Closing Achievement Gaps in California:
What a New Generation of Teachers Needs to Know.
Claremont Graduate University
Teacher Education Program
August 2006
Russlynn Ali, Director - The Education Trust-West
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Where Are We Now?
US NAEP Long Term Trends
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Good News: Looking at National
Long Term Trends, Achievement
Gaps for Younger Hispanic and
African American Students Are
Narrowing at the Elementary Level.
But We’re Losing Traction
in Middle School.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
NAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds:
Record Performance for All Groups
Average Scale Score
250
230
210
190
170
150
1971 1975 1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
Latino
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
African American-White Gap
Narrows to Smallest Size in History
NAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
250
230
210
35
29
26
190
170
150
1971 1975 1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Latino-White Gap
Narrows to Smallest Size in History
NAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
250
230
210
21
28
24
190
170
150
1971 1975 1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
Latino
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
NAEP Math, 9 Year-Olds:
Record Performance for All Groups
Average Scale Score
250
230
210
190
170
150
1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
Latino
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
African American-White Gap Narrows to
Smallest Size in History
NAEP Math, 9 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
250
23
28
230
25
210
190
170
150
1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Latino-White Gap Narrows to
Smallest Size in History
NAEP Math, 9 Year-Olds
17
Average Scale Score
250
230
26
21
210
190
170
150
1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
Latino
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
8th Grade
NAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
300
280
260
240
220
200
1971 1975 1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
Latino
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But Gaps Getting Bigger in Middle School
Latino-White Gap
NAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
300
280
260
21
23
24
240
220
200
1971 1975 1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
Latino
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
African American-White Gap
NAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
300
280
260
18
29
22
240
220
200
1971 1975 1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
NAEP Math, 13 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
300
280
260
240
220
200
1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
Latino
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
African American-White Gap
NAEP Math, 13 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
300
280
260
26
32
25
240
220
200
1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Latino-White Gap
NAEP Math, 13 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
300
23
280
260
24
20
240
220
200
1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
Latino
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Progress Stops in High School.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
NAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
320
300
280
21
29
260
240
220
1971 1975 1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
Latino
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
NAEP Math, 17 Year-Olds
Average Scale Score
320
300
28
20
280
260
240
220
1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999 2004
African American
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data
Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
Latino
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
African American and Latino
17 Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels As
White 13 Year-Olds
Percent of Students
100%
0%
200
250
300
350
Average Scale Score
White 13 Year-Olds
African American 17 Year-Olds
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Long Term Trends
Latino 17-Year Olds
2005 by The Education Trust-West
African American and Latino
17 Year-Olds Read at Same Levels As
White 13 Year-Olds
Percent of Students
100%
0%
150
200
250
300
350
Average Scale Score
White 13 Year-Olds
African American 17 Year-Olds
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Long Term Trends
Latino 17 Year-Olds
2005 by The Education Trust-West
A National Crisis: The Nation is
Losing Standing in the Global
Economy.
Program for International
Student Assessment
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students in Other
Countries Gain far More
in Secondary School
TIMSS
2005 by The Education Trust-West
PISA
2005 by The Education Trust-West
U.S. Ranking* Among OECD Countries has Remained
the Same or Dropped between
2000 and 2003
2000
2003
Math-
21
22
Math-
16
20
Space and Shape
Change and
Relationships
Reading
14
14
*Ranking out of 26 OECD Countries
Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA
2003 Results, data available at http://www.oecd.org/
2005 by The Education Trust-West
e
M exi c
o
Tu rke
y
Greec
Ita ly
Cana d
a
Bel giu
m
Switz e
rla nd
New Z
e ala n
d
Aus tra
l ia
Cze ch
Re pub
lic
Ic ela n
d
Denm
ark
Fra nc
e
Swed
en
Aus tria
Germ
any
Ire lan
d
OECD
Avera
ge
Slo va
c k Re
pub lic
Norwa
y
Lu xem
bo urg
Pol an
d
Hung a
ry
Spa in
Unit ed
St ates
Port ug
al
J apan
Neth e
rla nds
Kore a
Fi nlan
d
Average Scale Score
2003: U.S. Ranked 24th out of 29
OECD Countries in Mathematics
550
500
450
400
350
300
Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at
2005 by The Education Trust-West
http://www.oecd.org/
Problems are not limited to our
high-poverty and high-minority
schools . . .
2005 by The Education Trust-West
m
M exi c
o
Port ug
al
Greec
e
Spa in
Tu rke
y
Ita ly
Pol an
d
Lu xem
bo urg
Hung a
ry
Unit ed
St ates
Ire lan
d
Neth e
rla nds
New Z
e ala n
d
Switz e
rla nd
Aus tra
l ia
Cana d
a
Cze ch
Re pub
lic
Ic ela n
d
Denm
ark
Swed
en
OECD
Avera
ge
Aus tria
Germ
any
Fra nc
e
Slo va
k Rep
ubl ic
Norwa
y
Fi nlan
d
J apan
Kore a
Bel giu
Percent of Students
U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the
Highest Achievement Level (Level 6)
in Math
10
8
6
4
2
0
Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at
2005 by The Education Trust-West
http://www.oecd.org/
U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in
the Math Achievement of the HighestPerforming Students*
700
650
Average Scale Score
600
550
500
450
400
350
Port u
gal
Gree
ce
Mexi
co
Tu rk
ey
Ita ly
d
Aust
ral ia
Cana
da
Cze c
h Re
pub li
c
Denm
ark
Swed
en
Germ
any
OEC
D AV
ERA
GE
Aust
ria
Icela
nd
Fra n
ce
Slo va
k Re
p ubl i
c
Norw
ay
Hung
ary
Lu xe
mbo
urg
Ire lan
d
Pol a
nd
Unit e
d St a
tes
Spa i
n
Fi nla
n
Bel g
iu m
Japa
n
Kore
a
Switz
erla n
d
Neth
erla n
ds
New
Ze ala
nd
300
* Students at the 95th Percentile
Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at
http://www.oecd.org/
2005 by The Education Trust-West
erla n
d
Ire lan
d
Icela
nd
Pol a
nd
Norw
ay
Unit e
d St a
tes
Spa i
n
Port u
gal
Ita ly
Gree
ce
Tu rk
ey
Mexi
co
Aust
ral ia
Germ
any
New
Ze ala
nd
Fra n
ce
Denm
ark
Swed
en
Aust
ria
Hung
ary
OEC
D AV
ERA
GE
Slo va
k Re
p ubl i
c
Lu xe
mbo
urg
Switz
Japa
n
Kore
a
Bel g
iu m
Neth
erla n
ds
Fi nla
nd
Cze c
h Re
pub li
c
Cana
da
Average Scale Score
600
U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29
OECD Countries in the Math
Achievement of High-SES Students
550
500
450
400
350
300
Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at
http://www.oecd.org/
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Our 15-year-olds have a worse average
scale score in mathematics than most
of their international peers.
Closest Competitor?
Latvia.
Source: OECD Problem Solving for Tomorrow’s World. 2004
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Problems not limited to math,
either.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
e
M exi c
o
Tu rke
y
Greec
Ita ly
Ire lan
d
Lu xem
bo urg
Slo va
k Rep
ubl ic
Norwa
y
Pol an
d
Spa in
Unit ed
St ates
Port ug
al
Hung a
ry
OECD
Avera
ge
Ic ela n
d
Swed
en
Aus tria
New Z
e ala n
d
Aus tra
l ia
Cana d
a
Bel giu
m
Switz e
rla nd
Neth e
rla nds
Fra nc
e
Denm
ark
Cze ch
Re pub
lic
Germ
any
J apan
Fi nlan
d
Kore a
Average Scale Score
PISA 2003: Problem-Solving, US
Ranks 24th Out of 29 OECD Countries
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
Source: NCES, 2005, International Outcomes of Learning in Mathematics, Literacy and Problem Solving: 2003 PISA Results.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
NCES 2005-003
More than half of our 15 year
olds at problem-solving level 1 or
below.
Source: OECD Problem Solving for Tomorrow’s World. 2004
2005 by The Education Trust-West
More than half of our 15 year
olds at problem-solving level 1 or
below.
