Literary Terms
Rhyme

Identical or very similar final sounds in
words usually at the end of lines of a
poem
Rhyme – “Twas the Night
Before Christmas”

Clement Clark Moore writes his entire
poem in rhyming couplets!
Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse.
The stockins were hung by the chimney with care,
In hopes that St Nicholas soon would be there.
Rhyme – Romeo and Juliet

William Shakespeare ends the play
with a heroic couplet!
For never was a story of more woe
Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.
Rhyme – “Richard Cory”

Edwin Arlington Robinson uses an
ABAB rhyme scheme in his poem!
Whenever Richard Cory went down town
We people on the pavement looked at him:
He was a gentleman from sole to crown,
Clean favored, and imperially slim.
Rhyme - “Stopping by
Woods on a Snowy Evening”

In his poem, Robert Frost chooses an
AABA rhyme scheme!
Whose woods these are I think I know,
His house is in the village though.
He will not see me stopping here,
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
Rhyme – “Humpty
Dumpty”

We learn to recognize rhyme as
infants and toddlers through nursery
rhymes!
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the King's horses, And all the King's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again!
Rhyme – Feminine rhyme

These words are more than one
syllable, which makes the rhyme a bit
weaker.
A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted
Hast thou, the master-mistress of my passion;
A woman's gentle heart, but not acquainted
With shifting change, as is false women's fashion
Cause and Effect

Cause statements stem from actions
and events, and effects are what
happen as a result of the event of
action
Cause and Effect

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The boy kicked the
ball.
The girl teased the
cat.
Sally studied hard
for a test.
Joe became really
tired.

The ball rolled.

The cat growled.


Sally earned an A
on her test.
Joe went to sleep
early.
Cause and Effect
Paragraph

In recent decades, cities have grown so large (effect) that now
about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are
several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing
industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the
creation of many factory jobs (cause), which tended to be
located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material
life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were
many schools established to educate the children of the new
factory laborers (cause). The promise of a better education
persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to
the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of
leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums,
theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made
city life appear more interesting than life on the farm
(cause), and therefore drew them away from rural communities.
Cause and Effect Chart
Cause and Effect Chart

Battery
Bulb
Expository Text

Text written to explain and convey
information about a specific topic;
contrasts with narrative text
Expository Text Description

The Olympic symbol consists of five
interlocking rings. The rings represent the
five continents - Africa, Asia, Europe, North
America and South America - from which
athletes come to compete in the games.
The rings are colored black blue, green, red,
and yellow. At least one of these colors is
found in the flag of every country sending
athletes to compete in the Olympic games.
Expository Text –
Chronological Order

The Olympic games began as athletic festivals to honor the
Greek gods. The most important festival was held in the valley
of Olympia to honor Zeus, the king of the gods. It was this
festival that became the Olympic games in 776 B.C. These
games were ended in A.D. 394 by the Roman Emperor who
ruled Greece. No Olympic games were held for more than
1,500 years. Then the modern Olympics began in 1896.
Almost 300 male athletes competed in the first modern
Olympics In the games held in 1900, female athletes were
allowed to compete. The games have continued every four
years since 1896 except during World War II, and they will
most likely continue for many years to come.
Expository Text –
Comparison/Contrast

The modern Olympics is very unlike the ancient Olympic
games. Individual events are different. While there were no
swimming races in the ancient games, for example, there
were chariot races. There were no female contestants and all
athletes competed in the nude. Of course, the ancient and
modern Olympics are also alike in many ways. Some events,
such as the javelin and discus throws, are the same. Some
people say that cheating, professionalism, and nationalism in
the modern games are a disgrace to the Olympic tradition.
But according to the ancient Greek writers, there were many
cases of cheating, nationalism, and professionalism in their
Olympics too.
Expository Text – Cause
and Effect

There are several reasons why so many people
attend the Olympic games or watch them on
television. One reason is tradition. The name
Olympics and the torch and flame remind people of
the ancient games. People can escape the
ordinariness of daily life by attending or watching
the Olympics. They like to identify with someone
else's individual sacrifice and accomplishment.
National pride is another reason, and an athlete's or
a team's hard earned victory becomes a nation's
victory. There are national medal counts and people
keep track of how many medals their country's
athletes have won.
Expository Text –
Problem/Solution

One problem with the modern Olympics is that it has become
very big and expensive to operate. The city or country that
hosts the games often loses a lot of money. A stadium, pools,
and playing fields must be built for the athletic events and
housing is needed for the athletes who come from around the
world. And all of these facilities are used for only 2 weeks! In
1984, Los Angeles solved these problems by charging a fee
for companies who wanted to be official sponsors of the
games. Companies like McDonald's paid a lot of money to be
part of the Olympics. Many buildings that were already built in
the Los Angeles area were also used. The Coliseum where the
1932 games were held was used again and many colleges and
universities in the area became playing and living sites.
Expository Text
Paragraph

One reason I hate mosquitoes is because they are
so annoying while I am outside. For example,
whenever we have cookouts, they want to swarm
all around the food. Also, when I go fishing with my
Dad, we always have to wear bug spray. The bug
spray always stinks to high heaven! Then, if you do
not want to use bug spray, the only other way to
get them to leave you alone is to wear long
sleeves. Yet, who wants to wear long sleeves when
it is hot outside? Nothing ruins your day like
bloodsucking mosquitoes.
Public Document

A document that focuses on civic
issues or matters of public safety at
the community level and beyond
Public Documents

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Adoption registries
Birth records
Marriage/Divorce records
Business/people-finder directories
Phone directories
Criminal records
Missing persons
Most wanted persons
Conventions of Language

Mechanics, usage, and sentence
completeness
Conventions of Language
– Sentence Completeness





Parts of speech
Parts of a sentence
Phrases
Clauses
Fragments/Run-ons
Conventions of Language
- Usage

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Subject/verb agreement
Pronoun/antecedent agreement
Verb tense
Modifiers
Conventions of Language
- Mechanics

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
Capitalization
Punctuation
Spelling
Words often confused
Folktales

A story originating in the oral tradition
that falls into a variety of categories,
including legends, ghost stories, fairy
tales, fables, and anecdotes based on
historical figures and events
Folktales

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Pecos Bill
Johnny Appleseed
Grimm’s Fairy Tales
Aesop’s Fables
Chicken Little
The Legend of King Arthur
Heroes and Villains
Urban Legends – find one
Allusion

An implied or indirect reference in
literature to a familiar person, place,
or event
Allusions - Obama


"I was not born in a manger. I was actually born on Krypton
and sent here by my father, Jor-el, to save the Planet Earth."
(Senator Barack Obama, speech at a fund-raiser for Catholic
charities, October 16, 2008)
"Senator Obama's call to 'ask not just what our government
can do for us, but what we can do for ourselves' had an even
more direct connection to the inaugural address of the first
G.I. Generation president of the United States."
(Morley Winograd and Michael D. Hais, Millennial Makeover,
Rutgers University Press, 2008)
Allusions




"As the cave's roof collapsed, he was swallowed up in the
dust like Jonah, and only his frantic scrabbling behind a wall
of rock indicated that there was anyone still alive".
"Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but
she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities".
"Like the prodigal son, he returned to his home town and was
welcomed by all who knew him".
"Marty's presence at the dance was definitely a 'Catch 22'
situation; if he talked to Cindy she'd be mad at him, but if he
ignored her there'd be hell to pay. His anger bubbled to the
surface. He realized that by coming to the dance he had
brought his problems with him like a Trojan Horse, and he
could only hope he would be able to keep them bottled up".
Allusions - Assignment

Hamlet was a character from Shakespeare who had a difficulty making a decision.

Falstaff was another of Shakespeare's characters who was a large jovial man with a
keen wit.

The Three Stooges were a comedy team of not-too-bright buffoons.

Benedict Arnold was an American traitor.

The 'cowardly lion' from the Wizard of Oz was a coward.

Judas betrayed Jesus.



Mother Teresa was a nun who selflessly devoted her life to caring for the poor and
sick.
Don Quixote was a fictional hero; a dreamer who was always going on quests to try to
accomplish impossible tasks.
Your assignment is to write a few sentences or a short paragraph (or poem) that contain
an allusion to three of the characters above.
Literary Devices

Tools used by an author to enliven
and provide voice to the writing
Literary Devices – write an example
illustrating each of the following
techniques
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Metaphor and
simile.
Personification.
Symbolism.
Irony.
Hyperbole

Rhythm and meter.

Rhyme.

Assonance.

Alliteration.

Repetition.

