
Avoidance
Masculine
Uncertainty Avoidance
Index
A Masculinity-Femininity and Uncertainty
Avoidance Plot
Weak Uncertainty
Avoidance
Feminine
JAM
SIN
DEN
SWE
Weak Uncertainty
Avoidance
Masculine
HOK
GBR IRE
MAL
NOR NET
USA
IDO CAN
EAF
NZL
IRA
FIN
SWI
THA
ARA GER
AUT
TAI PAK
EQA
COS KOR BRA
VEN
ITA
YUG
ISR TUR
MEX
Strong Uncertainty
Avoidance
POR
Feminine
URU
BEL
Masculinity
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Index
GRE
JAP
Strong Uncertainty
Avoidance
Masculine
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Individualism-Collectivism
Ind.
Power Distance and Individualism-Collectivism Plot
Small Power Distance
Collectivist
Large Power Distance
Collectivist
PAK
COS
COL
EQA
VEN
TAI
SIN
POR
MEX
GRE
BRA ARA
ARG JAP
IND
AUT ISR
GUA
PAN
PHI
MAL
SPA
FIN
GER
NOR SWI
IRE
DEN
SAF
SWE
NZL NET
FRA
BEL
ITA
CAN
GBR AUL
USA
Small Power Distance
Individualist
Power
Large Power Distance
Individualist
Distance
Index
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BUYING MOTIVES FOR AUTOMOBILES
UAI low
FEM
JAM
DEN
HOK
MAL
GBR
IND
CAN USA
NZL
AUL
SWE
NOR
SAFETY
VALUE
NET
DESIGN
STYLE
FASHION
UAI high
FEM
KOR
FRA
SPA
GUA
POR
SWI
GER
PAK AUT
ITA
BEL
GRE
PDI+
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UAI low
MAS
STATUS:
BIG POWERFUL
FAST
JPN
BIG
TECHNOLOGY
DESIGN
VEN
MEX
PDI+
UAI high
MAS
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THE USE OF STATUS AS AN APPEAL
PDI low
FEM
SWE
NOR
DEN
--
FIN
NET
ISR
CAN
PDI high
FEM
CHL
POR
THA
KOR
SPA
FRA
HIGHBEL&-
GRE
AUL
HOK
USA
ITA
SUCCESS
GBR/GER
SWI
AUT
JPN
PDI low & MAS
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GUA
PAN
POWER
MAL
SIN
MEX
VEN
POWER &
SUCCESS
++
PDI high & MAS
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PDI UAI IDV
PDI +
UAI +
UNIQUE
EGO, SELF ORIENTATION
UNIQUE
EXPLICIT
IMPLICIT
UK, USA, GERMANY
DRAMA
BELGIUM
THEATRE
FRANCE
LECTURE
VISUAL METAPHORS
Direct
accessible
ITALY
SYMBOLS
SINGAPORE
SPAIN
HONG KONG
ENTERTAINMENT
INDIA
CHINA
GROUP
EXPLICIT
COL
JAPAN
GROUP ORIENTATION
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Indirect
inaccessible
GROUP
IMPLICIT
18
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION STYLES & ADVERTISING
1
2
COL/FEM
SIN
THA
EQA
VEN
COL
COL/MAS
PHIMEX
KOR
JPN
CHL
MAL
POR
3
4
SPA
AUT
ISR
NOR
GER
UAI +
SWE
SWI
FRA
BEL
DEN
IRE
NET
NZL
ITA
CAN
GBR
IDV/FEM
IDV/MAS
AUL
USA
COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING
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COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING
• Quadrant 1. Comparison with the
competition is not acceptable because it
makes the other party lose face. Also, it is
considered too aggressive.
• Quadrant 2. In favor of comparative
advertising, but comparison with another
product, not a person (loss of face).
• Quadrant 3. Focus on “rights”, i.e.
comparative advertising gives the consumer
right to choose.
• Quadrant 4. Use soft approach, not
confrontation.
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“SILENT LANGUAGES”
OF CULTURE
•
•
•
•
•
TIME
SPACE
MATERIAL GOODS
FRIENDSHIP
AGREEMENT
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SILENT LANGUAGES
• TIME
• SPACE
• Appointments,
deadlines, scheduling
of people and events.
• Size of office, location
of office, furnishings,
conversation distance.
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SILENT LANGUAGES
• THINGS
• Material possessions,
interest in latest
technology, personal
connections vs.
material symbols of
status, power and
respect.
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SILENT LANGUAGES
• FRIENDSHIP
• AGREEMENTS
• Friends vs. self as
social insurance for
times of stress and
emergency.
• Rules of negotiations
based on laws, moral
practices, or informal
customs.
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TIME ORIENTATION
• MONOCHRONIC
• POLYCHRONIC
• Complete one thing
before starting
something else.
• Time coordinates
relationships.
• Task-Oriented.
• Do several things at
once.
• Involvement of
people.
• People-Oriented.