Just ahead of us?
Russia and Latvia
Source: OECD Problem Solving for Tomorrow’s World. 2004
2005 by The Education Trust-West
One measure on which we
rank high?
Inequality!
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Performance Of U.S. 15 YearOlds Highly Variable
PISA 5th-95th Gap
Rank*
Problem Solving
Mathematical Literacy
Reading
6
8
8
*Of 29 OECD countries
Source: OECD, Learning for Tomorrow’s World: First Results From PISA 2003.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
How Does California Compare?
2005 National Assessment of
Educational Progress
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Mas s
ac hu
s etts
Verm
Ne w
on t
Ham
ps hir
e
Virgi
nia
De la
war e
Co nn
ec tic
ut
No rth
D ak o
ta
Mont
ana
Minn
es ota
Main
e
Co lo
rad o
Wy o
ming
Wa s
hing t
on
Penn
s ylv a
nia
Ohio
Ne w
Yo rk
Ne w
Jer se
Sout
h Da y
k ota
Idaho
Wis c
on sin
Uta
Ne br h
as ka
Miss
our i
Iowa
Mary
land
Kent
uc ky
Kans
as
Tex a
s
Florid
a
Mich
ig an
India
na
O
No rth re gon
C
Na tio aro lin a
n al P
ub li
Ark a c
Rh od ns as
e Isla
nd
Illin o
i
We s
t Virg s
in ia
Tenn
ess e
e
Ok la
homa
Geo r
gia
Sout
h Ca
r olina
Alask
a
Ha w
aii
Lo uis
ian a
Alab
a
ma
Ne w
Me xi
co
Ne va
da
Ca lif
or nia
Ariz
Miss o na
iss ip
Dis tr
pi
ict o f
Colu
mb ia
California Ranks Low Compared to Other
States on NAEP – 4th Grade Reading
All 4th Grade Students - 2005 NAEP Reading
Average Scale Scores From Highest to Lowest
260
250
240
231
230
220
210
Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational
Progress, 2005
207
200
190
180
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Ma
s sa
c hu
se
Ne
w H M tts
a ai
No mps h ne
rth
D i re
Mo ak ota
Ne nt a
So w J er na
u th s e
D y
Ve ako ta
Mi n rmon
nes t
Vi r ota
Wy g ini a
om
in
Io g
Ka wa
Ne n sas
bra
s ka
Pe
n n Ohi
sy
o
De lv ania
l aw
Wi
sc o are
Co ns in
lo
Mi s rad o
Ne s ou
Wa w Yo ri
r
s
Co hi ngt k
nne on
c tic
Ida ut
h
I o
Ke l lin ois
n tu
Ore ck y
go
Utan
In h
Ma di ana
ry la
Rh Mi chi nd
Na ode I gan
ti on sl a
al nd
Ok P ubl
l ah i c
om
Te Al ask a
nne a
s
No Ark a see
rth nsa
Ca s
roli
Te na
So Ge xas
u th or
Ca gia
rol
Flo i na
r
We Ariz id a
st V ona
Loui rgini a
i si
Ne ana
Al v ada
Mi s abam
Ne s is s a
w M i pp
e i
Ca x ic o
l ifo
Dis
rn
tric
t of Haw ia
Co ai i
lu m
bia
California’s Ranking on NAEP
– 8th Grade Reading
All 8th Grade Students - 2005 NAEP Reading
280
274
270
260
250
250
240
230
220
Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational
Progress, 2005
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Even when statistical significance is taken into
account, almost every other state does better
than California in 8th grade reading
Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational
Progress, 2005
2005 by The Education Trust-West
0
Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational
Progress, 2005
District of Columbia
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Minnesota
Connecticut
Ohio
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
New York
Nebraska
Colorado
Arizona
California
30
Wisconsin
National Public
Washington
Kansas
Oregon
Utah
Texas
Idaho
Georgia
Delaware
Nevada
North Carolina
New Mexico
Illinois
Hawaii
Indiana
Michigan
Oklahoma
Arkansas
Virginia
Maryland
Alaska
Wyoming
Florida
Iowa
Missouri
And Our Achievement Gaps Are Larger
Than Many Other States
2005 NAEP Grade 8 Reading, Latino-White Average Scale Score Gap
From Smallest Gap to Largest Gap
60
50
40
25
20
10
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Are California’s low achievement
levels due to our demographics?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
tric
to
Ma f Col
s sa u m
b
c
Ne hus e ia
w J tts
Ne ers ey
wY
Vi rgo rk
De ini a
la
Co ware
M l ora
Pen i nnes d o
o
n
Co sy lv a ta
nne nia
c tic
Il lin ut
Ma ois
ry la
No Mont nd
rth an
Da a
k ot
a
Sou
O
th D hio
a
Kanko ta
Ne sas
Wi sbras k
c on a
s
Ma in
Ne
w H Mi ss i ne
am our
ps h i
Texi re
Na Wy o as
ti on mi n
al P g
ubl
Iow i c
Ver a
mo
Al a n t
Ge sk a
org
Rh Mi ch ia
od i g
Wa e Isl aan
shi nd
ng
Ariz ton
ona
No
rth Idah
Ca o
ro
Sou Or li na
th C eg o
a n
Ark roli na
a
Ken nsas
tuc
Flo k y
r
Ind id a
i
Ok an
Ten l ahoma
nes a
see
Ca Utah
li
Lou fornia
Mi i si an
Ne ss is si a
w M ppi
e
Al a x ic o
ba
Ha ma
w
We Nev ai i
st V ada
i rgi
ni a
Dis
CA’s White Students Are Scoring Below White
Students in Many Other States.
White 8th Grade Students - 2005 NAEP Reading
Average Scale Score (White) From Highest to Lowest
310
300
301
290
280
270
Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational
Progress, 2005
264
260
250
240
230
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Mas s
ac hu
New s etts
J er
New s ey
Pen n Yo rk
sy lv a
n
Kan s ia
Mi nn as
es ota
Mai n
Mont e
a
Nebr na
a
North s ka
Dak o
ta
Sou t Ohio
h Da
ko
Verm ta
on t
New
Il lin o
is
Ham
ps hi r
Vi rg in e
Col o i a
Conn rad o
ec tic
ut
Iowa
Mi
Wa s ss ouri
hi ng
Wi sc ton
on
Wy o s in
m
Del a i ng
ware
K
Nati o en tuck y
nal P
ubli
Geor c
gia
Idaho
Mary
land
Oreg
Rhod
o
e Isl a n
nd
Texa
Ark a s
nsas
I
n
d
i
Sou t
h Ca ana
roli na
Tenn
es se
e
Al ask
a
M
North i chi gan
Caro
Okl a li na
Mi ss homa
is si p
pi
Utah
Al ab
am
Ariz o a
na
Florid
a
Lou
New i si ana
M
We s ex ic o
t Vi rg
in
Cal if i a
ornia
Nev a
da
Dis tr
ic t of Hawai i
Colu
mbia
California’s Non Low-Income Students Do Better Than
Non Low-Income Students in Only Three Other States.
