The Standards-Based Classroom
Reading . . . Set . . . Go!
Reading Across the Curriculum in High School
Math, Science, Social Studies, and Language Arts
Callaway Gardens
12 December 2005
We cannot afford to ignore the
teaching of reading in high
school classrooms.
NAEP Statistics
In 2003, not a single one of the 50
states had at least 50% of its 8th graders
achieving proficiency in reading.
NAEP Statistics
In 2005, no state had a higher average
score for 8th grade than in 2003.
Seven states had lower scores.
U.S. Dept. of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP, 2005 Reading Assessment.
NAEP Statistics
Reading Achievement Levels
(scale scores out of 500)
323 or above = Advanced
281-322 = Proficient
243-280 = Basic
242 or lower = Below Basic
In 2003, the average scale score for 8th grade students in
Georgia was 258; in 2005, 257.
U.S. Dept. of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP, 2005 Reading Assessment.
NAEP Statistics
The percentage of students in Georgia who
performed at or above the NAEP Proficient
level was 25% in 1998; 26% in 2003; and
25% in 2005.
U.S. Dept. of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP, 2005 Reading Assessment.
NAEP Statistics
In 2005 . . .
Male students in GA had an average score that was lower than that of
female students by 12 points.
Black students in GA had an average score that was lower than that of
White students by 27 points.
Hispanic students in GA had an average score that was lower than that
of White students by 20 points.
Students who were available for free/reduced lunch, an indicator of
poverty, had an average score that was lower than that of students who
were not eligible for free/reduced lunch by 26 points.
U.S. Dept. of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, national Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP, 2005 Reading Assessment.
The Self-Perpetuating Cycle
• Our students become better readers and writers
by reading.
• Poor readers are often penalized with drills and
exercises rather than reading.
• “Those who read well are allowed to do more
free reading. Those behind in reading have to
do more worksheets, workbook pages, and
exercises, a practice that can only increase
the gap” (Krashen 24).
Why Do We Want Kids to Read?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To acquire content knowledge in all disciplines
To perform better on standardized tests
To become literate citizens
To become intelligent consumers
To learn about the world
For enjoyment
And . . .
Why Do We Want Kids to Read?
• “Reading ability is positively correlated
with the extent to which students read
recreationally” (SREB 65).
• “Adults who participated in a sustained
silent reading program [in school] read
more than other adults” (SREB 65).
Why Do We Want Kids to Read?
• Students in grades 4, 8, and 12 who read more
frequently for fun have consistently higher
average reading proficiency scores than those
students who read less often (NAEP, 2003).
• Nearly half of 4th graders say they read for fun
on a daily basis, compared to less than
a quarter of 8th and 12th graders (NAEP).
The Standard
a. Reading in all curriculum areas
(25 books or 1,000,000 words)
b. Discussing books
c. Building vocabulary
knowledge
d. Establishing context
What Reading Counts?
• Everything a child reads counts—newspapers,
magazines, instructions for computer games,
textbooks, free reading, etc.
• However, reading the textbook alone does not meet
the learning goals of the standard.
[“both informational and fictional texts in
a variety of genres and modes of discourse”;
“a variety of texts”]
How Do We Implement RC Standards?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set school-wide reading goals
Promote the reading goals
Get school administrators to promote the goals
Develop reading lists
Use selected strategies across the curriculum
Drop Everything and Read
Expect students to read outside of class
Use technology
Create activities to motivate students
Involve the library media center
Establish classroom libraries for each
content area
(SREB)
How Do We Implement RC Standards?
First
Set school-wide reading goals
Promote the reading goals
Get school administrators to promote the goals
--Begin with what’s doable.
--Determine a formula for school-wide participation.
--Get everyone on board.
How Do We Implement RC Standards?
• "Not everything that can be counted counts, and
not everything that counts can be counted.”
–Albert Einstein
• If every student reads for 30 min. during every
school day, s/he will read 25 books with time to
spare (SREB 54).
• Don’t mistake accountability for reading!
