Colonial & Early
American Times
Resource Unit
Created By:
Tiffany Tilley
Table of Contents
Content to be Covered
Activities (sorted by Ohio
Social Studies Benchmarks)
People in Societies
Citizen Rights and
Social Studies Skills and
Teacher References
Student References
Audio/Visual References
This resource unit has
been designed to introduce
students to life and major
events in colonial times and
early United States history.
This resource unit will
cover major events in
American history during the
time period of 1700-1780.
Students will explore this
time period using a variety
of different engaging
activities. Each of the
seven areas of the Ohio
Content Standards will be
addressed within the
framework the activities
and lessons contained
within this resource unit.
Content to be Covered
• Native American
groups, migration
patterns, culture,
trading with colonists,
crops, division of labor
• Latitude and longitude
• Explorations of
Christopher Columbus
• Early American
immigration, routes,
travel conditions,
• Slavery in the colonies
Virginia Slave Codes
Pontiac’s Rebellion
French and Indian War
Imports and exports
“Common Sense”
Intolerable Acts
Loyalists and Patriots
Sons of Liberty
Boston Tea Party
Declaration of
• Identify the major Native American
groups present in America
• Correctly use longitude and latitude to
find specific points on a map
• Discuss the explorations of
Christopher Columbus
• Discuss the travel route and
conditions of early American
• Summarize the function and
implications of slavery in the colonies
• Define the Virginia Slave Codes
• Discuss the cause of Pontiac’s
Rebellion and the result
• Discuss the cause of the French and
Indian War and the outcomes
• Define imports and exports as they
existed in colonial America
• Describe Thomas Paine’s “Common
Sense” and explain the reaction by
• Define the Intolerable Acts and the
repercussions of the acts
• Identify loyalists, patriots, and the
Sons of Liberty and their importance
in colonial times
• Explain the cause of the Boston Tea
Party and it’s effects
• Describe the cause of the Declaration
of Independence and it’s significance
to the future of North America and it’s
Standard: History
• Students will create a time line of explorations of Christopher
Columbus. (1)
• Students will work in small groups to identify various Native
American groups through web site resources. The students
will specifically look for information on migration patterns,
rituals, and unique characteristics of the groups. The
students will present their assigned group to the remainder of
the class. (2)
• Students will write a persuasive letter from the perspective of
a pilgrim who has just arrived in the “New World.” The letter
should be addressed to a friend or relative and also try to
convince that person why they, too, should come to the “New
World.” Students may use web site resources to find facts
that would persuade others to come to America (i.e. bountiful
lands, wild game, etc.). (3)
Standard: History
• Students will research one key
event from the revolutionary
period. Topics may include:
Boston Tea Party, Declaration of
Independence, the Intolerable
Acts, etc. Students will create a
poster highlighting the event and
its significance. (5)
• Students will inspect the
migration patterns of Native
Americans after the colonization
of America. Students will choose
one Native American group to
profile and map out the migration
pattern on a poster and explain
their findings to the class.
Students will also give
information on the Native
American tribe as it exists today
(if applicable). (6)
History Web Sites
• Christopher Columbus Timeline
• Native American Indians and
Map Locations
• Pilgrims Web Sources
• PBS Boston Tea Party Chronicle
• Social Studies for Kids:
Intolerable Acts
• Ben's Guide to the Declaration
of Independence
Standard: People in Societies
• Students will compare and contrast the food,
language, and clothing of Native Americans with
colonial immigrants. Students will print out photos
of traditional food and clothing from provided web
sites and categorize these photos on a poster board
to create a visual aid. Students will share their
posters with the class. (1c,d,e)
• Students will compare and contrast the life of the Cherokee Indians
before colonization with the Cherokee life now as lived on the
Cherokee Reservation in North Carolina. Students are looking
specifically at means for survival (income), housing, and traditions.