Onomatopoeia.
Imagery

A word or group of words in a literary
work which appeal to one or more of
the senses; figurative language
Imagery – Paragraph

As the last seconds ticked down, the fans gripped
their chilled drinks in anticipation. After the clock
hit zero, the yellow and black suits stormed the
green beaten field. They cried in excitement and
exhaustion while they hugged teammates. From
the sky red, blue, and white streamers danced
down through the gentle smoke from the fireworks.
The headcoach was showered with freezing cold
Gatorade that soaked every inch of his body and
ran into his mouth and greeted him with
sweetness. The look on his face was proud as he
was clearly in disbelief that this happened to himyes, he won the Superbowl.
After Apple Picking –
Robert Frost

My long two-pointed ladder's sticking
through a tree
Toward heaven still,
And there's a barrel that I didn't fill
Beside it, and there may be two or
three
Apples I didn't pick upon some bough.
But I am done with apple-picking now.
Essence of winter sleep is on the night,
The scent of apples: I am drowsing off.
I cannot rub the strangeness from my
sight
I got from looking through a pane of
glass
I skimmed this morning from the
drinking trough
And held against the world of hoary
grass.
It melted, and I let it fall and break.
But I was well
Upon my way to sleep before it fell,
And I could tell
What form my dreaming was about to
take.
Magnified apples appear and disappear,
Stem end and blossom end,
And every fleck of russet showing clear.
My instep arch not only keeps the ache,
It keeps the pressure of a ladder-round.
I feel the ladder sway as the boughs
bend.
And I keep hearing from the cellar bin
The rumbling sound
Of load on load of apples coming in.
For I have had too much
Of apple-picking: I am overtired
Of the great harvest I myself desired.
There were ten thousand thousand fruit
to touch,
Cherish in hand, lift down, and not let
fall.
For all
That struck the earth,
No matter if not bruised or spiked with
stubble,
Went surely to the cider-apple heap
As of no worth.
One can see what will trouble
This sleep of mine, whatever sleep it is.
Were he not gone,
The woodchuck could say whether it's
like his
Long sleep, as I describe its coming on,
Or just some human sleep.
Types of Imagery

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Visual – sight
Auditory – sound
Olfactory – smell
Gustatory – taste
Tactile – touch
Organic – internal sensation (hunger, fear)
Kinesthetic – movement
If you had to give up one of your senses, which
would you choose and why? (40-50 words)
Visual imagery - something
seen in the mind's eye

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After Apple-Picking - magnified apples appear and
disappear...every fleck of russet showing clear
Once by the Pacific - the clouds were low and
hairy...like locks blown forward in the gleam of
eyes.
Birches - the iced branches shed "crystal shells"
October - Enchant the land with amethyst
Good Hours - the cottages up to their shining eyes
in snow
Auditory imagery represents a sound

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After Apple-Picking - the rumbling .. of load on load
of apples coming in.
Mowing - the scythe whispering to the ground
The Runaway - the miniature thunder... the clatter
of stone
An Old Man's Winter Night - the roar of trees, the
crack of branches, beating on a box
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening - the
sweep of easy wind and downy flake
Olfactory imagery - smell

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After Apple-Picking - Essence of winter sleep in on
the night, the scent of apples
Note: just the mention of "the scent of apples" does
not make it an image, but when connected to
"essence of winter sleep" the scent gains vividness.
To Earthward - musk from hidden grapevine
springs
Out, Out - the sticks of wood "sweet scented stuff"
Unharvested - A scent of ripeness from over a
wall...smelling the sweetness in no theft.
To a Young Wretch - the boy takes the tree and
heads home, "smelling green"
Gustatory imagery - taste
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After Apple-Picking - although not specifically
mentioned, the taste of the apples is implied
To Earthward - I craved strong sweets ...now no
joy but lacks salt
Blueberries - the blueberries as big as your
thumb...with the flavor of soot
A Record Stride - the walking boots that taste of
Atlantic and Pacific salt
The Exposed Nest - A haying machine passes over
a bird nest without "tasting flesh"
Tactile imagery - touch

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After Apple-Picking - the fruit to "Cherish in hand"
Moon Compasses - "So love will take between the
hands a face.."
The Death of the Hired Man - Mary touches the
harplike morning-glory strings and plays some
tenderness.
The Witch of Coos - the bed linens might just as
well be ice and the clothes snow
On Going Unnoticed - You grasp the bark by a
rugged pleat,/ And look up small from the forest's
feet.
Organic imagery - internal
sensation: hunger, thirst,
fatigue, fear

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After Apple-Picking - My instep arch not only keeps
the ache, It keeps the pressure of a ladder round
Storm Fear - My heart owns a doubt, It costs no
inward struggle not to go
Birches - It's when I'm weary of considerations/
And life is too much like a pathless wood, etc
The White-Tailed Hornet - "To stab me in the
sneeze-nerve of a nostril"
Spring Pools - the trees drinking up the pools and
along with it, the flowers
Kinesthetic imagery movement or tension

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After Apple-Picking - "I feel the ladder sway
as the boughs bend."
Bereft - Leaves got up in a coil and hissed,/
Blindly struck at my knee and missed.
Ghost House - the black bats tumble and
dart
A Late Walk - the whir of sober birds, is
sadder than any words
Once by the Pacific: "Shattered water
...Great waves looked over others coming
in,"
Paraphrase

Restate text or passage in other
words, often to clarify meaning or
understanding
Paraphrase


Original: Developing complex skills in the classroom involves
the key ingredients identified in teaching pigeons to play pingpong and to bowl. The key ingredients are: (1) inducing a
response, (2) reinforcing subtle improvements or refinements
in the behavior, (3) providing for the transfer of stimulus
control by gradually withdrawing the prompts or cues, and (4)
scheduling reinforcements so that the ratio of reinforcements
in responses gradually increases and natural reinforcers can
maintain their behavior.
Paraphrase: According to Gredler (2001), the same factors
apply to developing complex skills in a classroom setting as to
developing complex skills in any setting. A response must be
induced, then reinforced as it gets closer to the desired
behavior. Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and
cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new
behaviors can be transferred and maintained.
Paraphrase


Original: However, although humans are
comparatively poor sprinters, they also engage in a
different type of running, endurance running (ER),
defined as running many kilometres over extended
time periods using aerobic metabolism.
Paraphrase: Having limited success in sprinting
compared to other mammals, humans perform
better in endurance running, which is a form of
aerobic running over extended distances and
periods of time (Bramble).
Paraphrase


Original: In The Sopranos, the mob is besieged as much by
inner infidelity as it is by the federal government. Early in the
series, the greatest threat to Tony's Family is his own
biological family. One of his closest associates turns witness
for the FBI, his mother colludes with his uncle to contract a
hit on Tony, and his kids click through Web sites that track
the federal crackdown in Tony's gangland.
Paraphrase: In the first season of The Sopranos, Tony
Soprano’s mobster activities are more threatened by members
of his biological family than by agents of the federal
government. This familial betrayal is multi-pronged. Tony’s
closest friend and associate is an FBI informant, his mother
and uncle are conspiring to have him killed, and his children
are surfing the Web for information about his activities
(Fields).
Validity

Refers to statements that have the
appearance of truth or reality
Validity – Deductive
Reasoning


An argument is deductively valid if,
whenever all premises are true, the
conclusion is also necessarily true.
All men are mortal: Socrates is a
man: Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
Validity – Formal


An argument is formally valid if its
form is one such that for each
interpretation under which the
premises are all true also the
conclusion is true.
If no god is mortal, then no mortal is a
god.
Validity – Not Truth

One thing we should note is that the validity
of deduction is not at all affected by the
truth of the premise or the truth of the
conclusion. The following deduction is
perfectly valid:
– All fire-breathing rabbits live on Mars
– All humans are fire-breathing rabbits
– Therefore all humans live on Mars
Context Clues

Information from the reading that
identifies or defines a word or group
of words
Context Clues – Examples

The professor was a favorite among the students at
the college. His sagacity was helpful to them as
they pursued their degrees. The professor was
known to use his experience, insight, and common
sense to help students pursue their education.
Using the example clue, the word sagacity in this
sentence means
silliness
thoughtlessness
wisdom
negligence
Context Clues –
Explanations

Katie appeared infallible in math class
because she had never gotten a problem
wrong.
Using the explanation clue, the word
infallible in this sentence means
never wrong
mistaken
wrong
incorrect
Context Clues –
Synonyms

The man was sent to the penitentiary, or
prison, for stealing cars.
Using the synonym clue, the word
penitentiary in this sentence means
paradise
hotel
prison
heaven
Context Clues –
Antonyms