Working Toward All A’s in Reading
• Access
• Agency
• Activities/Strategies
• Artifacts
• Assessment & Accountability
Access
1. Access to reading
materials
2. Access to reading
time
Access to Reading Materials
Locate resources from professional organizations
•
NCTE www.ncte.org/search/default.asp
•
NCSS www.socialstudies.org/resources/notable/
•
NSTA http://www.nsta.org/ostbc
•
NCTM
•
ALA www.ala.org/ala/yalsa/booklistsawards/booklistsbook.htm
•
National Book Awards www.nationalbook.org/nba.html
Agency
Engagement + Enthusiasm + Enjoyment =
Reading Achievement
Students who have some decision-making power
(agency) are more engaged readers.
Agency
• “When children decide that they have no
agency with respect to their learning, their
learning is limited in terms of both personal
experience and potential trajectory.
• “Performance differences between children
with a stronger and weaker sense of agency
continually diverge, particularly from
fifth grade on” (Johnston 41).
Activities/Strategies
• Teacher Read Alouds
• Shared Reading
• Guided Reading
• Probing Questions
Probing Questions
• “What are you noticing? . . . Any other patterns or things
that surprise you?”
• “What have you learned most recently as a reader?”
• “How did you figure that out?”
• “How could we check?”
• “Is that an observation or conjecture?”
• “Why would an author do something like that?”
• “Are there any other ways to think about that?”
• “What are you thinking?”
• “Why?”
• “How else . . .?”
• “What if . . .?”
from Choice Words
[A note about the importance of wait time]
More Activities/Strategies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Book Passes
Accessing Prior Knowledge—BKWLQ
Pre-teaching Vocabulary
Silent, Sustained Reading
Drop Everything and Read
Technology—Book Chat Rooms
Anchor Activities
Bring a Book/Take a Book
Books and Bagels
Artifacts
What I’m Reading Columns
Book Blurb Bulletin Boards
Reading Logs
Reading Conversation Journals
“If This Were a Movie . . .” Posters
Check the Facts Lists
Point/Counterpoint Critics’ Comments
Assessment & Accountability
Sometimes what we do speaks so loudly
children cannot hear what we say. We say
reading is fun, but if we require evidence of
all reading in the form of tests, quizzes,
reports, etc., we implicitly send the
message that “you won’t do it
unless I make you.”
Assessment & Accountability
What types of evidence should teachers be looking for to determine
whether students are meeting the Reading Across the Curriculum
standards?
Students reading more
Students talking about books
Students using the media center more
Students using content vocabulary
Students making connections between disciplines
Students performing better on classroom assignments
Students performing better on standardized tests
Assessment & Accountability
• “Our classroom goals are beyond testing: we
want students who can read, who will choose
to read, and who will know strategies for
overcoming rather than avoiding difficult
reading tasks” (Allen 42).
• “Knowing what gets in the way of those goals
makes a critical difference in the daily
instructional choices we make in all our
classrooms” (Allen 42).
Credits
Allen, Janet. Yellow Brick Roads: Shared and Guided Paths to Independent Reading 4-12.
Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2004.
Ayers, Rick, and Amy Crawford. Great Books for High School Kids: A Teachers’ Guide to
Books that Can Change Teens’ Lives. Boston: Beacon, 2004.
Bauerlein, Mark, and Sandra Stotsky. “Why Johnny Won’t Read.” The Washington Post 25
Jan. 2005: A15. 25 Jan. 2005 www.washingtonpost.com.
“Clip Art Gallery.” Discovery School. 31 Jan. 2005 http://school.discovery.com.
Johnston,Peter. Choice Words: How Our Language Affects Students’ Learning. Portland,
ME: Stenhouse, 2004.
Krashen, Stephen. The Power of Reading: Insights form the Research. Englewood:
Libraries Unlimited,1993.
Literacy Across the Curriculum: Setting and Implementing Goals for Grades Six through 12.
SREB.
National Center for Education Statistics. 1 Feb. 2005 www.nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard.
Questions?
Contact Cynde Snider
[email protected]
Descargar

Slide 1