Non-Low-Income 8th Grade Students - 2005 NAEP Reading
Average Scale Score (Non-Low-Income) From Highest to Lowest
285
280
280
275
270
265
Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2005
262
260
255
250
245
240
235
230
2005 by The Education Trust-West
On Our Own Assessments?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
CST
All Students 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
49
41
36
24
28
23
4th Grade
32
26
8th Grade
Prof/Adv
Basic
Below Basic
40
11 Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
MATH CST
All Students 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
26
54
32
Prof/Adv
Basic
24
Below Basic
42
22
4th Grade
8th Grade
General Math*
*General Math –
Tests Grades
6 & 7 Standards
Source: California Department of Education, 2005
2005 by The Education Trust-West
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
4th Grade, By Ethnicity
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
37
35
69
32
32
Black
73
33
31
Latino
Prof/Adv
Basic
Below Basic
20
17
11
10
White
Asian
2005 by The Education Trust-West
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
4th Grade, By Economic Status
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
35
70
Prof/Adv
33
Basic
32
20
Below Basic
10
Economically
Disadvantaged
NonEconomically
Disadvantaged
2005 by The Education Trust-West
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
MATH
4th Grade, By Ethnicity
CST 2006
38
43
68
27
35
Black
81
Latino
Basic
Below Basic
28
29
Prof/Adv
19
12
12
6
White
Asian
2005 by The Education Trust-West
MATH
4th Grade, By Economic Status
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
42
71
Prof/Adv
28
30
Basic
18
Below Basic
11
Economically
Disadvantaged
NonEconomically
Disadvantaged
2005 by The Education Trust-West
MATH
4th Grade, By English Proficiency
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
36
63
30
83
Prof/Adv
21
34
English
Learner
14
3
Basic
Below Basic
16
Redesignated
Fluent
English
English and
Fluent
English Only
Proficient
2005 by The Education Trust-West
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
8th Grade, By Ethnicity
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
27
25
62
36
62
Prof/Adv
Basic
38
Below Basic
37
Black
36
Latino
25
24
13
13
White
Asian
2005 by The Education Trust-West
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
8th Grade, By Economic Status
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
25
58
37
Prof/Adv
Basic
27
38
Below Basic
15
Economically
Disadvantaged
NonEconomically
Disadvantaged
2005 by The Education Trust-West
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
MATH*
8th Grade, By Ethnicity
CST 2006
16
18
38
29
48
32
Prof/Adv
Basic
33
56
31
51
28
Black
Below Basic
Latino
White
22
*General Math –
Tests Grades
6 & 7 Standards
Asian
2005 by The Education Trust-West
MATH*
8th Grade, By Economic Status
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
17
37
31
33
Prof/Adv
Basic
Below Basic
51
31
Economically
Disadvantaged
NonEconomically
Disadvantaged
*General Math –
Tests Grades
6 & 7 Standards
2005 by The Education Trust-West
MATH*
8th Grade, By English Proficiency
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
10
27
34
40
31
34
Basic
63
26
English
Learner
Prof/Adv
35
Redesignated
Fluent
English
English &
Fluent
English Only
Proficient
Below Basic
*General Math –
Tests Grades
6 & 7 Standards
2005 by The Education Trust-West
African American and Latino 7th graders read at
about the level of White 3rd graders
680
CAT/6 reading score (2005)
675
650
643
644
Black 7th Grade
Latino 7th Grade
640
625
600
575
White 3rd Grade
White 7th Grade
CAT/6 2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Low-Income 7th graders read at about the level
of Non Low-Income 3rd graders
677
CAT/6 reading score (2005)
675
650
643
638
625
600
575
Non-Poor 3rd Grade
Non-Poor 7th Grade
Poor 7th Grade
CAT/6 2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
11th Grade, By Ethnicity
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
21
23
21
50
26
55
Prof/Adv
Basic
22
56
Black
53
Latino
Below Basic
21
28
24
White
Asian
Source: California Department of Education, 2005
2005 by The Education Trust-West
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
11th Grade, By Economic Status
CST 2006
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
21
46
25
23
54
Prof/Adv
Basic
Below Basic
31
Economically
Disadvantaged
NonEconomically
Disadvantaged
2005 by The Education Trust-West
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2006 Algebra I CST
(Grades 8-11)
By Ethnicity
11
20
14
23
33
53
28
70
23
64
38
Black
Latino
Column 4
Prof/Adv
Basic
Below Basic
White
25
Asian
2005 by The Education Trust-West
2006 Geometry CST (Grades 8-11)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
By Ethnicity
9
20
12
24
36
52
Prof/Adv
Basic
32
71
25
64
32
Black
Latino
Below Basic
White
24
Asian
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Are Achievement Gaps Closing?
We’ve Made Some Progress,
Especially in the Early Grades
But Some Progress Cannot
Be Considered Enough
2005 by The Education Trust-West
English Language Arts CST
4th Grade, Poverty Gap
100
80
60
40
Poor
35
32
Not Poor
20
Source: California Department of
Education, 2006
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
English Language Arts CST
8th grade, Poverty Gap
100
80
60
Poor
33
40
Not Poor
28
20
Source:
California
Department of Education, 2006
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
English Language Arts CST
8th grade, Black-White Gap
100
80
60
Black
35
40
White
30
20
Source:
California
Department of Education, 2006
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
English Language Arts CST
8th grade, Latino-White Gap
100
80
60
Latino
37
40
White
32
20
Source:
California
Department of Education, 2006
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Algebra I CST
Grades 8-11 Latino-White Gap
100
80
60
Latino
40
White
20
19
16
Source:
California
Department of Education, 2006
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Early Gains are Lost in
Secondary Schools, Yet the
Stakes are High.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Estimated Cumulative Passing Rates
for the Class of 2007 – All Students
100
80
89
77
88
75
60
40
20
0
English-Language Arts
Percent Passed in 10th Grade
Source: California Department of Education, 2006
Math
Estimated Percent Passed by End of 11th Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Estimated Cumulative Passing Rates
for the Class of 2007 – English Language Arts
By Ethnicity
100
89
83
80
85
74
66
94
86
95
87 96
89
83
74
67
60
40
20
Percent Passed in 10th Grade
Source: California Department of Education, 2006
hi
te
W
Is
la
nd
er
Pa
ci
fic
La
ti n
o
pi
no
Fi
li
As
ia
n
In
di
an
er
ic
an
Am
Af
r
ic
an
Am
er
ic
an
0
Estimated Percent Passed by End of 11th Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Estimated Cumulative Passing Rates
for the Class of 2007 – English Language Arts
Other Sub-Groups
100
80
89
81
77
67
66
56
60
47
38
40
20
0
All Students
Low-Income Students
Percent Passed in 10th Grade
Source: California Department of Education, 2006
English Learners
Special Education
Students
Estimated Percent Passed by End of 11th Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Estimated Cumulative Passing Rates
for the Class of 2007 - Math
By Ethnicity
100
76
80
89 97
86
85
72
88
82
86
95
72
65
58
60
95
40
20
Percent Passed in 10th Grade
Source: California Department of Education, 2006
hi
te
W
Is
la
nd
er
Pa
ci
fic
La
ti n
o
pi
no
Fi
li
As
ia
n
In
di
an
er
ic
an
Am
Af
r
ic
an
Am
er
ic
an
0
Estimated Percent Passed by End of 11th Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Estimated Cumulative Passing Rates
for the Class of 2007 - Math
Other Sub-Groups
100
80
88
81
75
74
65
54
60
54
37
40
20
0
All Students
Low-Income
Students
Percent Passed in 10th Grade
Source: California Department of Education, 2006
English Learners
Special Education
Students
Estimated Percent Passed by End of 11th Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Sample ELA Question on CAHSEE
Fill in the blank:
_______________ going to be late if they
don’t hurry.
•
•
•
•
They’re
Their
There
They’ll
Source: How Hard is the Exit Exam? EdSource, February 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Sample Math Question on CAHSEE
Some students attend school 180 of the 365
days in a year. About what part of the year
do they attend school?
A) 18%
B) 50%
C) 75%
D) 180%
Source: How Hard is the Exit Exam? EdSource, February 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
With the right supports,
students soar.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
CAHSEE, Class of 2006
percent passed
as of January 2006
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
All
96
8994
82 82
80
69
82
80
69
55 56
52
36
Initial Pass Rates
10th grade Class of
'06
Black
Latino
White
Source: Wise, L., et al., Independent Evaluation of the
CAHSEE, 2006 HumRRO
by 11th grade Class
of '06
Asian
As of January 2006
Class of '06
English Learners
Low-Income
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Is it fair to require students to
pass the CAHSEE in order to
graduate?
What about alternative
assessments?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
If we don’t hold the line on standards, we run the risk of
creating devastating unintended consequences…
Alternatives to the High School Exit Exam?