While Lily was careful not to be seen as she
peeked out the window, Phil was not as
cautious and was seen!
Using the antonym clue, the word cautious
in this sentence means
careful
not careful
risky
trouble
Context Clues –
Comparisons

The mother was determined to prove her
son's innocence; the father was resolute as
well.
Using the comparison clue, the word
resolute in this sentence means
wavering
determined
not determined
unsure
Context Clues – Contrasts

After being ill and unable to eat for three
days, Beverly had a voracious appetite.
Using the contrast clue, the word
voracious in this sentence means
satisfied
quenched
small
big
Context Clues –
Assignment

Write a sentence using each of the
methods of context clues
– Example
– Explanation
– Synonym
– Antonym
– Comparison
– Contrast
Phonics

The relationship between letters and
sounds fundamental in beginning
reading
Phonics



sh in ship, shape, shine, shop
th in this, through, thin, thorough
ti in nation, partial, attention
Phonics Guidelines

1. Sometimes the rules don't work.
2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel.
3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". "cyst", "central",
and "city".
4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". "gem", "gym",
“gist”
5. When 2 consonants are joined together and form one new sound, they are
a consonant digraph. "ch,sh,th,ph and wh".
6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is
short. "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck".
7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel
in front of it is long. "make, gene, kite, rope, and use".
8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and
the second is silent. "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow".
9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is
usually long. "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my".
10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "rcontrolled". "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). "term, sir, fir, fur, far,
for, su/gar, or/der".
Phonics Instruction –
nd
Sequence (2 grade)

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Consonants (soft c, soft g)
Consonant clusters (spl, spr, scr, thr, shr, squ, sch)
Consonant digraphs (ph, -tch, -dge)
Long vowel patterns (a, ay, ea, ee, ey, ei, ie, oa, oe)
R-controlled (er, ir, ur, ar, or, air)
/Y/ at end of words (y=i [fry]; y=e [funny])
Vowel diphthongs (/ou/, /ow/, /oy/, /oi/ )
Silent consonants (knee, write, quick)
Begin multisyllabic words (open & closed syllables)
(donut)
Prefixes; suffixes (un-, re-, pre-; -er, -est, -tion)
Homophones (to, too, two; there, their, they're)
Problem/Solution

An organizational structure in
nonfiction texts, where the author
typically presents a problem and
possible solutions to it
Problem/Solution
Structure


In problem-solution you argue that there is a problem...you
explain it...give proof to it! You must show a need. Who is
involved, how widespread is it? How long has it existed,
where, when, etc. Give details to prove it. Not only that,
show us how WE are involved in the problem...adapt to the
audience to help us see that we are connected to the issue. If
you can not find any way in which we are connected...then
you have not narrowed the topic effectively and have not
adapted to the audience in a meaningful way.
Next, give us a specific way to solve the problem. Here you
will show the plan and the practicality. You will need to be
specific. NEVER just say "we need to educate ourselves" or
"pass a law" without mentioning any specifics!!! Give proof
that your solution will work. Be specific, better yet, find and
cite a model solution. Where have they passed such a law.
HOW CAN WE BE INVOLVED???
Problem/Solution Chart
Problem/Solution
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Source: World History, Chapter 3, The Fertile Crescent, par. 3
First Sentence: The two main rivers that flow through
Mesopotamia are the Tigris and the Euphrates.
Topic Sentence: Little rain fell on the fertile soil of the valley
between the rivers.
Full text: The two main rivers that flow through Mesopotamia
are the Tigris and the Euphrates. More than 7,000 years ago,
people began to farm the land. Little rain fell on the fertile
soil of the valley between the rivers. This meant that to keep
their seedlings alive, farmers had to dig canals to bring river
water to the fields. People began to live in small villages so
that they could work together to bring water to their land.
Problem: Little rain fell (explicit); lacked rain for crops
(implicit)
Solution: dig canals, work together, bring water to their land
Problem/Solution
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Source: Critical Literacy/Articles/School Issues: How to
succeed at school
First Sentence: Besides, you have a secret weapon here: If
you don't understand something, ask your teacher.
Topic Sentence: First sentence.
Full text: Besides, you have a secret weapon here: If you
don't understand something, ask your teacher. Teachers LIVE
for this. And often, they will let you know in not very subtle
ways just what's on that test. Instead of spending one second
worrying about your grades, spend that time understanding
the subject. The payoff will come--both in class and later in
life. Because that's how things really work: If you don't know
your stuff, you won't succeed.
Problem: You don't understand something
Solution: Ask, ask, and ask again
PROBLEM AND SOLUTION



When he could no longer get along
with his parents, he moved to his own
apartment.
The hurricane knocked out power lines
so people resorted to using candles.
Riots erupted in many cities after the
news of Martin Luther King’s death.
Inference

A judgment based on reasoning rather
than an explicit statement; a
conclusion based on facts and
circumstances; understanding gained
by “reading between the lines”
Types of Inferences Skilled
Readers Use













Recognize the antecedents for pronouns
Figure out the meaning of unknown words from context clues
Figure out the grammatical function of an unknown words
Understand intonation of characters’ words
Identify characters’ beliefs, personalities, and motivations
Understand characters’ relationships to one another
Provide details about the setting
Provide explanations for events or ideas that are presented in the
text
Offer details for events or their own explanations of the events
Understand the author’s view of the world
Recognize the author’s biases
Relate what is happening in the text to their own knowledge of the
world
Offer conclusions from facts presented in the text
Inference Practice



http://www.philtulga.com/Riddles.html
http://www.quia.com/pop/89736.html
http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4
gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_zoo.asp?s
rc=tip207a.swf&skill=Inference
Type of inference: Figure out
the grammatical function of an
unknown word


Example: In the following sentence,
what part of speech will the missing
word be?
He drove a __________ car to work
every day.
Type of inference: Figure out
the meaning of unknown words
from context clues


Example: Guess the meaning of the
boldfaced word.
The liquid is flammable, so do not
smoke by it.
Type of inference: Identify
characters’ beliefs, personalities,
and motivations

Example: Based on the description of
the rat, Templeton, from Charlotte’s
Web, which detail supports the idea
that he loves to eat?
Type of inference: Offer
conclusions from facts
presented in the text

Example: The food was described as
round, flat, and covered in sauce.
Obviously, the food is pizza.
Type of inference: Provide
details about the setting

Example: The San Nicholas Island (the
inspiration for Island of the Blue
Dolphins), off the California coast, is
covered in volcanic rock, coyote brush,
and a few trees.
Type of inference: Provide
explanations for events or ideas
that are presented in the text

Example: Scrooge (in A Christmas
Carol) may have decided to send a
turkey to his employee, Bob Cratchit,
because he realized that he had been
wrong for being miserly and needed to
be kind.
Type of inference: Recognize
the antecedents for pronouns

Example: Who is it the word “her”
refers to in the following sentence?
– Sara lost her keys again.
Type of inference: Recognize
the author’s biases

Example: I don’t choose girls to be on
my kickball team, because they are
not very strong and they don’t try as
hard as the boys.
Type of inference: Understand
characters’ relationships to one
another

Example: Because the Hardy boys are
so close in age, the two brothers are
dedicated to one another and never
hesitate to help one another in a crisis.
Type of inference: Understand
the tone of characters’ words

Example: Think about how the warden
from Holes responds to Stanley’s
discovery when she says, “Stanley,
won’t you just open it? Just let me see
what’s inside it, please!”
Inference Assignment

Choose a text that we’ve read this
year. Write an example of the
different types of inference using this
text.
Exaggeration

To make an overstatement or stretch
the truth
Exaggeration

Factual Statement:
– Aesop Elementary School had many items in
its lost and found box.

Exaggeration:
– “The place looked magical—almost like
Aladdin’s cave. Instead of heaps of gold and
mountains of jewels, however, there were
heaps of snow boots and mountains of bean
bag animals.”
Exaggeration

Factual Statement
– Dana, a student at Wayside School, had
beautiful eyes.

Exaggeration:
– “And if she had a hundred eyes, all over
her face and her arms and her feet, why,
she would have been the most beautiful
creature in the world.”
Exaggeration in
Literature
The Crucible: Betty's illness. People
immediately start leaping to witchcraft
the second one girl in town starts
acting a little strange? Once the witch
card is thrown, everyone seems to
lose all reason.
Exaggeration Poem
My Dad is tougher than your dad.
He wrestles alligators every morning just to get his heart
pumping.
Instead of eating toast and coffee for breakfast, he eats the
toaster and the coffeemaker.
He doesn't drive to work, he runs to work--ten miles a day.
When he gets home from work he relaxes in a hot bath of
boiling water.
He prefers chewing nails to chewing gum.
And when he sees someone for the first time, he says "Hello,
nice to meet you," so loud and fearsome people run away and
hide.
My dad is tougher than your dad.
--Bruce Lansky
Exaggeration Assignment

Directions: Write an example of exaggeration for
each factual statement.