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ARE YOU LATE?
• Mumble Something Time (Monochronic 5 minutes; Polychronic - 45-60 minutes).
• Slight Apology Time (Monochronic - 10-15
minutes; Polychronic - over one hour).
• Mildly Insulting Time.
• Rude Time.
• Downright Insulting Time.
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CONTEXT
C O N STR U C TS
CODES
ID E N T IT Y
CONCERN
NEED
LOW
H IG H
E X P L IC IT
IM P L IC IT
E M P H A S IS O N
“ I”
SELF
E M P H A S IS O N
“W E ”
OTHER
AUTONOM Y,
D IS S O C IA T IO N
IN C L U S IO N ,
A S S O C IA T IO N
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CONTEXT
C O N STR U C T
STY LE
S PE E C H
STR A TEG Y
LOW
H IG H
CONTROL OR
C O N FR O N T ,
S O L U T IO N
O R IE N T E D
D IR E C T
O B L IG IN G O R
A V O ID A N C E ,
A F F E C T IV E
O R IE N T E D
IN D IR E C T
C O M PE T IT IV E ,
D IR E C T
C O L L A B O R A T IV E ,
IN D IR E C T
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VERBAL COMMUNICATION
STYLES Style
•
•
•
•
•
ISRAELIS
Low-Context
Direct Verbal Style
“Straight Talk”
“I” Talk
Self Face
•
•
•
•
•
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ARABS
High-Context
Indirect Verbal
“Sweet Talk”
“You” Talk
Mutual Face, “Going
Along”
29
LIFESTYLE CATEGORIES
SUR VIV AL
E SC A PE
SE C U R IT Y
ST A T U S
CONTROL
IN D IV ID U A L IT Y
SE L F F U L F IL L M E N T
G ERM AN Y
11
5
46
11
16
10
2
IT A L Y
8
3
40
18
12
13
6
SP A IN
8
7
30
13
17
12
13
FR A N C E
14
9
33
18
7
10
10
D EN M AR K
4
4
32
11
6
15
28
H O LL AN D
7
11
44
19
6
4
9
UK
11
13
40
9
12
7
8

9
7
38
14
11
10
11
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IMPORTANT QUALITIES IN THE
EDUCATION OF CHILDREN
FR A N C E
UK
G ERM AN Y
IT A L Y
H O LL AN D
D EN M AR K
SP A IN
H O N E ST Y
76
79
74
77
79
76
47
TOLERANCE
59
62
42
43
57
58
44
G O O D M AN N ER S
21
68
42
55
59
49
54
R E S PO N SI B IL IT Y
39
24
63
46
55
63
63
PO L IT E N E SS
51
27
29
37
42
51
20
LO Y ALT Y
36
36
22
43
24
24
29
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IMPORTANT QUALITIES IN THE
EDUCATION OF CHILDREN
FR A N C E
UK
G ERM AN Y
IT A L Y
H O LL AN D
D EN M AR K
SP A IN
LO Y ALT Y
36
36
22
43
24
24
29
SE L F -C O N T R O L
30
33
30
20
34
12
37
IN D E PE N D E N C E
16
23
47
23
27
55
24
O B E D IE N C E
18
37
16
27
23
14
30
H ARD W O R K
36
16
27
23
14
30
42
T H R IFT
32
9
31
19
17
15
11
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IMPORTANT QUALITIES IN THE
EDUCATION OF CHILDREN
FR A N C E
UK
G ERM AN Y
IT A L Y
H O LL AN D
D EN M AR K
SP A IN
D E T E R M IN A T IO N
18
17
27
17
16
11
13
R E L IG IO U S
F A IT H
11
14
17
22
14
8
22
U N SE L FI SH N E SS
23
40
4
2
9
23
4
P A T IE N C E
10
16
14
16
15
9
15
IM A G IN A T IO N
12
11
14
8
11
11
24
2
4
32
3
4
2
8
L E A D E R SH I P
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VALUE CHOSEN AS MOST IMPORTANT
Students
V alues
S ense o f
be lo ng ing
Fu n and
enjo ym e nt
USA
P arents
G erm any D enm ark
USA
G erm any D enm ark
2.1
20 .6
6.1
7.0
38.2
24.2
14 .9
6.9
23.0
2.3
0
3.3
8.5
14 .5
12.2
11.6
3.6
9.9
27 .7
13 .7
10.1
9.3
8.2
2.2
7.1
3.1
4.7
2.3
4.5
5.5
1.4
4.6
2.0
0
0
0
S ense o f
acco m p lish m e nt
11 .3
5.3
8.1
9.3
8.2
15.4
S ecurit y
10 .6
5.3
4.1
11.6
18.2
9.9
S e lf-resp ect
16 .3
26 .0
29.7
46.5
19.1
29.7
W arm
re lat io nships
S e lf-fu lfillm e nt
B e ing
w e ll-respected
E xc ite m e nt
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CULTURE - Bar-Ilan University