Students will use a Venn diagram to organize their information and
findings. (2)
• Students will read If You Lived When There Was Slavery in America
by Anne Kamma. The students will write a journal response to the
text, giving specific examples from the text of practices used. (3)
Standard: People in Societies
• Students will investigate the Irish
immigrants with a provided website and
read Katie’s Wish by Barbara Shook
Hazen. The students will write a
summary of the story and also write a
brief explanation why immigrants were
coming to America. (4)
• Students will watch a brief clip from the
movie Gangs of New York to view how
Irish immigrants were treated upon their
arrival to America. Students will
compare that scene from the scenes in
Katie’s Wish. Students will write a
response to the movie clip describing
specifically how immigrants were treated
upon their arrival. (5)
People in Societies Web Sites
• Cherokee, NC Indian
• Marilee's Native American
• Colonial Williamsburg: 18th
Century Clothing and
• Colonial Williamsburg:
Slavery in the Colonies
• PBS: Slavery and the Making
of America
Standard: Geography
• Students will label the latitude and longitude coordinates of
the 13 colonies on a map provided to them. Students will use
web sites to research the 13 colonies (if that information is
unknown). (1)
• Students will research the conditions and climates early
immigrants were exposed to while traveling to America on the
Mayflower. The students will present their findings to the
class. (3)
• Students will research the conditions early immigrants were
exposed to at the Jamestown settlement. Students will create
a drawing (or a journal entry) depicting the scene an early
immigrant would have seen. Drawings and journals will be
mounted and displayed for all the students to view other’s
interpretations of the scene. (3)
Standard: Geography
• Students will examine the natural
resources that were available to early
immigrants. Students will describe how
these resources would help or hinder the
new settlements. (6)
• Students will research trade relationships
between immigrants to America and Native
Americans. Students will reenact trades
between the two groups and write a
response to the activity. Students will
explain the benefits or disadvantages of
trading with the other group. (7a,c)
Geography Web Sites
• Enchanted Learning Map
• Sail 1620: The Mayflower at
• Colonial Life in Virginia
• The Jamestown Online
• Teacher Net: Colonial FAQ
• Trades and Tools from
Colonial Times
Standard: Economics
• Students will research the food scarcity
upon the immigrants arrival and study
about the First Thanksgiving. Students will
create an “I am thankful for…” essay. (1)
• Students will investigate Native American
crops and how their production stabilized
the immigrant settlements. Students will
create a graph depicting crops and their
frequency. (2)
• Students will investigate the division of labor
in Native American groups. The students
will contrast that information with the
division of labor of the arriving immigrants.
Students will utilize a Venn diagram to
organize their information. (3)
Standard: Economics
• Students will examine the imports
and exports of colonial America.
Students will create a graph
comparing the amount of imports
against the amount of exports. (4)
• Students will investigate the
Boston Tea Party. Students will
hypothesize about a “black market”
for tea and infer how that would
affect tea prices. Students will
work collaboratively to create a line
graph to show the rise or fall of tea
prices over time. (5)
Economics Web Sites
• Investigate the First
• Native American Seven Fires
Council (Crops)
• Thinkquest: Native American
• Economics in Colonial
• U.S. History: Boston Tea
Standard: Government
Students will examine the Declaration of Independence
and its significance. Students will recreate a dramatic
scene of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
Students will investigate the quote “No taxation without
representation.” Students will write a letter either as a
loyalist or a patriot defending their position on this
Students will investigate a loyalist, Samuel Seabury.
Students will write a journal entry as they are Samuel
Seabury and share some sentiments he had about the
patriot movement and the rights of men. (2)
Students will read the book My Brother Sam is Dead by
James and Chris Collier. Students will elaborate on the
themes of the book (family and country ties, rights of men)
and give an oral presentation of their summary. (2,b)
Students will interpret the Declaration of Independence
from King George’s perspective. The students will act out
a scene in which King George receives the Declaration of
Independence from his colonies, conveying evident tone
and mood. (3)
Government Web Sites
• Samuel Seabury
• No Taxation Without
• Congress for Kids:
Declaration of Independence
• Eduscapes: My Brother Sam
is Dead
• Social Studies for Kids: King
George III
Standard: Citizenship Rights
and Responsibilities
• Students will examine the Intolerable Acts
and the consequences that were in place for
not paying one’s taxes. Students will create
a journal entry as a tax collector working for
the King describing how his job works and if
it is easy to collect the taxes. (2, b)
• Students will compare and contrast the
individual rights colonials had under the
King’s rule and individual rights under
Independence. Students will use a Venn
diagram to organize their information. (3, ad)
• Students will review laws under colonial
America and contrast them with laws under
American independence. Students will
choose one law under each and a journal
entry as a settler under each law discussing
its fairness or unfairness. (2, a)
Standard: Citizenship Rights
and Responsibilities
• Students will research the Sons
of Liberty. Students will create a
Sons of Liberty newsletter
persuading others to join them in
their pursuit of independence
from King George. Students will
work in small groups of no more
than 3 people. (3 b, c)
• Students will research the
institution of slavery to
determine how one was declared
a slave from birth. Students will
write an essay on their findings.