The book was funny.

Paige Turner liked being a librarian.

Mr. Jupiter enjoyed reading to his students.

Mrs. Gorf was a mean teacher.

Myron was a good class president.
Focus

The center of interest or attention
Focus - Instructions

This has to do with not getting off the subject, not
bringing in material that is irrelevant. You might
think of this in terms of focusing a camera: you
want to get a picture of something in particular,
with perhaps a little background or context, and
you want the details to be sharp. Problems with
focus often originate in the planning stage of
writing, so if you have trouble with this you might
try outlining or taking notes to clarify for yourself
what you should include.
Focus - Sentences
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Unfocused: Too many people treat animals badly in experiments.
Focused: The cosmetic industry often harms animals in unnecessary
experiments designed to test their products.
Unfocused: Grades are an unfair pain in the neck.
Focused: Course grades based solely on one term paper don't accurately
measure a student's knowledge on a subject.
Unfocused: Getting the right job is important and can lead to rewarding
experiences.
Focused: Getting the right job can lead to an improved sense of self-esteem.
Unfocused: The Fourth of July picnic was a big success.
Focused: Everyone at the Fourth of July picnic ate well, enjoyed the
swimming pool, and had a chance to chat with old friends.
Focus – Paragraphs


Weak Example: When I first brought my cat home from the humane society
she was a mangy, pitiful animal. It cost a lot to adopt her: forty dollars. And
then I had to buy litter, a litterbox, food, and dishes for her to eat out of.
Two days after she came home with me she got taken to the pound by the
animal warden. There's a leash law for cats in Fort Collins. If they're not in
your yard they have to be on a leash. Anyway, my cat is my best friend. I'm
glad I got her. She sleeps under the covers with me when it's cold.
Sometimes she meows a lot in the middle of the night and wakes me up,
though.
Strong Example:When I first brought my cat home from the Humane
Society she was a mangy, pitiful animal. She was so thin that you could count
her vertebrae just by looking at her. Apparently she was declawed by her
previous owners, then abandoned or lost. Since she couldn't hunt, she nearly
starved. Not only that, but she had an abscess on one hip. The vets at the
Humane Society had drained it, but it was still scabby and without fur. She
had a terrible cold, too. She was sneezing and sniffling and her meow was
just a hoarse squeak. And she'd lost half her tail somewhere. Instead of
tapering gracefully, it had a bony knob at the end.
Focus – Task

Narrate a single remembered incident
and tell why it was (is still) important
to writer.
Focus – Essay
My most memorable experience was when I was going to my
brothers basketball game at North High School. Before my
brothers game the girl varsity were playing and at half time we
were losing by 3. When all the girls were going into the locker
room there was this man that came out in the middle of the
court. He said anyone that wants a chance to win a hundred
dollars that you had to pay a dollar and then you had to
shoot a foul shot and if you hit it you would shoot a three pointer
and if you hit that you would get to shoot a half court shot in the
boys varsity game and if you hit that you win a hundred dollars.
Focus – Essay cont.
I went up to the man and gave him my dollar and I got a
basketball and I shot the free throw and I hit it when I was at
the three point line and shot it and it rolled around the goal three
times and finally just dropped strait in. I could’nt belive it I was
going to have a chance to win a hundred dollars. I went running
back up the bleachers where my dad and sister was setting there
just smiling like a lion. When it shows it’s teeth. I went over in
the front of the gym pacing back and forth say I can do it.
Everybody had confidence for me on East side but North didn’t
even think about me hitting it. At the end of the girls game the
score was North 50 and East 47. Then it was the boy varsity
game I was even more nervous.
Focus – Essay cont.
Before the boys halftime I went and got me a drink.
After that the buzzard went off for halftime to start.
The man said everyone that hit your shots to come to
the middle of the court. There were six people
counting me.
I was so nervous my legs were shaking. This older
guy about 20 tried to make me shoot first but I said
No way hosae. So then we all got in line I was
Focus – Essay cont.
in the very back showing fingers. The first guy that shot airballed, it
the second person hit the backboard, the third person airballed, it the
forth person hit the backboard, the fifth person hit the rim, and the sixth
person was me I got a turn and go and threw it up it went straight in
nothing but net. Everyone screamed and hollered because no one really
through the youngest one would hit it after everyone else had missed it.
The man took me back in the room and gave me exactly $100.00.
That’s the most memorable experience I have ever had in my hole life,
well so far any how.
Focus – Essay – Analysis

The writer establishes a clear focus,
and the paper progresses to a
climactic ending. The writer remains
focused on the $100.00 basketball
shot throughout the piece.
Focus – Essay 2
One thing that happened in my life that I will never forget is
my 5th grade teacher Mrs. Bourne. She was kind, funny, and
cool. I will never forget her because she would let us stay
outside longer, didn’t give homework, and took my friends and I
places when we got good grades. When she let us stay outside
longer she would play 4-square alot with us. Sometimes she
would even bring her camera and let us make movies. But the
best thing of all was she would play soccer, and she wasn’t that
bad! The one thing she said at the begeming of the year was
that she wouldn’t give alot of homework.

Focus – Essay 2
We did most of the work in class so we didn’t have much
homework. She made us study hard and long, but it was wuerth
it. The only homework she would give was a few math
problems. The last thing is that when we got good grades on
tests all month she would take the ones that did this and go
somewhere with them. One time she took us to the mall and
we had a blast! We ate at chick-fil-a, looked at toys, and played
at the arcade. Another time was when she took us to Cristos and
went bowling. I got my best score that day and beat everyone.
Mrs. Bourne was a loving and caring teacher and that is why I
will never forget her.
Focus – Essay 2 –
Analysis

This paper focuses on a teacher and
some aspects of her personality and
classroom, rather than a single
remembered incident. Therefore, the
focus is not appropriate to the task.
Focus Assignment


http://www.io.com/~tcm/structure/cgi
bin/exer_choix2.cgi?codes=parag_topi
cs&source=parag_topic_ident2&versio
n=classroom
Write the answers down – as well as
the score you receive
Suffix

Groups of letters after a word used to
modify its meaning or change it into a
different part of speech
Suffixes
able, ible
ac, ic
acious,
icious
capable of
portable - able to be
carried, legible able to be read
like,
cardiac - pertaining
pertaining to to the heart, aquatic
- pertaining to the
water
full of
audacious - full of
daring, avaricious full of greed
Suffixes
ant, ent
ary
ate
full of
eloquent pertaining to
fluid, effective
speech
like, connected dictionary - book
with
connected with
words
to make
consecrate to
make holy
Suffixes
eer, er, or
person who
censor person who
deletes improper
remarks
monotheism belief
in one god
ism
doctrine,
belief
osis
condition
hypnosis condition
of induced sleep
tude
state of
certitude state of
sureness
Voice

The fluency, rhythm, and liveliness in
writing that makes it unique to the
writer
Voice – Comparisons


I love the heady cruelty of spring. The cloud
shows in the first weeks of the season are
wonderfully adolescent: "I'm happy!" "I'm
mad, I'm brooding." "I'm happy--now I'm
going to cry ..." The skies and the weather
toy with us, refusing to let us settle back
down into the steady sleepy days and nights
of winter.
Anne Lamotte – a contemporary US
writer and diarist.
Voice – Comparison


