History of Old English
The Origins of the language of
Beowulf
I. The base: Proto-Indo-European
proto- means first ; spoken from India to
Europe
7,000 years ago they traveled and
spread out
became Persian, Hindi, Armenian,
Greek, Russian, Polish, French,
English, Spanish, German, Norweigian,
etc.
Also was the language of Angles,
Saxons, and Jutes
I. The base: Proto-Indo-European
Indo-European words for “father”
Sanskrit - piter
Classical Greek - pater
Latin - pater
Gothic - fadar
Old Irish - athir
French - pere
Spanish - padre
Italian - padre
Portuguese - pai
English - father
German - vader
II. Britons (Celts) and the
conquering Romans
Romans invaded Celts and then
left to defend Rome - left trade and
soldiering words like: mile, street,
wall, wine, cheese, butter, dish,
port
Celts, without Roman protection,
were easily conquered and driven
to Wales -left very little language
influence
III. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes come in
and kick some Celtic booty (A.D. 449)
brought Germanic form of O.E,
basic words survived -heart, foot,
head, day, year, earth, father,
mother, son, daughter, name, east,
full, hound, tooth, eat, weave, and
sew
mainly oral language
III. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes come in and
kick some Celtic booty (A.D. 449)
Old English Word
Daege’s Eage
Hlaf-Dige
Half-ward
Wita
Wyrd
Wyrm
Meaning of Old English Word
Day’s eye
Loaf kneader
Loaf gaurdian
Wise person
Fate
Dragon
Modern English
Daisy
Lady
Lord
Wit
Weird
Worm
IV. St. Augustine and Christianity
(597-1066)
Latin became language of the
Church and learning
-school, candle, altar, paper, circle,
abbey
church services, books, school
classes in Latin
to not know Latin = illiterate
more lasting impact than any other
language
V. Vikings invade . . . and invade,
and invade
brought Old Norse from
Scandinavia
8th century
fierce fighters- ruthless
big language influence -get, give,
hit, kick, law, sister, outlaw, knife,
take, egg, sky, they, their, them
VI. Grammar changes
all nouns were one of 3 genders (masculine,
feminine, neuter)
4 verb forms instead of 2
-Modern English= I ride, she rides, they ride,
we ride
-O.E.= ic ride, u ridest, he ride , and we ridon
Word endings showed relationship, not word
order
Pronunciation changes (especially vowels)
Descargar

History of Old English