Citizen Rights and Responsibilities
Web Sites
• U.S. History: The Sons of
• Colonial American Law
• History Central: Stamp Tax
• Africans in America - Slavery
and Birth
• Colonial Life
Standard: Social Studies Skills and Methods
• Students will research a Sons of Liberty
member using provided web cites. Students will
write a biography brochure on this person
describing his life, dedication to the cause, and
death. Students will computer generate the
brochure. (2)
• Students will read Thomas Paine’s “Common
Sense.” Students will write a letter to a fictional
Tory from the perspective of a loyalist. Students
will cite specific examples from the pamphlet
that show the intention of the author to further
their cause. (4 b, c)
• Students will research the institution of slavery
in colonial America. Students will write a letter
to Lord Dunmore stating reasons why slavery
should be abolished and offering a solution to
the ending slavery in the colonies. (9 b, e)
Standard: Social Studies Skills and Methods
• Students will research the Virginia Slave
Codes. Students will dramatize a town
square scene in which abolitionists speak
out against the slave codes and demand
an end to slavery in the colonies.
Students will work in groups of no more
than 5 and write responses to the drama
scenes of their peers. (9 a, b, c, d)
• Students will investigate Pontiac’s
Rebellion through provided web sites.
Students will dramatize a meeting of the
Ottawa Chief Pontiac and North
American Indians urging them to fight
against the British invaders for control of
the Ohio Valley. Students may work in
groups of no more than 5 and must
critique other groups for effectiveness of
speech, persuasion, and intent. (9
Social Studies Skills and Methods
Web Sites
• Sons of Liberty Members
• U.S. History: Thomas Paine
• Africans in America: Lord
• Slavery in Colonial Times
• Pontiac's Rebellion
• Sample Evaluation (.doc)
• Students would be expected to achieve an
80% or better to be considered proficient
with the material covered in this resource
• If students obtain less than an 80%,
students will have the opportunity to retake
the test after the teacher has clarified the
information through re-teaching lessons
and alternative activities. The teacher may
also choose an alternative assessment.
Name: ___________________________________________ Date: _______________
Colonial Times Evaluation
Multiple choice: Read all the answer choices and circle the correct answer.
1. The author of “Common Sense” was:
George Washington
Paul Revere
Thomas Paine
2. A natural resource available to early immigrants was:
Abundant game
Fuel for heating and cooking
Crops of food
3. Native American grew many crops. One of those crops is:
4. The important message sent to King George in 1776 and signed by colonists is called
Declaration of Independence
Bill of Rights
5. The acts imposed on the colonists by King George requiring them to pay many new
taxes were called:
The intolerable Acts
The tax laws
The unfair acts
Short Answer questions: Write a brief response to the question asked.
6. Name three prominent Native American groups present when early immigrants arrived
in America.
1. ______________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________
7. Name the two opposing sides in the French and Indian War and give the outcome of the
war (who won).
1. _____________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________
Outcome: _______________________________________________
8. Give an example of a trade transaction between a Native American and a colonist (what
they would trade).
Short Essay Questions. Read each question carefully. Respond to all
parts of the question in complete sentences. Support your answer
with specific facts and/or details.
9. Who were the loyalists and patriots. How did their actions play an
important role in America’s (or England’s) future?
10. Discuss the Sons of Liberty and their involvement in the Boston
Tea Party. Give specific details about what happened during the
Boston Tea Party.
Teacher References
Baicker, Karen. Primary Sources Teaching Kit: Colonial America. New York: Scholastic, 2002.
This resource is a great reference for teaching the daily lives of colonial and Native Americans. There
are sections devoted to education, personal diaries, and information on the slave trade (auctions and
runaway slaves).