I believe I have some idea of how the refugee
feels, or the immigrant. Once, I was thus, or nearly
so. ...And all the while I carried around inside me
an elsewhere, a place of which I could not speak
because no one would know what I was talking
about. I was a displaced person, of a kind, in the
jargon of the day. And displaced persons are
displaced not just in space but in time; they have
been cut off from their own pasts. ... If you cannot
revisit your own origins--reach out and touch them
from time to time--you are for ever in some crucial
sense untethered.
Penelope Lively (example 2,) a British author who
spent her childhood in Cairo in the 1940s.
Voice – Comparison
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
Privacy in the workplace is one of the more
troubling personal and professional issues of our
time. But privacy cannot be adequately addressed
without considering a basic foundation of ethics.
We cannot reach a meaningful normative
conclusion about workplace privacy rights and
obligations without a fundamental and common
understanding of the ethical basis of justice and a
thorough understanding of individual and
organizational concerns and motivations.
Laura Hartman (example 3) is an academic who
writes about ethics and technology.
Voice – Twain
"There was a feller here once by the name of Jim Smiley, in
the winter of '49 — or may be it was the spring of '50 — I don't
recollect exactly, somehow, though what makes me think it was one or
the other is because I remember the big flume wasn't finished when he
first came to the camp; but any way, he was the curiosest curiousest
man about always betting on any thing that turned up you ever
see…But still he was lucky, uncommon lucky; he most always come out
winner He was always ready and laying for a chance; there couldn't be
no solitry thing mentioned but that feller'd offer to bet on it, and take
any side you please, as I was just telling you. If there was a horse-race,
you'd find him flush, or you'd find him busted at teh end of it; if there
was a dog-fight, he'd bet on it; if there was a cat-fight he'd bet on it;
why, if there was two birds setting on a fence, he would bet you which
one would fly first…
Voice – Bradbury
It was a pleasure to burn.
It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things
blackened and changed. With the brass nozzle in his fists, with this
great python spitting its venomous kerosene upon the world, the blood
pounded in his head, and his hands were the hands of some amazing
conductor playing all the symphonies of blazing and burning to bring
down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history. With his symbolic helmet
numbered 451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all orange flame with the
thought of what came next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped
up in a gorging fire that burned the evening sky red and yellow and
black. He strode in a swarm of fireflies. He wanted above all, like the old joke, to
shove a marshmallow on a stick in the furnace, while the flapping pigeon-winged
books died on the porch and lawn of the house. While the books went up in
sparkling whirls and blew away on a wind turned dark with burning.
Voice – Austen
It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in
possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. However little
known the feelings or views of such a man may be on his first entering
a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the
surrounding families, that he is considered the rightful property of some
one or other of their daughters.
"My dear Mr. Bennet," said his lady to him one day, "have you heard
that Netherfield Park is let at last?"
Mr. Bennet replied that he had not.
"But it is," returned she; "for Mrs. Long has just been here, and she
told me all about it."
Mr. Bennet made no answer.
"Do you not want to know who has taken it?" cried his wife
impatiently.
Voice – Morrison
Nuns go by as quiet as lust, and drunken men and sober eyes
sing in the lobby of the Greek hotel. Rosemary Villanucci, our
next-door friend who lives above her father's cafe, sits in a 1939
Buick eating bread and butter. She rolls down the window to tell
my sister Frieda and me that we can't come in. We stare at her,
wanting her bread, but more than that wanting to poke the
arrogance out of her eyes and smash the pride of ownership that
curls her chewing mouth. When she comes out of the car we will
beat her up, make red marks on her white skin, and she will cry
and ask us do we want her to pull her pants down. We will say
no. We don't know what we should feel or do if she does, but whenever
she asks us, we know she is offering us something precious and that our
own pride must be asserted by refusing to accept.
Voice – Hesseini
I became what I am today at the age of twelve, on
a frigid overcast day in the winter of 1975. I
remember the precise moment, crouching behind a
crumbling mud wall, peeking into the alley near the
frozen creek. That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong
what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how
you can bury it. Because the past claws its way out.
Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into
that deserted alley for the last twenty-six years.
Analysis

The process or result of identifying the
parts of a whole and their relationship
to one another
Lord of the Flies Analysis


Piggy's Glasses
Piggy is the most intelligent, rational boy in the
group, and his glasses represent the power of
science and intellectual endeavor in society. This
symbolic significance is clear from the start of the
novel, when the boys use the lenses from Piggy's
glasses to focus the sunlight and start a fire. When
Jack's hunters raid Ralph's camp and steal the
glasses, the savages effectively take the power to
make fire, leaving Ralph's group helpless.
Pygmalion Analysis

Finally, and most significantly, Shaw challenges the
possibly insidious assumptions that come with the
Pygmalion myth, forcing us to ask the following: Is
the male artist the absolute and perfect being who
has the power to create woman in the image of his
desires? Is the woman necessarily the inferior
subject who sees her lover as her sky? Can there
only ever be sexual/romantic relations between a
man and a woman? Does beauty reflect virtue?
Does the artist love his creation, or merely the art
that brought that creation into being?
Macbeth Analysis

The audience is left to ask whether the
witches are independent agents toying with
human lives, or agents of fate, whose
prophecies are only reports of the
inevitable. The witches bear a striking and
obviously intentional resemblance to the
Fates, female characters in both Norse and
Greek mythology who weave the fabric of
human lives and then cut the threads to end
them.
A Christmas Carol
Analysis

With each Ghost's tale functioning as a parable, A
Christmas Carol advances the Christian moral ideals
associated with Christmas--generosity, kindness,
and universal love for your community--and of
Victorian England in general. The book also offers a
distinctly modern view of Christmas, less concerned
with solemn religious ceremony and defined by
more joyous traditions--the sharing of gifts, festive
celebrations, displays of prosperity. The book also
contains a political edge, most evident in Dickens'
development of the bustling, struggling Cratchit
family, who are a compelling, if one-dimensional,
representation of the plight of the poor.
A Long Way Gone
Analysis

“I was losing everyone, my family my friends.” Even while
Ishmael was losing his family, friends and others he knew
at a young age, he continues to stride to do the best in
life. Throughout most of his childhood he is terrorized by
what happens around him hoping it would never happen to
him one day. Soon enough he was drafted into the
government army and forced to kill innocent civilians and
act against his will. A Long Way Gone, by Ishmael Beah,
tells of his life as a boy soldier and how he fights himself
and others to get out of murderous state. Ishmael pushes
himself to continue in his fight to exit his killer lifestyle day
by day as a boy soldier. And even to this day Ishmael still
goes by his moral to never give up and keep on fighting for
what’s right.
Pride and Prejudice
Analysis
Mrs. Bennet is a miraculously tiresome character. Noisy and
foolish, she is a woman consumed by the desire to see her
daughters married and seems to care for nothing else in the world.
Ironically, her single-minded pursuit of this goal tends to backfire, as her
lack of social graces alienates the very people (Darcy and Bingley)
whom she tries desperately to attract. Austen uses her continually to
highlight the necessity of marriage for young women. Mrs. Bennet also
serves as a middle-class counterpoint to such upper-class snobs as Lady
Catherine and Miss Bingley, demonstrating that foolishness can be found
at every level of society. In the end, however, Mrs. Bennet proves such
an unattractive figure, lacking redeeming characteristics of any kind,
that some readers have accused Austen of unfairness in portraying
her—as if Austen, like Mr. Bennet, took perverse pleasure in poking fun
at a woman already scorned as a result of her ill breeding.
Antonym

A word that is the opposite of another
word
Gradable Antonyms

These describe something which can be
measured and compared with something
else.
–
–
–
–
–
–
fast and slow
small and big
hot and cold
dry and wet
clean and dirty
clever and stupid
Complementary
Antonyms

Here there is no comparison or scale; it is a
matter of being either one thing or another.
–
–
–
–
–
–
alive and dead
single and married
male and female
on and off
right and wrong
absent and present
Converse Antonyms

These antonyms depend on each
other.
– buy and sell
– borrow and lend
– wife and husband
– above and below
– give and receive
– doctor and patient
Evaluate

To analyze or study closely
– The top level of Bloom's Taxonomy is
evaluation. Here students are expected to
assess information and come to a
conclusion such as its value or the bias
behind it.
Evaluate – Questions



making value decisions about issues;
resolving controversies or differences of opinion;
development of opinions, judgements or decisions
–
–
–
–
–
–
Do you agree...?
What do you think about...?
What is the most important...?
Place the following in order of priority...
How would you decide about...?
What criteria would you use to assess...
Evaluate – Question

If a student is completing a DBQ
(Document Based Question) for an AP
US History course, they are expected
to evaluate the bias behind any
primary or secondary sources in order
to see how that effects the points that
the speaker is making.
Evaluate – Projects –
choose one




Prepare a list of criteria to judge a talent
show.
Rate the novels you have read this year
according to interest and importance.
Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as
important. Convince others.
Write a letter to the administration advising
on changes needed in the curriculum.
Limited View

A point of view in which the speaker is
speaking in the first person and telling
things from his or her own perspective
or in the third person from the
perspective of a narrator who does not
know the thoughts of all the
characters
Limited View – Third
Person

Mr. Johnson looked at Charles sternly. He
simply didn’t know what to do with this
boy. Charles had been in Mr. Johnson’s
office twice earlier this week. Now here he
was again, and this time he was charged
with something much more serious. Mr.
Johnson shook his head. There really was
no doubt in his mind. Charles was
guilty. He looked at the police officer
standing next to Charles. No question
whatsoever--Charles had done it.
Limited View – First
Person

