The Story of English Alan D. DeSantis In The Beginning . . . Indo-European Language • 1) The Start of the Indo-European Language • 2) The Spread of Indo-European Language – By 3500 BC, these IE speakers began to travel. – We get the start of many of the world’s languages – These people spread: 4 Stone Seals The Spread of Indo-European Languages A look at the spread and dominance of the Indo-European Languages The Great Language Tree IndoEuropean Germanic Italic Slavonic Celtic Ancient Greek Indo-Iranian English, German, Dutch, Swedish Italian, Spanish, French Russian, Polish, Czech Scottish, Welch, Irish Modern Greek Hindi, Bengali American! Kentucky-ian, New Jersey-ian The First English (kind of) • 3) The Celtics • A. The first of these groups to go to England were the Celts • B. Only about a dozen words are still in use • C. After a few early invasions, the Celts pushed West Not much remains The Italians (thank God!!!) • 4) The Invading Romans • A. The Romans invaded UK and the Celts • B. Roman invasion in Britain left only 5 words. – • C. The Romans soon left (why stay in England when you have Italy!) • D. The Real Shocker: – Everywhere the Roman Empire went, they left the “Latin” language Hail Caesar The Invasion of England by the Germanic Tribes The Germans are Coming! • 5) The Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes • A. Around 450 AD, The Angles (gave us “A[E]nglish”), Saxons (dominant group), and the Jutes came from Holland, Germany, and Denmark. • B. After years of being isolate, their 3 languages started to blend together and develop into a brand new language--Old English!! The Germans are Coming! • C. What is left from old Anglo/Saxon (Old English) : – Most of Anglo/Saxon died out – Yet, those surviving words are the most fundamental • Man, wife, child, brother, sister, live, fight, love, drink, sleep, eat, house, through, look, walk, shoot, ground, meat, today, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, to, for, but, and, at, in, on. • Four of the tribe’s gods: Tue, Wardon, Thor, Frick – Saturday, Sunday, and Monday come from the planets The Christians • 6) The Christians with their Latin • A. In 597 AD, Christianity brought its huge Latin vocabulary to England (thanks to Augustine). • B. We also get . . . our dominant religion Augustine Here Comes Trouble! The Viking Invasion Here Comes Trouble, again! • 7) Vikings (750-1050 AD) • A. The Vikings invaded the Northern part of England • B. The Vikings were very aggressive • C. English almost died out without a trace • D. To this day, the treaty line divides Northern and Southern English Dialects • E. Over 1500 Viking words still survive: • Anger, bag, bait, birth, club, die, dirt, egg, husband, knife, law, skate, skill, skin, sky, they, their, ugly, want, weak, window Let’s rape & pillage The French Occupation of England They gave us more than just French Fries • 8) The French Normans • A. The Famous 1066 invasion of William the Conqueror • B. They Became the New Elite Leaders of England • C. Their addition to English: – The French speaking Normans gave English 10,000 words (3/4 of which are still in use) – Just about all our words related to government (except King and Queen), the law, the arts, medicine, high fashion, and the military are French • Bacon, beef, butcher, button, court, crime, curfew, defeat, eagle, fashion, felony, fraud, gallon, grammar, injury, joy, judge, jury, justice, lever, liberty, marriage, noun, nurse, parliament, pork, prison, question, rape, river, salary, shop, spy, squirrel, syllable, tax, virgin • D. The Blending of the Two Worlds (and languages) To this day, French sounds like the language of the rich and ruling class: • • • • • • • • • • adieu à la carte à propos avant-garde bon appétit bon voyage debutante déjà vu esprit de corps Fiancé (he) fiancée (she) • • • • • • • • • hors d'oeuvre laissez-faire nouveau riche papier mâché protégé risqué RSVP touché Cooking terms: blanch (from blanchir => to bleach), sauté (fried over high heat), fondue (melted), purée (crushed), flambée (burned) The 1066 Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror (French) Defeated the Saxons (Germans) Some Other Influences that Changed English (and you) Other Contributions to English • Shakespeare – Used 34,000 words—8% were never used before • Average educated 16,000 / King James Bible 8,000 – Coined 2,000 words: barefaced, critical, leapfrog, monumental, castigate, majestic, obscene, frugal, radiance, dwindle, countless, submerged, excellent, fretful, gust, hint, hurry, lonely, summit, pendant, obscene, and some 1, 685 others – Coined many Phrases: One fell swoop, In my minds eye, To be in a pickle, Vanish into thin air, Budge an inch, Play fast and loose, Flesh and Blood, To be or not to be, Foul play, Cruel to be kind I am the man Other Worldly Contributions to English • Algonquin • Arabic • Caribou, Massachusetts, Missouri, moccasins, Oregon, pecan, raccoon, tomahawk, Wisconsin, Wyoming • Albatross, alcohol, algebra, almanac, assassin, average, caramel, coffee, cork, cotton, garbage, giraffe, jar, magazine, mattress, mirror, monkey, safari, sheriff, soda, sofa, syrup, tariff, zenith, zero • Iroquois • Kentucky, Ohio, Canada Other Worldly Contributions to English • Dutch • Parisian French • Bluff, boom, booze, boss, brandy, Brooklyn, bully, caboose, coleslaw, cookie, deck, decoy, dock, dot, drill, drug, grab, Harlem, hustle, jeer, landscape, lottery, pickle, plug, plump, poll, Poppycock, quack, Santa Claus, cab, stove, tub, waffle, wagon, yacht, Yankee • A la cart, ballet, biscuit, cache, camouflage, crayon, dentist, espionage, laissez faire, lieutenant, maroon, mayonnaise, nasal, parachute, picnic, pioneer, renaissance, rendezvous, restaurant, sabotage, soup, souvenir, sport, tampon, tangerine, traffic, umpire, unique Other Worldly Contributions to English • Modern German • Spanish • Blitz, brake, clock, clown, dollar, hamburger, heroin, kindergarten, lager, luck, muffin, nickel, noodle, pretzel, quartz, rocket, vitamin, waltz • Argentina, bonanza, canyon, Colorado, embargo, Florida, guitar, lunch, patio, ranch, rodeo, stampede, tornado, tuna, vanilla • Sanskrit • Brilliant, candy, hemp, nirvana, opal, orange, pepper, sugar, swastika, yoga Other Worldly Contributions to English • Italian • Kongo (West Africa) • A cappella, alarm, America, bank, bankrupt, bravo, broccoli, buffoon, canon, cartoon, casino, desk, ditto, escort, ghetto, graffiti, macaroni, Mafia, manager, opera, pasta, piano, pizza, risk, semolina, solo, soprano, studio, spaghetti, umbrella, violin, volcano • Bongo, boogie, chimpanzee, funky, gorilla, mojo, zebra, zombie • Portuguese • Bossa Nova, breeze, caste, cobra, Creole, embarrass, fetish, flamingo, massage Other Worldly Contributions to English • Hebrew • Provençal (S. France) • Amen, cider, cinnamon, elephant, gopher, hallelujah, Israel, Jew, jockey, jug, messiah, Nimrod, rabbi, Sabbath, sapphire, Satan, sodomy • Ballad, boutique, cabin, cavalier, cocoon, crusade, fig, Harlequin, limousine, lingo, mascot, nutmeg, perfume, pilgrim, salad, sonnet Other Worldly Contributions to English (the 2 biggies) • Latin • Greek • Agitator, album, animal, • Academy, acrobat, alphabet, August, autumn, calendar, aristocrat, athlete, barbarian, circus, data, doctor, December, bishop, buffalo, cathedral, catholic, educator, February, France, cemetery, chorus, Christ, Germany, Greece, inch, joke, democracy, dinosaur, diploma, July, June, Jupiter, liberator, drama, economy, genesis, London, March, Mars, May, gymnasium, helicopter, history, Mercury, mile, November, horizon, idea, mathematics, October, parent, pastor, method, museum, mystery, ocean, picture, penis, refrigerate, Olympic, panic, prophet, psalm, religion, republic, satellite, psycho-, pyramid, rhythm, September, Spain, stadium, symphony, tele-, theater, theatre, study, stupid, suburb, table, theory tavern, vagina – Many of these also appear in the Romance Languages Other Worldly Contributions to English • • • • • • • • • • • • Afrikaans: Slim Avestan (extinct from Iran): Magic and Paradise Bilti (Pakistan): Polo Benton (West France): Billiards Carib (Caribbean): Barbecue Czech: Robot Flemish (North Belgium): Gas Hindi: Shampoo Latvian: Sleazy Maya: Cigar Nahuatl (Mexico): Chocolate & Tomato Tongan (South Pacific): Taboo Some Closing thoughts • 1) English is a mongrel language made up of a little of everything from everywhere • 2) English is a NEW language. • 3) The English Vocabulary Huge (or big, large, ample, great, prodigious, immense, elephantine, elephantine, towering, gargantuan, gigantic, massive, monolithic, voluminous, tremendous, Herculean) – That is in larger part due to all the invasions & borrowing – We have a synonyms for everything • 4) From its humble roots, English has become the world’s #1 “killer” language. And this is only countries that speak English as their 1st language. Many more speak English as their 2nd. Now. . . To America!!!