Copeland, Peter. Life in Colonial America. New York: Dover Publications, 2000.
This book contains 44 detailed, ready-to-color illustrations that depict the drama of American life
before the Revolution. Images include arrival from Europe, encounters with Native Americans, the
Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, the deck of a slave ship, a frontier fort, a colonial kitchen, and much
more. Descriptive captions provide brief history lessons.
Gravois, Michael. Hands on History: Colonial America . New York: Scholastic, 2003.
This book gives the teacher some great art activities to use in the context of colonial America. Some
examples are the question and answer disk, colonial quilt, log cabin vocabulary, and many more.
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 - 1776. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
This outstanding book describes the history of these colonies, both individually and collectively. Since
its first publication in 1992 it has become the established textbook for students of this period in
American history. The third edition, revised throughout and substantially expanded, now includes a
chapter on the Spanish in Florida, New Mexico, and Texas, together with an account of the French
settlements in Louisiana. Accompanied by maps, contemporary illustrations, chronologies,
documents, and a fully updated and expanded bibliography, this comprehensive and readable history
of the colonial period offers a fascinating analysis of the evolution of a new and distinctive society.
Silver, Donald M. Colonial America (Easy Make & Learn Projects). New York: Scholastic, 2002.
Teacher References
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 - 1776.
Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
This book describes the history of the colonies. It contains maps,
illustrations, chronologies, and replicas of documents. It is a great
resource to find specific information about the colonial period.
Silver, Donald M. Colonial America (Easy Make & Learn Projects).
New York: Scholastic, 2002.
This book uses paper models to illustrate key colonial America
concepts. This book teaches about goods and services with the New
England Seaport diorama and Lift & Look Georgia Plantation.
Compare and contrast Colonial towns and homes with the 3-D
Jamestown Map, Dutch Step House, and more. Each reproducible
model comes complete with background information, easy how-to's,
step-by-step lessons, and extension activities.
Student References
Beller, Susan. Yankee Doodle And The Redcoats . Brookfield: 21st Century, 2003.
This book is a great reference source for students. It includes age appropriate text and
images. Students can research specific details about colonial America with this text.
“Colonial America and the Revolutionary War.” Time for Kids. 2006. 2 Nov. 2006
This is a great resource for students to access online. This website allows students to
look up the Boston Tea party and other infamous events from the colonial period.
“Colonial Kids.” St. Luke Elementary. 2 Nov. 2006
This site allows students to see what the lives of children were like in the colonial period.
Students can learn about the expectations for children and their daily chores, in
addition to learning about clothing and education.
“Colonial Times in America.” Social Studies for Kids. 1 Nov. 2006
This site has a multitude of information about the colonial period. It has information
about the 13 colonies, farming, food, education, religion, and much more.
“How Do You Lose a Colony?” Thinkquest. 2 Nov. 2006
This website is all about the lost colony of Roanoke. Students will learn about the
colony, and the disappearance of the settlers.
Student References
“Kids Zone.” Colonial Williamsburg - History for Kids. 2006. 1 Nov.
2006 <>.
This site is a kid-friendly site that is all about colonial America.
Students can play games, learn about livestock, and daily lives of
people. It also features information for parents and teachers.
Knight. Journey to Monticello . New York: Troll , 1999.
This book allows readers to view life in 1775 as a young man travels
from Massachusetts to Virginia. It depicts major events and is
Miller, Brandon Marie. Growing Up in a New World: 1607 to 1775.
Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 2003.
This book is wrote from the perspective of a child growing up in the
colonies. It is a longer chapter book suitable for advanced readers.
Student References
• Minor, Wedell. Yankee Doodle America: The Spirit
of 1776 from A to Z . N.p.: Putnam Juvenile, 2006.
Gives information of certain people during the time
period. Each letter features a prominent individual
from the time and gives a brief biography of the
person and their importance in colonial times.
• Worth, Richard. Colonial America: Building Toward
Independence. N.p.: Enslow Publishers, 2006.
This picture book discusses the key events that led
to the American Revolution. It also discusses the
Sons of Liberty and their importance in colonial
Audio/Visual References
Marching out of time [sound recording] / The Fifes and Drums of Colonial Williamsburg.