I can’t believe what is happening to
me. I know that I’ll never convince
Mr. Johnson and the cop that I had
nothing to do with this. Man! I didn’t
do it. Why won’t anyone believe
me? I’ve been in trouble before, but
I’ve never done anything like
this! I’ve got to convince them, or I
might as well kiss my life good-bye.
Limited View – First
Person

When I saw them taking Charlie into
the office, I lingered outside the door,
hoping to find out what he had done
this time. Charlie was my best friend,
but I was getting a little tired of
defending him when I knew he was
wrong. He must have done something
really big this time to have the cops
involved.
First Person – Books














The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger
Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov
Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë
The Lovely Bones by Alice Sebold
The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath
To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton
I, Claudius by Robert Graves
On the Road by Jack Kerouac
A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey
Bridget Jones's Diary by Helen Fielding
The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini
Third-Person Limited Books






Juliet's Law (Silhouette Intimate Moments)
by Ruth Wind
Mr. Perfect by Linda Howard
Summer's End by Kathleen Gilles Seidel
The Veiled Web by Catherine Asaro
The Ambassadors by Henry James
The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen
Crane
Text Structure

The author’s method of organizing text
Text Structure –
Description

"The crocodile is the master of
deception in the water. It stalks its
prey and then swiftly closes in for the
kill."
Text Structure –
Problem/Solution

"One problem to resolve in crocodile
watching is transportation. How can
an observer get close enough to watch
without scaring it away or being
attacked?"
Text Structure –
Sequence/Time Order

"Archaeologists have helped us to
understand that the evolution of the
crocodile began with ..."
Text Structure –
Comparison/Contrast

"The power of the crocodile is like that
of a monstrous machine. With one
lunge it can destroy its prey and
protect the kill from other predators."
Text Structure –
Cause/Effect

"We observed the crocodile as it
stalked a raccoon moving through the
moonlight toward the edge of the
water. As a result of a noise we made,
the raccoon bolted..."
Text Structure –
Directions

"When observing a crocodile, first you
must..."
Syntax

The pattern of word order in
sentences, clauses, and phrases
Syntax

You should always balance
parallel ideas that utilize a series
or a linked comparison.
– “Hooked on romance novels, I learned
that there is nothing more important than
being rich, looking good, and to have a
good time.”
– How should this sentence be revised?
Syntax

Place phrases and clauses so that
readers can see at a glance what
they modify. When phrases or clauses
are oddly placed, absurd mis-readings can
result.
–
–
(a) “The king returned to the clinic where he
had undergone heart surgery in 2000 in a
limousine sent by the White House.”
(b) “Traveling in a limousine sent by the White
House, the king returned to the clinic where he
had undergone heart surgery in 2000.”
Syntax

Repair dangling modifiers. A dangling
modifier fails to refer logically to any word
in the sentence.
–
–
–
(a) “Deciding to join the navy, the recruiter
enthusiastically pumped Joe’s Hand.”
(b) “To please the children, some fireworks
were set off a day early.”
(c) “Though only sixteen, UCLA accepted
Martha’s application.”
e.e. cummings

Me up at does
out of the floor
quietly Stare
a poisoned mouse
still who alive
is asking What
have i done that
You wouldn't have
William Carlos Williams

so much depends
upon
a red wheel
barrow
glazed with rain
water
beside the white
chickens.
Author’s Thesis

The stated or implied topic in a piece
of literature and the feeling or ideas
associated with it
Author’s Thesis – What?

A thesis can be expressed as a
statement




A thesis should be understandable
A thesis should be coherent
A thesis should be arguable
A thesis can deal with facts,
interpretations, or values
Author’s Thesis - Types

A descriptive thesis makes a claim about how things are.
– makes an “is” statement
– appeals to evidence that anyone (given enough training) can
observe and confirm
– appeals to logic that anyone (again, given enough training) can
test and confirm
– deals in measurement, analysis, interpretation, explanation

A prescriptive thesis makes a claim about how things should
be.
– makes a “should” statement
– appeals to shared values or morals—assessments of what is
“good” and “bad” or “right” and “wrong.”
Author’s Thesis –
Examples/Assignment









Racism in this country has historical roots in “taking land from and
destroying indigenous peoples and enslaving Africans to work that
land” (Loewen, 143).
Global warming must be stopped!
Music teachers should teach the African American roots of American
popular music.
Global warming is caused by human activity, not natural changes in
the climate.
Everyone deserves equal economic opportunity.
American popular music is rooted in the folk tradition of African
Americans.
The United States does not offer equal economic opportunity to all of
its citizens.
We all need to work hard to overcome the legacy of slavery and
racism.
Determine whether these are descriptive or prescriptive.
Rising Action

The part of the story where the plot
becomes increasingly complicated
Rising Action Examples









danger
guns
bombs
storms
kidnap
betrayal
chase sequences
fractured relationships
uncertainty
Rising Action – 1984

Winston works in the Ministry of Truth. He alters
historical records to fit the needs of the Party. He is
troubled by the Party’s control of history: the Party
claims that Oceania has always been allied with
Eastasia in a war against Eurasia, but Winston
seems to recall a time when this was not true. The
Party also claims that Emmanuel Goldstein, the
alleged leader of the Brotherhood, is the most
dangerous man alive, but this does not seem
plausible to Winston, as his hatred for the Party
grows more and more intense. At last, he receives
the message that he has been waiting for: O’Brien
wants to see him.
Plot Diagram
climax
rising
action
exposition
falling
action
resolution
Story Map
Nonfiction

Prose writing that is not fictional;
designed primarily to explain, argue,
or describe rather than entertain
Nonfiction Examples






magazine articles
textbook chapters or sections
newspaper articles
Internet printouts
encyclopedia entries
essays
Nonfiction Books










THE VIRTUE OF SELFISHNESS by AYN RAND
DIANETICS:THE MODERN SCIENCE OF MENTAL
HEALTH by L. RON HUBBARD
OBJECTIVISM: THE PHILOSOPHY OF AYN RAND by
LEONARD PEIKOFF
101 THINGS TO DO TIL THE REVOLUTION by CLAIRE
WOLFE
THE GOD OF THE MACHINE by ISABEL PATERSON
AYN RAND: A SENSE OF LIFE by MICHAEL PAXTON
THE ULTIMATE RESOURCE by JULIAN SIMON
ECONOMICS IN ONE LESSON by HENRY HAZLITT
SEND IN THE WACO KILLERS by VIN SUPRYNOWICZ
MORE GUNS, LESS CRIME by JOHN R. LOTT
Foreshadowing

A device used in literature to create
expectation or set up an explanation
of later development by dropping hints
or suggestions
Foreshadowing Checkhov

Uncle Vanya, in which a pistol is
introduced early on as a seemingly
irrelevant prop and, towards the end
of the play, becomes much more
important as Uncle Vanya, in a rage,
grabs it and tries to commit homicide.
Foreshadowing –
Checkhov’s gun

One Thousand and One Nights
(Arabian Nights), which contains
"repeated references to some
character or object which appears
insignificant when first mentioned but
which reappears later to intrude
suddenly in the narrative".
Foreshadowing – Red
herring

The Sixth Sense – scenes depicting the
estrangement and lack of communication
which occurs in the psychologist's marriage,
and his alienation from the world because of
his problems, are later seen as clues of
much darker significance (some viewers
were led to see the film twice, in disbelief at
how effectively they were misled by
character interactions which could be
interpreted in two completely different
ways).
Foreshadowing Examples


Romeo and Juliet – both main characters
state early on that they would rather die
than live apart.
characters predicting the future – ranges
from a woman predicting that her son will
come to a bad end if he continues on his
way to a character with the explicit ability to
foresee the future prophesying an event to
a self-fulfilling prophecy
Reading Critically

Reading in which a questioning
attitude, logical analysis and
inferences are used to judge the worth
of text, evaluating relevancy and
adequacy of what is read; the
judgment of validity or worth of what
is read, based in sound criteria
Reading Critically
Example




What evidence does the author
provide to support his or her
argument?
Is there evidence provided
supporting this?
Would you accept this as fact?
Why?
Is this the author's opinion or fact?

Teams are not magic. They must
have tasks that are achievable
within a specified time frame. The
team charged with 'management'
has an impossible brief and will
surely fail unless effort is spent
spelling out what the management
task involves and what constitutes
success.
Neither are teams a cheap option.
They inevitably consume resources
and time. Teams rarely resolve
conflict. More often, they pressurecook it.
If an individual has the skills to do
the job with the requisite
creativity, then the individual, not
the team, should do the job.
Reading Critically
Example



A critical reader of this
article would ask why the
author has suddenly
switched to informal
language where one might
have expected formal
language to continue.
Is he/she attempting to
first blind the reader with
science and then build a
personal relationship with
the reader?
Why?