Example: New Jersey
Average Percent of New Jersey general education
students graduating via alternative assessment, 2004
100%
80%
60%
41%
40%
20%
3%
0%
Lowest-Poverty Schools (0-10%)
Source: EdTrust-West analysis of NJ Department of Education and
schoolmatters.com data, 2005
Highest-Poverty Schools(91-100%)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In New Jersey’s large urban high schools…
Average Percent of NJ general education students
graduating via alternative assessment, 2004
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
77%
79%
71%
State
Average
14.9%
Central High, Newark
99% Black & Latino
52% poor
Source: EdTrust-West analysis of NJ Department of Education and
schoolmatters.com data, 2005
West Side, Newark
99% Black & Latino
58% poor
Woodrow Wilson, Camden
95% Black & Latino
62% poor
2005 by The Education Trust-West
A lawsuit of this nature projects an image of
"dumbing down" for those that cannot comprehend
nor compete and in the public mind those are
Latino and African-American students.”
- Sacramento Citizen, Latino Male
2005 by The Education Trust-West
"If you can't pass this test, you're not
ready to go on in life, to college or to
achieve your goals," she said. "We
should be there academically…"
- Sophomore Lynsey Davis,
Palm Springs High School
Source: “Exit exam tests students, schools”, The
Desert Sun, March 20, 2006
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Far too many never get to the
end of high school in the first
place. (And that’s a problem
that pre-dates CAHSEE.)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
California’s Latino & African-American Students
Graduate From High School In Fewer Numbers
Than Their Peers
9th graders who graduated four years later, class of 2004
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
89%
81%
69%
58%
All
Students
African
American
Source: Education Trust-West Analysis of CDE data, using
the Manhattan Institute methodology
56%
Asian
Latino
White
2005 by The Education Trust-West
0
NEW JERSEY
IDAHO
NORTH DAKOTA
SOUTH DAKOTA
MINNESOTA
UTAH
IOWA
WISCONSIN
VERMONT
NEBRASKA
MONTANA
CONNECTICUT
PENNSYLVANIA
MARYLAND
ILLINOIS
KANSAS
MICHIGAN
NEW HAMPSHIRE
VIRGINIA
OREGON
RHODE ISLAND
MISSOURI
INDIANA
WYOMING
MAINE
MASSACHUSETTS
OHIO
WEST VIRGINIA
ARKANSAS
OKLAHOMA
COLORADO
CALIFORNIA
ARIZONA
HAWAII
KENTUCKY
DISTRICT
TEXAS
LOUISIANA
DELAWARE
ALASKA
NORTH CAROLINA
WASHINGTON
ALABAMA
NEW YORK
NEW MEXICO
MISSISSIPPI
TENNESSEE
GEORGIA
NEVADA
FLORIDA
SOUTH CAROLINA
Overall, California ranks 32nd when it comes
to high school graduation rates.
Graduation Rates - 2000-01
100
90
80
70
69%
60
50
40
30
20
10
Source: Losing Our Future: How Minority Youth Are Being Left
Behind by the Graduation Rate Crisis, Harvard Civil Rights Project
& Urban Institute, 2004 – Uses the Cumulative Promotion Index.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
California’s High School Seniors Enroll in 4-Year
Colleges at Lower Rates than Most Other States.
47
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
46
37
33
29
Source: CA Educational Opportunity Report 2006: Roadblocks to College, UC
Accord, UCLA IDEA
hi
o
N
ew
O
Yo
rk
s
xa
s
a
M
as
Te
al
if
C
Fl
or
id
ni
a
23
or
Percent of 9th grade enrollment
Only Mississippi sends a smaller percentage of its
students to 4-year colleges.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
EVEN FOR THOSE WHO MAKE IT
TO COLLEGE,
GAINS IN COLLEGE COMPLETION
ARE NOT PROPORTIONATE WITH
GAINS IN COLLEGE
ATTENDANCE.
Once they arrive, low-income
students and students of color
less likely to succeed.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
College Going vs. Completion of BA or Higher,
Whites
90
80
70
60
19
50
40
30
10
20
10
19
80
19
81
19
82
19
83
19
84
19
85
19
86
19
87
19
88
19
89
19
90
19
91
19
92
19
93
19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
0
White College-Going
Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, October
Current Population Surveys, 1972-2000, in US DOE, NCES, The
Condition of Education 2002, p.166 and 174.
White Completion
2005 by The Education Trust-West
College Going vs. Completion of BA or
Higher, Blacks
90
80
70
60
21
50
40
30
20
7
10
19
80
19
81
19
82
19
83
19
84
19
85
19
86
19
87
19
88
19
89
19
90
19
91
19
92
19
93
19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
0
Black
BlackCompletion
Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, October Current
Population Surveys, 1972-2000, in US DOE, NCES, The Condition of Education
2002, p.166 and 174.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
College Going vs. Completion of BA or
Higher, Hispanics
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
19
80
19
81
19
82
19
83
19
84
19
85
19
86
19
87
19
88
19
89
19
90
19
91
19
92
19
93
19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
0
??
##!!!
Hispanic
Hispanic Completion
Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, October Current Population
Surveys, 1972-2000, in US DOE, NCES, The Condition of Education 2002, p.166 and
174.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some institutions do better than
others.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Graduation Rates at CSU Schools
Latino vs. White
Source: CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Graduation Rates at CSU Schools
African-American vs. White
Source: CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Graduation Rates at UC Schools
Latino vs. White
Source: CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Graduation Rates at UC Schools
African American vs. White
Source: CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Minority Students Require More
Remediation at CSU
Percentage of all CSU Freshmen Requiring Remediation
in English, Fall 2005
100%
80%
64%
60%
61%
59%
45%
40%
26%
20%
0%
African Amer.
Latino
Asian
White
All Students
Source: CSU, Analytic Studies Unit, 2005.
http://www.asd.calstate.edu/performance/proficiency.shtml
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Minority Students Require More
Remediation at CSU
Percentage of CSU Freshmen Requiring Remediation in
Math, Fall 2005
100%
80%
63%
60%
51%
40%
30%
36%
25%
20%
0%
African Amer.
Latino
Source: CSU, Analytic Studies Unit, 2004.
http://www.asd.calstate.edu/performance/proficiency.shtml
Asian
White
All Students
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students Requiring Remediation in College
Earn Bachelor’s Degrees at Lower Rates
Earned BA
No Remedial Courses
70%
Any Remedial Courses
49%
Based on students who attended a four-year institution at any time in their education.
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Now, the Most Important
Questions. . .
Does it have to be this way?
And What Can YOU Do About It?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#1: Neither Make Nor
Tolerate Excuses. Get the
Data Out and Take
Responsibility for Student
Learning.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Only 26% of High School Teachers Believe
All Students Should be Held to Same
Standard
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
60%
59%
34%
26%
K-12 Parents
High School Teachers
We shouldn't expect disadvantaged students to reach the same level of
performance on standardized tests
All students should be held to same standard
Source: Ready for the Real World: Americans
Speak on High School Reform, ETS, 2005
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Underlying Everything Is the Cycle of Low
Expectations
Poor Test
Results
Low Level
Assignments/
Instruction
Low
Expectations
Less
Challenging
Courses
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#2. Think very hard about how to
deploy their resources…both
people and time.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
School Size Matters
2005 by The Education Trust-West
4-State Study:
Small Schools Reduce
“Power” of Poverty by
30-50%
Source: Rural Community Education Trust, 2/2000
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Why These Effects?
• ACADEMIC FOCUS/PURPOSE
PERVADES EVERYTHING;
• STUDENTS MORE ACTIVELY
ENGAGED WITH SCHOOL;
• RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ADULTS
MORE COLLEGIAL
Source: Small Schools, Big Imaginations 1998
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But small alone is not
enough. . .
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Take, for example, the matter
of reading.
Kids who arrive behind in
reading…often simply assigned to
courses that don’t demand much
reading.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Average High School: Percent of
Instructional Time in Reading
Intensive Courses
Below Grade
On Grade
Advanced
Level Students Level Students Students
24%
29%
35%
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Surprise: Gaps Grow.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Higher Performing High
Schools:
– “Behind” students spend 60 additional
hours (25% more time) over 1 year in
reading related courses)
– “Behind” students get 240 additional
hours over 4 years!
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In other words, use of
instructional time not left to
chance.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
There is also the matter of
how we deploy our people.