Williamsburg, Va. : Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, p1989.
This music recording allows listeners to experience the different drum marches of the colonial soldiers.
All the best from the American Indian [sound recording] St-Laurent, Québec, Canada : Distributed by
Distributions Madacy Inc., [1993]
This music recording allows listeners to experience authentic native American music. It features
mainly native American groups for the northeastern region.
Wee sing America [sound recording] : songs of patriots and pioneers / by Pamela Conn Beall and
Susan Hagen Nipp. Los Angeles, CA : Price/Stern/Sloan Publishers, p1987.
This kid-friendly music collection is designed to give students a kids eye view of the patriots and
pioneers through music. Students will learn about patriots such as Samuel Adams and Thomas
Jefferson through song.
Heart of America [sound recording]. Manchester, VT : Resmiranda, p1989.
This music collection is songs that are patriotic. Students may enjoy listening to the variations of
patriotic music as it has evolved over time.
Native flute collection [sound recording] San Antonio, TX : Talking Taco Records, p1991.
This recording illustrates the musical instruments that many native American groups use to create
music. Students will enjoy hearing all the different instruments and unique sounds they create.
Audio/Visual References
Where America began : [videorecording] Jamestown, colonial Williamsburg,
Yorktown Whittier, Calif. : Finley-Holiday Film Corporation, c1988.
This film looks at three historic home restorations in Jamestown,
Williamsburg, and Yorktown. Students will learn about the history of those
three specific sites.
The American Revolution. Volume 3, Washington and Arnold [videorecording]
/ produced by Greystone Communications, Inc. for A&E Television
Networks. New York, N.Y. : A&E Home Video, c1994.
This production from A & E examines the revolutionary period in general. It
discusses all the important events leading up to the war and the battles of
the war.
Johnny Tremain [videorecording] / Walt Disney ; screenplay by Tom
Blackburn ; directed by Robert Stevenson. Burbank, Calif. : Walt Disney
Home Video : distributed by Buena Vista Home Video, [1997]
This movie is based from the book Johnny Tremain. Students will
experience the patriot movement in the colonies through the eyes of a young
Audio/Visual References
Brands, H. W. The life and times of Benjamin Franklin [electronic resource] /
H.W. Brands. Prince Frederick, MD : Recorded Books ; [Boulder, Colo. :
Made available electronically by] NetLibrary, 2006.
This recorded book contains lectures delivered by Professor H.W. Brands,
Texas A & M University. He examines the life of Benjamin Franklin and his
influence on both American and world history.
Fast, Howard. April morning [electronic resource] / by Howard Fast. Prince
Frederick, MD : Recorded Books, LLC ; [Boulder, Colo. : Made available
electronically by] NetLibrary, 2005.
This recorded book contains the story of fifteen-year-old Adam Cooper. He
eagerly joins the action of the Revolutionary War. On the morning of April
19, 1775, he stands next to his father to confront the British soldiers
marching out of Boston.
Richardson, Fayette.Sam Adams; the boy who became father of the American
Revolution. New York, Crown Publishers [1975].
This book is a brief biography of the Massachusetts radical whose belief in
forceful protest against injustice made him one of the leaders of the
Audio/Visual References
Brain quest. 4th grade [interactive multimedia] [U.S.] : IBM/Image Builder, c1999.
This computer software comes with Brain Quest questions, multi-player game modes to compete
against others, game options designed for individual learning styles. Topics include the colonial period
and the revolutionary war.
Liberty's Kids [electronic resource]. Novato, CA : Learning Co., c2002.EditionVersion 1.0 Windows/Mac
This computer software allows students to become one of Liberty's Kids and report on the events of the
American Revolution, from the Boston Tea Party to the battle of Yorktown. They may interview heroes,
experience battles and collect interesting historical facts. Then publish a front page, complete with
articles and their own headlines.
Songs and stories from the American Revolution / [compiled by] Jerry Silverman. Brookfield, Conn. :
Millbrook Press, c1994.
This sheet music allows for students to learn patriotic music. It includes lyrics and sheet music for
keyboard or piano. It includes these songs: The sergeant, Yankee Doodle, Ballad of Bunker Hill, The
riflemen of Bennington and others.