The metabolism of tyrosine is
dependent on a form of folic acid
(biopterin) and NADH (a type of Vitamin
B3) as well as copper and vitamin C.
Once tyrosine reaches the neurons, it is
quickly converted to norepinephrine.
This last, but crucial step, however,
needs the presence of an enzyme
(tyrosine hydroxylase) at the
presynaptic nerve ending. This enzyme
has to travel all the way down the axon
to get there. So its availability, and
therefore the output of norepinephrine
to life the depression, depends on the
amount of electrical activity along the
nerve itself. This electrical activity is
stimulated by any form of touch chiropractic, osteopathy, massage,
acupuncture, cuddling, stroking and, of
course, sex. In case you think this is
one of the best excuses for sex you've
ever read - you're darn right!
Reading Critically
Example



The author appears to be
linking common feelings of
sadness and melancholy
with depressive illnesses
such as bipolar disorder and
SADS.
Is this factually correct?
By linking these things
does the author mean to
invoke fear in the reader?

Gloom and doom; sadness and
madness; melancholy; doldrums;
languor; sorrowfulness - depression has
many names. Often described as the
common cold of psychiatry, depression
is a very common problem and, indeed,
it is a rare human being that does not
feel depressed at some time. There are
many different types of depression,
with widely differing symptoms.
Depression can be unipolar (medical
language for 'simple') or bipolar. The
latter is also known as manic
depression and one variant of it is
manic depressive psychosis. Then there
is SADS, or Seasonal Affective Disorders
Syndrome. There is also PPD (postpartum depression) and endogenous
(from within) and reactive depression.
This last means you are depressed
because that is how you react to
something that has happened to you.
Reading Critically
Example


The idea in this first
sentence in a Nursing
article is most probably
informed by research in
Sociology or Anthropology.
Where is the reference?
Are these the author's ideas
presented as fact? The
writer here is writing as if
his or her interpretation
were absolutely the truth,
instead of just an
interpretation.

The value systems of individuals and of
societies can be said to have dominant
temporal focuses. Societies in which
hospital sickness and other disasters are
seen as visited upon the individual by
angry gods, spirits, or ancestors hold a
dominant temporal focus on the past.
Societies in which causes and
consequences are disregarded in favour
of immediate gratification and symptom
hold a present temporal focus. Societies
that show considerable anxiety about
the implications and consequences of
present situations, to experience little
anxiety relief at the removal of a
symptom, and need to plan and work
toward future eventualities hold a
future temporal focus.
Reading Critically Example


Has the author overgeneralized
the results here?
The author has used the
findings from a very small
sample size, that may not
represent a sufficient range of
patients, to support a major
line of argument about how
patients view collaboration.
The authors are inferring that
the results gained from
surveying these patients can
be generalized to all patients.

Each interview was tape
recorded and took between 60
and 90 minutes to complete.
After each interview, the tape
was listened to and
transcribed. During this period,
hunches or working
hypotheses were identified
which were explored in
subsequent interviews. The
major theme of 'toeing the
line' was identified that
provides insight into how
patients view 'collaboration'.
The remainder of this paper
will focus on an exploration of
this theme and its significant
implications for nursing.
Reading Critically
Example


Is the methodology valid here?
Critical readers would question
whether the sample size was
big enough to fulfill the aim of
this study. They would also
question whether the sample
was representative enough of
the wider population, as the
criterion for inclusion in the
population sample perhaps
created an unrepresentative
group. The personality type
that is willing to participate in
a study of this kind may
suggest subjects that are
already highly involved in
patient participation, thus
skewing the survey results.

The aim of the study was to
describe how patients perceive
involvement in decisions
concerning their own
treatment and nursing care.
Sample
A convenience sample of 12
patients was selected from
three mixed-sex medical
wards. The only criterion for
inclusion in the study was a
willingness to participate.
Characterization

The methods an author uses to reveal
characters and their various
personalities
Direct vs. Indirect


Ed Johnson scratched his head in confusion as the sales rep
explained Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic
computer. The old mechanic hated modern electronics,
preferring the old days when all he needed was a stack of
manuals and a good set of tools.
“That Ed Johnson,” said Anderson, watching the old mechanic
scratch his head in confusion as the sales rep explained
Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic computer. “He
hasn’t got a clue about modern electronics. Give him a good
set of tools and a stack of yellowing manuals with a
carburetor needing repair, and he’d be happy as a hungry
frog in a fly-field.”
Ten Ways in which a
Character Can Be Revealed










By
By
By
By
By
By
By
By
By
By
what s/he says.
how s/he says it.
psychological description.
physical description.
probing what s/he thinks.
what s/he does.
what others say about him or her.
his or her environment.
her reaction to others.
his reaction to himself.
Characterization

Trevor pulled into the curb still going too
fast, and stopped with a noisy squeal of
brakes. He stepped out of his sports coupe,
and walked over to Trudi. He was short and
wiry, and looked like a weasel. His hair was
smeared with a nasty-looking gel that
reflected the sun unpleasantly as he moved.
As he came nearer, he smiled furtively, and
menacingly slid his hand into his jacket
pocket. He was a nasty customer.
Characterization
A black Porsche rounded the corner off the main road, and
darted into the alleyway with a shriek of tires. It rocked to a halt
at the curb, and the door opened. However, the driver stayed
inside for at least a minute; Trudi noticed that he was combing
and smoothing his hair. Finally, he stepped out of the car, wiped
his hands on a tissue which he tossed back into the car, gently
closed and locked the door, and turned towards Trudi, his face
expressionless. Keys hanging from his hand, he approached her.
Only then, did his mouth crinkle into a one-sided smile, which his
eyes did not share. He slipped his hand with the keys into his
jacket pocket, and left it there; she wondered if he had
something he wanted to hand her.

Characterization – Speech

Many of the words spoken by the cat
at the beginning of the story have an
upbeat connotative meaning. For
instance, the cat says to the children,
“But we can have / Lots of fun that is
funny!”
Speech – Explanation

This reveals that the cat’s character is
an upbeat character
Characterization –
Thoughts

So all we could do was to
Sit!
Sit!
Sit!
Sit!
And we did not like it.
Not one little bit
Thoughts – Explanation

These are the thoughts of the narrator
as he stares out the window on a rainy
day. These thoughts reveal that this
character is not happy
Characterization – Effects
on Others
Throughout the first three quarters of the
story, three different illustrations portray the
fish scowling at the cat (11, 25, and 37)
immediately after each of the cat’s activities.
When the cat returns to clean up his mess at
the end of the story the fish is shown with a
smile on his face

Effects on Others –
Explanation
The scowls on the fish’s face support the
argument that the cat’s behavior at the
beginning of the story is not acceptable to
the fish. The fish’s smile at the end of the
story reveals that the cat is engaging in
behavior that is now acceptable to the fish.

Characterization –
Actions
On page 18, the cat engages in “UP-UP-UP
with a fish” an activity that involves the cat
standing on a ball while balancing seven
objects. Later in the story, the cat releases
two “things” that fly kites inside the house.

Actions – Explanation
These activities are outrageous,
dangerous and should not be conducted
in the house. They reveal that the cat’s
character is not concerned about rules
related to safety and appropriateness.

Characterization – Looks
Throughout the first three-quarters of the
story, the cat is shown with a smile on his
face. Towards the end of the story, however,
when the cat is told to leave, he is shown
leaving the house with slumped shoulders and
a sad face

Looks – Explanation
The smiles reveal that the cat is
enjoying himself and is not apologetic
for his outrageous behavior. The frown
and slumped shoulders at the end of the
story show that he is not enjoying
himself anymore.