9th Grade Bulge:
Largely about “poor preparation”
and “difficult transitions?”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
One Colorado High School:
Student/Teacher Ratio by Grade
Grade
9th
10th
11th
12th
Average number of
students per teacher
30.3
16.7
11.6
12.1
Source: Jovenes Unidos & Padres Unidos; March, 2004.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Same Colorado High School:
Counselor Deployment by Grade
Grade
9th
10th
11th
12th
Number of
Counselors
1
1
1
1
Number of
Students
572
366
309
213
Source: Jovenes Unidos and Padres Unidos; March, 2004
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Is this school structured around
student, or adult needs?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Most of us think of
semester- or year-long
increments to teach kids
what they need to learn,
but...
2005 by The Education Trust-West
USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TIME
Analysis of One California Urban Middle School Calendar
The Full Year Calendar
Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Less Summer Vacation
Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Less Weekends, Holidays, & Summer
Vacation
Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Less Professional Development Days & Early
Dismissal/Parent Conferences
Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving Feast,
Christmas, Kwanzaa, Hanukkah, Awards, Assembles, &
Concerts
Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Less State and District Testing and Other NonInstructional Time
Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Use of Instructional Time?
BOTTOM LINE?
Teachers are Left with about
24 School Days
OR
18 Eight Hour Days
Per Subject
Per Year
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#3: Make Sure Your
Instructional System is Fully
and Carefully Aligned…and
That Nothing About Teaching
and Learning is Left to
Chance
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Historically, most of the really
important decisions about
what students should learn
and what kind of work was
“good enough” left to individual
teachers.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Result? A System That:
• Doesn’t expect very much from MOST
students; and,
• Expects much less from some types of
students than others.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
‘A’ Work in Poor Schools Would
Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools
100
87
Percentile - CTBS4
Seventh Grade Math
56
41
34
35
22
21
11
0
A
B
Grades
Low-poverty schools
C
D
High-poverty schools
Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on
Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students can do
no better than
the assignments
they are given...
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Grade 7 Writing Assignment
Essay on Anne Frank
Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which
introduced the title, author and general background of the
novel.
Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall
personality is, and what general psychological and
intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the
book
You might organize your essay by grouping psychological
and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4
characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self
doubt) and show how she changes in this area.
Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Grade 7 Writing Assignment
•My Best Friend:
•A chore I hate:
•A car I want:
•My heartthrob:
Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.
2004
2005
by by
TheThe
Education
Education
Trust-West
Trust-West
Even in college-prep classes,
differences in rigor…
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Using the SAME TEXT BOOK
College-prep assignments from:
School A, District A,
California
1467 students enrolled
in 2005
• 82% White
• 6% Asian
• 4% Latino
• 2% Black
• 2% Low-Income
School B, District B,
California
2001 students enrolled
in 2005
• 45% White
• 4% Asian
• 48% Latino
• 1% Black
• 27% Low-Income
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Same Text Book:
High-Level college-prep assignment.
• Describe the fundamental problems in the
economy that helped cause the Great
Depression. Consider agriculture,
consumer spending and debt, distribution
of wealth, the stock market
• Describe how people struggled to survive
during the Depression
• How did Hoover’s belief in “rugged
individualism” shape his policies during the
depression?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Same Text Book:
Low Level college-prep assignment.
• Role play (Meet the Press) & interview key
people of the era
• Draw a political cartoon highlighting a
major event of the time
• Share excerpts from noted literary
authors-Lewis, Fitzgerald, Hemingway,
Hughes
• Listen to jazz artists of the 20’s
• Construct a collage depicting new
inventions
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High Performing Schools and
Districts
• Have clear and specific goals for what
students should learn in every grade,
including the order in which they should learn
it;
• Provide teachers with common curriculum,
assignments;
• Assess students every 4-8 weeks to measure
progress;
• ACT immediately on the results of those
assessments.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#4. Insist on Rigor and High
Standards for All Students.
Make the College Prep
Curriculum the Default
Curriculum.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Not all students have access to
college-prep classes.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percent of Students Attending High Schools that
Offer High-Level Math Courses
Latino and Black are less likely to attend
High Schools that offer
High-Level Math Courses
100
77
80
67
60
60
59
51
45
40
Black
Latino
White
20
0
Trigonometry
Calculus
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percent of Students Attending High Schools that
Offer High-Level Math Courses
Low-SES Students are less likely to
attend High Schools that offer
High-Level Math Courses
100
83
80
72
64
60
44
40
Low SES
High SES
20
0
Trigonometry
Calculus
SES quintiles are composites of family income, parental education, prestige of parental occupation(s),
and the presence of reading materials and computers in the household.
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percentage of 12th Grade Students Taking
Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
Latino and Black students are less likely
to take the full complement of
Science Courses
50%
45%
40%
31%
30%
20%
22%
25%
Black
Latino
White
Asian
10%
0%
Source: U.S. Department of Education
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Even though most students want to go to college, the
truth is, many low income students and students of
color aren’t getting the classes in the first place.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
San Diego City Schools:
Two High Schools
Gompers HS:
La Jolla HS:
• 1543 Students
• 1688 students
• 87.1% Latino & AfricanAmerican
• 25% Latino & AfricanAmerican
• 81.1% low-income
• 17.8% low-income
• 17% of graduates
successfully completed AG in 2004
• 56.7% of graduates
successfully completed AG in 2004
Source: CA Dept of Education, 2005
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Number of classes offered in 2004-05
Opportunities to take higher level math classes are much
more limited at the high-poverty, high-minority high school:
Gompers HS vs. La Jolla HS, San Diego City Schools
60
48
50
40
30
30
19
20
12
6
10
10
6
3
5
4
3
1
0
Pre-Alg
Beg Alg
Int Alg
Adv Alg
Gompers HS
Source: Ed Trust-West Analysis of CA Dept of Education
Data, 2005
Geometry
Pre-calc
Calc
La Jolla HS
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Regressive Math – A Path to Nowhere
Sample Sequence
In one California district, a high school student has:
• passed both sections of the California Exit Exam
by the beginning of the senior year.
• has started her senior year with 175 of the 230
credits needed to graduate.
• has not fulfilled the 10 credits for Algebra, and
still needs 10 more credits in other math
courses.
She is only enrolled in one math course in
her senior year – Business Math.
Source: Unidentified Student Transcript, California
High School
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Regressive Math – A Path to Nowhere
In that same district 20% of
students are enrolled in
Regressive Math.
More than half of those are
Latino.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But are most of our kids getting
anything that even remotely
resembles
INTENSE?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Jake’s Fall Schedule, Freshman
Year
English
Health Ed/Academic Foundations (Required
Course for all freshmen)
Conceptual Physics
Volleyball
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Spring Schedule, Freshman Year
Algebra
Auto Shop
Auto Shop
Volleyball
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fall Schedule, Sophomore Year
English
Spanish
Chemistry
Open Period (required)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Spring Schedule, Sophomore
Year
Geometry
W. History
Volleyball
Open Period (required)
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fall Schedule, Junior Year
Mythology
Algebra
Auto Shop
Career Choices
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Spring Schedule, Junior Year
Algebra 2
American History
Arts Tech
English
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Senior Year?
Too embarrassing to even show
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Consequences?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The Highest Level of Math Reached in High
School is a Strong Predictor of BA Attainment
Percent Attaining a Bachelor's
100
83
75
80
60
60
39
40
17
20
7
0
Calculus
Precalculus Trigonometry
Algebra 2
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
Geometry
Algebra 1
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High School Curriculum Intensity is a Strong
Predictor of Bachelor’s Degree Completion
Percent of Students Completing a
Bachelor's Degree
100
82
80
60
40
20
9
0
Most Intense Curriculum
Least Intense Curriculum
Curriculum quartiles are composites of English, math, science, foreign language, social studies, computer science,
Advanced Placement, the highest level of math, remedial math and remedial English classes taken during high school.
Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Most 21st Century Jobs Require
Postsecondary Education
2005 by The Education Trust-West
College isn’t for everyone. But a
college prep curriculum is.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High School Course-Taking Indicates
Opportunity for Success in the Workplace
The percentage of workers in the highest-paying jobs that
took high-level math courses in high school
100%
80%
75%
85%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Algebra II or higher
Source: Carnevale and Desrochers, ETS, Connecting Education Standards &
Employment: Course Taking Patterns of Young Workers, ADP: Workplace Study, 2002:
Geometry or higher
2005 by The Education Trust-West
American Diploma Project Interviews
with Employers:
• They mostly want the same things that
higher education wants!