Davis, Burke. Black heroes of the American Revolution. New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.
This book is an account of the black soldiers, sailors, spies, scouts, guides, and wagoners who
participated and sacrificed in the struggle for American independence.
Audio/Visual References
Somerville, Mollie D. Women and the American Revolution.
[Washington] National Society, Daughters of the American
Revolution, 1974.
This book gives a brief biography of the women who played a part in
colonial America and the American revolution.
Henry, Patrick. “’Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!’” Colonial
Williamsburg Online. Mar. 1775. 2 Nov. 2006
The web site contains the full text of Patrick Henry’s famous speech.
Students can read and analyze the speech.
Kid Info. Colonial Life. 2 Nov. 2006
This site allows for students to experience colonial life for men,
women, and children. Students can discover customs, traditions,
foods, and much more from the time period.
Audio/Visual References
• Nall, Trish. “Colonies PowerPoint.” Jefferson City Schools. 2
Nov. 2006 <>.
This power point presentation is set up like a Jeopardy game.
Students can answer trivia questions for points and compete
against one another.
• U.S. Gen Net. Colonial America. 2 Nov.2006
This site allows students to explore the trade that existed in
the colonies. Students can learn about trade agreements, and
the blockades.
Standards Addressed
Create time lines and identify possible relationships
between events.
Explain how American Indians settled the continent
and why different nations of Indians interacted with
their environment in different ways.
Explain why European countries explored and
colonized America.
Explain how the United States became independent
from Great Britain.
Explain the impact of settlement, industrialization
and transportation on the expansion of the United
Back to History Standard
Standards Addressed
People in Societies
1. Compare the cultural practices and products of diverse
groups in North America including: C) language, D) food,
E) Clothing.
2. Compare life on Indian reservations today with the cultural
traditions of American Indians before the reservation
3. Describe the experiences of African-Americans under the
institution of slavery.
4. Describe the waves of immigration to North America and
the areas from which people came in each wave.
5. Compare reasons for immigrations to North America with
the reality immigrants experienced upon arrival.
Back to People in Societies Standard
Standards Addressed
1. Use coordinates of latitude and longitude to determine
the absolute location of points in North America.
3. Describe and compare landforms, climates, population,
culture, and economic characteristics of places and
regions in North America.
6. Use distribution maps to describe the patterns of
renewable, nonrenewable and flow resources in North
America including A) forests, B) fertile soil, C) oil, D)
coal, E) running water.
7. Analyze reasons for conflict and cooperation among
regions of North America including: A) trade C)
Back to Geography Standard
Standards Addressed
Compare different allocation methods for scarce goods and
services such as prices, command, first-come-first-served,
sharing equally, rationing, and lottery.
Explain that individuals in all economies must answer the
fundamental economic questions of what to produce, how to
produce, and for whom to produce.
Explain how education, specialization, capital goods and the
division of labor affect productive capacity.
Explain how regions in North America become interdependent
when they specialize in what they produce best and then trade
with other regions inside and outside North America to
increase the amount and variety of goods and services
Explain the general relationship between supply, demand, and
price in a competitive market.
Back to Economics Standard
Standards Addressed
2. Explain the essential characteristics of
American democracy including: B) all
citizens have the right and responsibility
to vote and influence the decisions of
3. Explain the significance of the Declaration
of Independence and the U.S.
Back to Government Standard
Standards Addressed
Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities
Explain how an individual acquires U.S.
citizenship: A) birth
Explain the obligation of upholding the U.S.
Constitution including: A) Obeying laws, B) Paying
Explain the significance of the rights that are
protected by the First Amendment including: A)
Freedom of religion, B) Freedom of Speech, C)
Freedom of the press, D) Right of petition and
Back to Citizen Rights and Responsibilities Standard
Standards Addressed
Social Studies Skills and Methods
2. Locate information in a variety of sources using key words,
related articles and cross references.
4. Read information critically in order to identify: B) The
author’s perspective, C) The purpose.
9. Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which
includes: A) Identifying a problem, B) Gathering
information, C) Listing and considering options, D)
Considering advantages and disadvantages of options, E)
Choosing and implementing a solution.
Back to Social Studies Skills and Methods Standard

Colonial & Early American Times for 5th Grade