– Strong Reading Ability – read/comprehend informational
and technical texts
– Emphatic about literature – understanding other cultures
is necessary with diverse customers and co-workers
– Writing ability key
– Mathematics Imperative – data, probability, statistics and
competent problem solvers. Algebra I, Geometry and
Algebra II.
Source: Workplace Study by the National Alliance
for Business for the American Diploma Project,
unpublished report, 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect…
Requirements for Tool
and Die Makers
• Four or five years of
apprenticeship
and/or
postsecondary
training;
• Algebra, geometry,
trigonometry and
statistics;
• Average earnings:
$40,000 per year.
Requirements for
Sheet Metal
Workers
• Four or five years
of apprenticeship;
• Algebra, geometry,
trigonometry and
technical reading;
Requirements for
Auto Technicians
• A solid grounding
in physics is
necessary to
understand force,
hydraulics, friction
and electrical
circuits.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect…
Plumbing-Heating-Air
Conditioning
• Four or five years of
apprenticeship
and/or postsecondary training;
• Algebra, plane
geometry,
trigonometry and
statistics;
• Physics, chemistry,
biology, engineering
economics.
Construction
and Engineering
• Four or five years of
apprenticeship
and/or postsecondary training;
• Algebra, plane
geometry
• Critical thinking,
problem solving,
reading and writing
Sources: Plumbing : Shapiro, D., and Nichols, J. Constructing Your Future: Consider a Career in Plumbing,
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) PHCC Auxiliary 2005 downloaded March 13, 3006
http://www.phccweb.org/PDFs/PHCC20pg.pdf, Construction: California Apprenticeship Council Division of
Apprenticeship Standards 2001 Annual Legislative Report Downloaded March 15, 2006
http://www.dir.ca.gov/das/DASAnnualReport2001/LegRep2001.pdf#search='architecture%2C%20construction%
2C%20engineering%20%28ace%20pathway%29%20course%20outline'
ALL of these jobs
require a strong
foundation of
reading, writing and
speaking the
English language in
order to
comprehend
instructions and
technical manuals
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Employers Are Less Willing to
Help
“Remedial programs were victims of
mid-90s cost cutting initiatives: from a
high point of 24% of [businesses] in
1993, the share of companies
sponsoring such programs dropped to
15% in 1999 and 12.3% in 2001.”
--2001 American Management
Association Survey on Workplace
Testing
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Employers are looking for better
educated workers elsewhere
Example: Toyota Motor
Corporation
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Why Ontario, Canada is a better
location for a new Toyota plant…
“The level of the workforce in general is so
high the training program you need for
people, even for people who have never
worked in a Toyota plant before, is minimal
compared to what you have to go through in
the southeastern United States,”
--Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive
Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005
Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“In Alabama, trainers had to use
‘pictorials’ to teach some
illiterate workers how to use
high-tech plant equipment.”
--Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive
Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005
Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html
2005 by The Education Trust-West
With college-prep curricula,
students of all sorts will learn
more...
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Low Quartile Students Gain
More From College Prep
Courses*
28
NELS Score Gain
30
20
19
16
0
Math
Reading
Vocational
College Prep
*Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement.
Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States:
Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College
and Vocation
2005 by The Education Trust-West
San Jose Unified – College Prep
Curriculum For All
AP Scores with a score of AP >=3
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
57.4
43.5
1999
748 Test Taken
Source: EdTrust West analysis of California Department of Education data
2004
1197 Tests Taken
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students taking rigorous courses
will fail less often...
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure Rates,
Even for Lowest Achievers
Percent Earning "D" or "F"
50
Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low level
course, and eighth-grade reading achievement quartiles
47
31
23
16
0
Quartile I (Lowest)
College Prep
Source: SREB, “Middle Grades to High School: Mending a
Weak Link”. Unpublished Draft, 2002.
Quartile 2
Low Level
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Gaps will close.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6
Median National Percentile
Matched Reading Scores at
Grades 4-9 for Students who Have Been Tested with
STAR Every Year Since 1998
Source: San Jose Unified School District
Gap
reduced by 48%
*CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Median National Percentile
SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6
Matched Mathematics Scores at
Grades 3-9 for Students who Have Been Tested
with STAR Every Year Since 1998
Source: San Jose Unified School District
Gap reduced
by 43%
*CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students will work harder.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Recent poll shows that 66% of dropouts
would have worked harder if expectations
were higher.
88%
Had passing grades
Recognized that graduating from high school
was vital to their success
81%
Were confident they could have graduated
from high school
70%
Would have worked harder if expectations
were higher
66%
0%
Source: The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School
Dropouts, Civic Enterprises, March 2006
20%
40%
60%
80% 100%
2005 by The Education Trust-West
And they’ll succeed more.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
SJUSD Graduation Rates
Estimated
completion rate
using Cumulative
Promotion Index
methodology
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
100%
90%
80%
Estimated
70%
completion rate 60%
using Manhattan 50%
Institute
40%
methodology 30%
20%
10%
0%
70%
73%
72%
1998
1999
2000
72%
71%
69%
1998
1999
2000
Source: Ed Trust West analysis of CA Dept of Ed data, 2005
87%
84%
2001
77%
2001
79%
80%
2002
2003
2004
73%
73%
73%
2002
2003
2004
2005 by The Education Trust-West
LAUSD High Schools That Have High
Percentages of Their Graduates Completing
College Prep Curriculum (A-G) Have Fewer
Suspensions and Lower Failure Rates
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
64%
Low
Percentage
A-G Grads
46%
37%
16%
21%
11%
HS
Suspension
Completion
Rate
Rate
% of F's in
Math
Source: Ed Trust West Analysis of School-Level Data, School
Accountability Report Cards, 2005.
23%
12%
High
Percentage
A-G Grads
% of F's in
English
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#5. Monitor the Distribution
of Teacher Talent…and
Make Sure Low-Income and
Minority Students Have the
High Quality Teachers They
Need
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Teachers Matter Big Time.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students Who Start 2nd Grade at About
the Same Level of Math Achievement…
Average Percentile Rank
100
80
60
55
57
Group 1
Group 2
40
20
0
Beginning of 2nd Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Average Percentile Rank
…Finish 5th Grade Math at Dramatically Different
Levels Depending on the Quality of Their
Teachers
100
77
80
60
57
55
40
27
20
0
Group 1 Assigned to Three
EFFECTIVE Teachers
Group 2 Assigned to Three
INEFFECTIVE Teachers
Beginning of 2nd Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
End of 5th Grade
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Students Who Start 3rd Grade at About
the Same Level of Reading
Achievement…
Average Percentile Rank
100
80
60
59
60
Group 1
Group 2
40
20
0
Beginning of 3rd Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Average Percentile Rank
…Finish 6th Grade at Dramatically Different
Levels Depending on the Quality of Their
Teachers
100
76
80
60
60
59
42
40
20
0
Group 1 Assigned to Three
EFFECTIVE Teachers
Group 2 Assigned to Three
INEFFECTIVE Teachers
Beginning of 3rd Grade
End of 6th Grade
Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of
Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But poor and minority students
don’t get their fair share of our
strongest teachers.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Poor and Minority Students Get
More Inexperienced* Teachers
Percent of Teachers Who Are
Inexperienced
25%
21%
20%
11%
10%
0%
High poverty Low poverty
High minority Low minority
*Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience.
Note: High poverty refers to the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low povertybottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with
the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of
minority students
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Percent of Classes Taught by Out
of Field Teachers
More Classes in High-Poverty, HighMinority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field
50%
Teachers
34%
29%
21%
19%
0%
High poverty Low poverty
High minority Low minority
Note: High Poverty school-50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or
fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch.
High-minority school - 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school- 15% or fewer of the students are
nonwhite.
*Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field. Data for
secondary-level core academic classes.
Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching,
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Middle Grades – Classes Taught by
Teachers Without at Least a
College Minor in the Subject
60%
53%
Percent of
middle
school
classes
taught by a
teacher
without at
least a
minor in the
subject
0%
49%
40%
38%
High-Poverty Low-Poverty
Schools
Schools
(>50%)
High-Minority Low-Minority
Schools
Schools
(<15%)
(>50%)
(<15%)
*Data is for core academic classes.
Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching, The
Education Trust, 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
High Schools – Classes Taught by
Teachers Lacking an Undergraduate Major
60%
Percent of
high school
classes
taught by a
teacher
without a
major in the
subject
29%
28%
21%
21%
0%
High-Poverty Low-Poverty
Schools
Schools
(>50%)
(<15%)
High-Minority Low-Minority
Schools
Schools
(>50%)
(<15%)
*Data is for core academic classes.
Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching,
The Education Trust, 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Teacher Quality Index
Illinois Education Research Council
•
School Level Teacher Characteristics
– % of Teachers with Emergency/Provisional
Certification
School
Teacher
Quality
Index
(TQI)
– % of Teachers from More/Most Selective Colleges
– % of Teachers with < 4 Years Experience
– % of Teachers Failing Basic Skills Test on First
Attempt
– School Average of Teachers’ ACT Composite and
English Scores
DeAngelis, K., Presley, J. and White, B. (2005). The Distribution of Teacher Quality in Illinois.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/Teacher_Quality_IERC_%202005-1.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
IERC College Readiness
Index
• Uses ACT scores and self-reported
GPA
• Five levels
–
–
–
–
–
Not/least ready
Minimally ready
Somewhat ready
More ready
Most ready
Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Illinois: Distribution of School TQI by
School Percent Minority
•Very high
percent minority
schools are likely
to have very low
school TQIs.
•There is little
difference in TQI
distribution
below the highest
minority quartile
(i.e. below about
60% minority).
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Impact?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
College Readiness at High Poverty,
High Minority Schools by TQI
80
73%
70
Percent of Students
More/Most Ready
60
Not/Least Ready
50
38%
40
26%
30
20
10
3%
0
Lowest TQI
Upper Middle TQI
Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf
Percent of Students
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Percent of Students More/Most
Ready by High School TQI and
Highest Math Level
81
Lowest 10%
76
67
52
57
48
42
25
18 20 21
6
11
Algebra II
11-25%
Lower Middle TQI
Upper Middle TQI
Highest TQI
16
6
Trigonometry
or other
advanced
math
Calculus
Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Let’s Get That Again!
STUDENTS WHO STUDIED ALL THE
WAY THROUGH CALCULUS IN
SCHOOLS WITH THE LOWEST
TEACHER QUALITY LEARNED LESS
MATH THAN STUDENTS WHO ONLY
WENT THROUGH ALGEBRA 2 IN
SCHOOLS WITH JUST AVERAGE
TEACHER QUALITY.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some of the differences occur
between poor and rich school
districts.
But there are big differences within school
districts, as well. In fact, in most states these
differences are larger than between-district
differences.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
California: Study after study
shows large differences in
experience and education of
teachers in high vs. low-poverty
schools.
These differences, of course,
reflected in different salaries.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
A Tale of Two Schools
Granada Hills High School
Los Angeles Unified
• 32% Latino & African American
• 27% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
773
Source: CA Department of Education, 2003-04 data
Locke High School
Los Angeles Unified
• 99% Latino & African American
• 66% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
440
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In accordance with district and
state practice, both schools
report the same average teacher
salary.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The average teacher at Locke High School
actually gets paid an estimated $8,034 less
every year than his counterpart at Granada Hills
High School.
If Locke spent as much as Granada Hills on
teacher salaries for its 119 teachers, the school
budget would increase by nearly a million dollars
($956,056) every year.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
A Tale of Two Schools
Washington High School
San Francisco Unified
• 13% Latino & African American
• 37% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
760
Source: CA Department of Education, 2003-04 data
Mission High School
San Francisco Unified
• 67% Latino & African American
• 75% of students receive free or
reduced price lunch
• Academic Performance Index =
518
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The average teacher at Mission High School
actually gets paid an estimated $9,901
less every year than his counterpart at
Washington High School.
If Mission spent as much as Washington on
teacher salaries for its 57 teachers, the
school budget would increase by
$564,357 every year.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Again, both report the same
average teacher salary.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Average School Gaps in 10 Largest CA
Districts by School Type
Poverty
Minority
Middle
High
School
36,561
-157,937
325,113
102,762
-319,075
252,503
Fresno Unified
125,881
104,980
85,534
108,113
126,829
125,639
Long Beach Unified
362,683
251,012
574,387
381,587
218,585
289,968
Los Angeles Unified
83,363
175,960
-23,763
112,743
200,178
161,686
Sacramento City
Unified
140,144
-39,078
227,073
142,012
89,692
522,459
San Bernardino City
Unified
228,668
239,357
463,426
231,464
345,367
382,690
San Diego Unified
139,972
216,460
267,900
223,072
268,907
254,832
San Francisco Unified
43,817
44,905
195,426
86,399
146,006
263,816
San Juan Unified
81,899
202,423
103,330
53,964
150,314
139,570
Santa Ana Unified
120,456
309,381
-215,960
84,678
175,133
64,291
DISTRICT
Elk Grove Unified
Elementary
Elementary
Middle
High
School
2005 by The Education Trust-West
You don’t have to just sit by and
watch that happen.
SB 687.
RBB.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
If we had the courage and
creativity to change these
patterns?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“The Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain
estimates of teacher performance
suggest that having five years of
good teachers in a row* could
overcome the average seventhgrade mathematics
achievement gap […].”
* “1.0 standard deviation above average, or at the 85th quality percentile”
SOURCE: Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, “How to Improve the Supply of High-Quality Teachers,”
In Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 2004,” Diane Ravitch, ed., Brrookings Institution Press, 2004.
Estimates based on research using data from Texas described in “Teachers, Schools, and Academic
Achievement,” Working Paper Number 6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, revised July 2002.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Bottom Line: If we’re serious about
all kids college and work ready we
have got to move the teacher
quality and gap conversation to the
top of civic and political agendas.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Why is it so hard?
Despite our greater
understanding of how important
teachers are, it has been very
hard to get traction on an
improvement agenda.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Problem 1: Too polite to
criticize, demand.
Not much to say here, except…
2005 by The Education Trust-West
SPEAK UP!!!
Just as we’ve needed pressure from higher
ed and business to help us ratchet up
standards for high school students, does
higher ed needs pressure from K-12 and
business to ratchet up quality of teacher
preparation? If so, what would be productive
for you?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Problem 2: Paralyzed by supply
fears . . . And so we never get to
equity.
Confront the Myths and Fears
Head – On.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
What do we really know about
supply and turnover?
That most of the myths are…just
that.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #1
“Turnover in the teaching
profession is just terrible! More
than 50% are gone in 3 years.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Overall, the three-year teacher retention
rate for recently graduated teachers is one
of the best new-professional retention
rates in the country.
Source: Presley, Jennifer. (2003). Occupational Stability of New College Graduates. Edwardsville, IN: Illinois Education
Research Council, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. 1 & 3.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
• Nationally, 76% of recently graduated K-12 teachers who worked
full time in 1994 remained teachers in 1997.
• Full-time and part-time new teachers remained on the job at higher
rates than full-time or part-time engineers, scientists, lab and
research assistants or employees in the legal profession.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Profession
Full-time Retention Rate Over a Three Year Period by
Occupation
Health Occupations
76
K-12 Teachers
76
68
Law Enforcement, Military
Engineers, Scientists, Lab and
Research Assistants
65
51
Legal Professionals and Legal
Support Occupations
47
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Percentage
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
Computer and Technical
Occupations
Source: Presley, Jennifer. (2003). Occupational Stability of New College Graduates. Edwardsville, IN: Illinois Education
Research Council, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. 2.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Annual turnover in teaching
profession? 7%
Annual turnover elsewhere in the
workforce? 7%
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #2
“Teachers are terribly dissatisfied with
their work—much more so in recent
years, especially because of the
pressure from NCLB.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fact - Teacher satisfaction has
remained fairly constant over the past
15 years.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
• The percentage of teachers who noted they are
“very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied” (as
opposed to “somewhat dissatisfied,” “very
dissatisfied,” or “not sure”) has hovered around
87% since 1988, peaking at 92% in 2001.
• In 2003, 57% of teachers reported that they were
“very satisfied” with their job, up from 52% in 2001
and 54% in 1995.
Source: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher. (2003). An Examination of
School Leadership: A Survey of Teachers, Principals, Parents and Teachers. New York: Harris Interactive, Inc. Exhibit
4.2—Teachers’ Job Satisfaction (1984-2003). 66.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #3
“We’re facing shortages of up to
2.2 million new teachers over the
next decade.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Each year, approximately:
• 220,000+ teachers retire or otherwise
leave profession;
• Nation’s colleges produce
approximately 200,000 new teachers;
• 200,000+ vacancies filled,
approximately 40% from returning
teachers, and the remainder from new
or recent grads.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
BUT…
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
• Although there may be enough teachers in the
aggregate, there may not be enough teachers
qualified to teach each of the subject areas.
• Likewise, there may not be enough teachers
available who want to teach in certain
geographic locations.
• And, we know there are not enough high-quality
teachers going to high-poverty, high-minority
schools.
Source: Ingersoll, Richard M. (2003). Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of
Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. 8. and Murphey, Patrick J. and Michael M. DeArmond. (2003). From
the Headlines to the Front Lines: The Teacher Shortage and Its Implications for Recruitment Policy. Seattle, WA:
Center for Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. 21-22.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Myth #4
“Nobody wants to teach in urban
school districts.”
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Fact - The good news is that strong
recruitment techniques can attract
highly-qualified teachers to high-needs
schools.
•
The New Teacher Project reported that
aggressive recruiting yielded far more
qualified applicants per position, including in
high-needs subject areas, than the district
could hire.
Source: Levin, Jessica and Meredith Quinn. (2003). Missed Opportunities: How We Keep High-Quality Teachers
Out of Urban Classrooms. New York: The New Teacher Project. 5.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
– In one urban school district, the ratio of
applicants to positions was 20 to 1, with other
districts garnering a ratio of between 5 to 1
and 7 to 1.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
• Chicago Public Schools
– CPS received 13,700 applications for about
1,500 teacher vacancies from candidates
applying for the 2006-2007 school year.
– The district estimates that by the end of the
hiring season, they will receive 18,500
applications.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
• Teach For America - which only places teachers
in high-needs schools - reports record high
numbers of applicants for teaching positions.
– In the 2005-06 recruiting season, Teach For America
received a record 19,000 applications for about 2,400
positions.
© 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
Source: Teach for America Press Release. (June 1, 2006) “In Strong Job Market, Record Number Of Graduating Seniors
Apply To Teach For America.” http://www.teachforamerica.org/documents/060106_2006.Application.Numbers.pdf
2005 by The Education Trust-West
We need to look very closely at
our data, avoid repeating myths
and aggressively counter those
who are spreading
misinformation.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Problem #3:We haven’t
learned enough from high
impact teachers.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
What do we know?
Way too little. But several
actionable conclusions.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Today, drawing primarily from
five new studies:
• Comparing the Effects of Different Routes to
Teaching in NYC (The Teacher Pathway Project-Boyd, Grossman, Lankford, Loeb, Wyckoff)
• Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on
the Job (The Hamilton Project--Gordon, Kane,
Staiger) LAUSD
• Everyone’s Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing
Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?—Dan
Goldhaber, Univ of Washington and the Urban
Institute.
• Illinois Education Research Council.
• Louisiana Blue Ribbon Commission.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#1. No matter how good
teachers will eventually become,
they are NOT as good in their
first year or two of practice.
Teacher effectiveness grows for at
least 3-5 years. Growth biggest
from year 1 to 2.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“…student performance increases as a
result of increased experience over the
first three or four years of experience,
with little or no difference thereafter.”
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, P.,Wyckoff, J. (2005). How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the
Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement. www.teacherpolicyresearch.org
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some Payoff for Experience
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the
Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Goldhaber: Gains in first few
years. But “I find little evidence
of productivity gains associated
with experience beyond 5 years.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#2. ROUTE OF ENTRY…
…doesn’t matter very
much.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
LAUSD: 3 Pathways to Teaching
• Traditional;
• Alternate;
• Uncertified
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Similar Effectiveness,
Regardless of Certification
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“…in many cases, a teacher’s pathway
makes little difference in the achievement
of students…”
“… the measured differences* are not large
in magnitude…”
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, P.,Wyckoff, J. (2005). How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the
Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement. www.teacherpolicyresearch.org
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some nuances…
• Traditional a little better with younger
children, especially in reading;
• Alternates a little better with older
children, especially in math;
• Most differences in lower grades wash
out by year 3.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#3. Differences WITHIN each
category, though, are huge.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Effectiveness More Important
than Certification
“The difference between the 75th
percentile
teacher and the 50th percentile teacher for
all three groups of teachers was roughly
five times as large as the difference
between the average certified teacher
and the average uncertified teacher.”
Three groups = traditionally certified, alternatively certified, and uncertified
Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Huge Differences in Teachers’
Effectiveness
An average student assigned to a bottom
quartile teacher lost 5 percentile points
while
a demographically similar student with a
top
quartile teacher gained 5 percentile
points.
Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
10 Point Average Difference
Between Top and Bottom Teachers
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
#4. There is some disagreement
about whether those differences
can be predicted from
measurable teacher
characteristics.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Research pretty consistent
about…
• Teacher test performance, especially
verbal;
• Teacher content mastery, especially in
higher grades;
Selectivity of undergraduate college also
sometimes predictive. Race can be
relevant, too.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In NYC, Alternate Route Teachers
much higher on all these measures.
Failed Gen.
Knowledge Exam
Traditional Teaching Teach for
Fellow
America
16%
1.8%
0%
Score on LAST
Test
246
267
275
From Highly
Selective College
11%
44%
70%
% Black and Latino 20%
31%
23%
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But at least in NYC and LAUSD,
the relationships between these
things and achievement not
clear.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Goldhaber: Clear positive effect
of higher performance on
licensure exams, especially in
mathematics. But some false
negs and false positives.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Bottom Line: Improving the
Value Added of Teacher Force
Has to be at Heart of Our
Strategy.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
“Massive Impact”
“If the effects were to accumulate, having a
top-quartile teacher rather than a bottom
quartile teacher four years in a row would be:
• enough to close the black-white test score
gap…; and,
• Have twice the impact of reducing class size
from 22 to 16.”
Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job.
Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Lastly, and what everyone will
always want to talk about. . .
#6. Would more money help?
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Nation: Inequities in State and Local
Revenue Per Student
Gap
High Poverty vs. Low
Poverty Districts
-$907 per
student
High Minority vs. Low
Minority Districts
-$614 per
student
Source: The Funding Gap, 2005. The Education Trust. Data are for 2003
2005 by The Education Trust-West
But how much more money will
help depends on how wisely we
spend it.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some districts get more for less.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
Some districts that out-perform spend less
NAEP 2005 Grade 8 Math -Overall Scale Scores
$7,132
$8,311
$11.920
$7,284
Average Scale Score
290
$12,562
$6,923
$8,283
$7,799
$11,312
$10,199
280
$11,847
270
260
250
240
230
ia
Co
lum
b
n ta
nd
of
Cle
ve
la
ric
t
Lo
sA
ng
ele
s
ag
o
At
la
Dis
t
Source: National Center for Education Statistics,
http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde and Standard and Poor’s
www.schoolmatters.com
Ch
ic
rk
Cit
y
Ne
w
Yo
sto
n
Ho
u
Sa
nD
ieg
o
ton
Bo
s
te
rlo
t
Ch
a
Au
s
tin
220
2005 by The Education Trust-West
In the end, it is about choices
adults make.
At the Main, Achievement and Opportunity
Gaps Come from Choices That Educators
and Policymakers Make. Choices About:
- How Much to Spend on Whom.
- What to Expect of Different Schools and
Students.
- Choices Even About Who Teachers
Whom.
- Choices About How to Organize
Classroom and Schools.
2005 by The Education Trust-West
The Education Trust-West
510-465-6444
www.edtrustwest.org
The Education Trust
202-293-1217
www.edtrust.org
2005 by The Education Trust-West
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