Third Person

A perspective in literature in which the
narrator presents the events of the
story
Third person – Pride and
Prejudice

Mr. Bennet was so odd a mixture of quick parts,
sarcastic humour, reserve, and caprice, that the
experience of three-and-twenty years had been
insufficient to make his wife understand his
character. Her mind was less difficult to develop.
She was a woman of mean understanding, little
information, and uncertain temper. When she was
discontented, she fancied herself nervous. The
business of her life was to get her daughters
married; its solace was visiting and news.
Third person – Catch 22
The Texan shrank back. "You fellas are crazy. I didn't even
touch him."
"You murdered him," said Dunbar.
"I heard you kill him," said Yossarian.
"You killed him because he was a nigger" Dunbar said.
"You fellas are crazy," the Texan cried. "They don't allow niggers
in here. They got a special place for niggers."
"The sergeant smuggled him in," Dunbar said.
"The Communist sergeant," said Yossarian.
"And you knew it."
The warrant officer on Yossarian's left was unimpressed by the entire
incident of the soldier in white. The warrant officer was unimpressed by
everything and never spoke at all unless it was to show irritation.
Third person – Anna
Karennina

Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is
unhappy in its own way. Everything was in
confusion in the Oblonskys' house. The wife had
discovered that the husband was carrying on an
intrigue with a French girl, who had been a
governess in their family, and she had announced
to her husband that she could not go on living in
the same house with him. This position of affairs
had now lasted three days, and not only the
husband and wife themselves, but all the members
of their family and household, were painfully
conscious of it.
Third person – The Lord
of the Rings
Inside Bag End, Bilbo and Gandalf were sitting at the open
window of a small room looking out west on to the garden. The
late afternoon was bright and peaceful. The flowers glowed red
and golden: snap-dragons and sun-flowers, and nasturtiums
trailing all over the turf walls and peeping in at the round
windows.
‘How bright your garden looks!’ said Gandalf.
‘Yes,’ said Bilbo. ‘I am very fond indeed of it, and of all the dear
old Shire; but I think I need a holiday.’
Semantics

The study of the meaning of language
Gentle – Etymology

In the 14th century gentil had the meaning of
“noble”, referring both to social class and to
character. Because a noble person was supposed to
be kind and considerate, the adjective today has
the sense of “tender”, “careful” or “delicate”. The
older meaning is preserved in gentleman, genteel
and gentility. Until recently public toilets in the UK
were designated Gentlemen or Ladies - where now
we usually see a male or female picture
representation. But these meanings live on in
spoken English, as when someone says, perhaps in
a public house, that she is off to the ladies’ or he is
going to the gents’.
Villain – Etymology

Villain has come to mean a wicked person,
especially in drama or literature. Originally,
it meant a person who farmed land under
the feudal system. It is thus a class insult
when used of the noble Romeo by Tybalt
(“Thou art a villain”), or of the common
Iago by Othello (“Villain, be sure thou prove
my love a whore”). We may see how this
leads to the modern meaning.
Holocaust – Etymology

It is a compound of two elements from classical Greek - holos
(meaning “whole”) and kaustos (meaning “burnt”). It was first
coined in writing by the translators of the Septuagint, a Greek
translation of the Hebrew Scriptures made in Alexandria for
King Ptolemy II in the third century BC. In its original context,
the noun appears over two hundred times to translate Hebrew
’olâ (meaning literally “that which goes up”, that is, a
sacrificial burnt offering). In modern times it has been used to
denote the massive destruction, especially of people, in the
world wars of the 20th century. Since the 1950s, it has been
used more narrowly to denote the Nazis' murder of European
Jews between 1941 and 1945.
Mouse – Etymology

An example of a recent semantic
change is of the word mouse; with the
advent of computer technology, the
word for the rodent has been used to
refer to the input device.
Connotation

Suggestions and associations which
surround a word, as opposed to its
literal meaning
Connotation – thin







slender
scrawny
slim
svelte
lean
skinny
fit







lanky
bony
skeletal
emaciated
anorexic
underweight
undernourished
Connotation – young one





youngster
child
little fella
brat
urchin





imp
kid
juvenile
minor
small fry
Connotation Assignment

A. Gus cooked dinner for Merdine. He prepared some meat and

(1) Describe the meal that Gus prepared, making it sound appetizing
by using words with favorable connotations.
(2) Describe the meal again, this time using words with negative
connotations to make it sound quite unappealing.
B. The person did not weigh very much. The person had brown hair

(1) Identify and describe this particularly attractive person.
(2) Identify and describe this particularly unattractive person.
C. Douglas was careful with his money. He kept his money in a safe
vegetables and a special dessert.
and a small nose. The person wore informal clothing.
place. He bought only the necessities of life. He never borrowed or
lent money.
(1) Choose words that show how impressed you are by Douglas's
sense of thrift.
(2) Choose words that make fun of Douglas or pass scorn on him for
being such a tightwad.
Editorials

A newspaper or magazine article that
gives the opinions of the editors or
publishers
Editorial Synopsis

Owning G.M.
President Obama owes American
taxpayers a detailed explanation of the
government’s goals for General Motors
and the levers it intends to use to
achieve them.
Editorial Synopsis

Who Can Tame the Scalpers?
Senator Charles Schumer’s bill, which
would require ticket resellers to obtain
a federal registration number to
appear on all sales documents, is a
good start.
Editorial Excerpt
Another Rescue?
At first glance, support for the municipal
bond market seems like one more
unfortunate but unavoidable lifeline for a
troubled financial system. But we are not
yet persuaded that the need is as urgent as
some politicians are claiming — or if such
support would be wise.
Editorial Cartoon
Flashback

A device used in literature to present
action that occurred before the
beginning of the story
Flashback Example

One of the first films to use a
flashback technique was the 1939
Wuthering Heights, in which, as in
Emily Brontë's original novel, the
housekeeper Ellen narrates the main
story to overnight visitor Mr.
Lockwood, who has witnessed
Heathcliff's frantic pursuit of what is
apparently a ghost.
Flashback Example

One of the most famous examples of nonchronological flashback is in the 1941 Orson
Welles film Citizen Kane. The protagonist,
Charles Foster Kane, dies at the beginning,
uttering the word "Rosebud". A reporter
spends the rest of the film interviewing
Kane's friends and associates, in an effort to
discover what Kane meant by uttering the
word. As the interviews proceed, pieces of
Kane's life unfold in flashback, but not
always chronologically.
Flashback Example

Flashbacks are a trademark of the Saw
movies, with many scenes adding
extra depth to characters and adding
insight to various aspects of the series.
Saw IV has one scene set in real-time,
while the rest of the film is a
flashback, structured around a series
of other flashbacks.
Flashback Examples





Dickens’ A Christmas Carol
Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”
Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse Five
Cold Case
How I Met Your Mother
Limerick

A light or humorous verse form of five
lines, of which 1, 2, and 5 rhyme and
3 and 4 rhyme
Limerick Example

There was a young man from Dealing
Who caught the bus for Ealing.
It said on the door
Don't spit on the floor
So he jumped up and spat on the
ceiling
Limerick Example

There was an Old Man who supposed,
That the street door was partially
closed;
But some very large rats,
Ate his coats and his hats,
While that futile old gentleman dozed.
Limerick Example

There was a young lady of Lucca
Whose lovers completely forsook her;
She ran up a tree
And said "Fiddle-de-dee!"
Which embarrassed the people of
Lucca.
Poetry

Writing that aims to present ideas and
evoke emotional experience in the
reader through the use of meter
imagery, connotative and concrete
words, and a carefully constructed
structure based on rhythmic patterns
Elegy Excerpt


Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
by Thomas Gray
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,
The ploughman homeward plods his weary
way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to
me.
Ode Excerpt – Terza Rima


Ode to the West Wind
by Percy Bysshe Shelley
O wild West Wind, thou breath of
Autumn's being,
Thou, from whose unseen presence
the leaves dead
Are driven, like ghosts from an
enchanter fleeing
Poem using Enjambment
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
Trees
by Joyce Kilmer
I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree.
A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the sweet earth's flowing breast;
A tree that looks at God all day,
And lifts her leafy arms to pray;
A tree that may in summer wear
A nest of robins in her hair;
Upon whose bosom snow has lain;
Who intimately lives with rain.
Poems are made by fools like me,
But only God can make a tree.
Haikus


Blossoms on the pear
and a woman in the moonlight
reads a letter there
Even stones in streams
of mountain water compose
songs to wild cherries
Senryus


After he’s scolded
His wife too much,
He cooks the rice.
“Don’t worry” he says,
And then tells you something
That really gets you worried
Source

Text and/or artifacts used during
research
Sources – Examples
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Books & Textbooks
Newspapers
Academic and Trade Journals
Government Reports and Legal Documents
Press Releases and Advertising
Flyers, Pamphlets, Leaflets
Multimedia: Radio, Television, Broadcasts
Websites
Weblogs / Blogs
Message boards, discussion lists, and chat rooms
Interviews
Surveys & Questionnaires
Observations
Hyperbole

An exaggeration or overstatement
"My sister uses so much
makeup,...

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
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"she broke a chisel trying to get it off last night!"
"Marilyn Manson freaked out when he saw her!"
"when she takes it off, my mom doesn't recognize
her." Ashley, from Knoxville, Tennessee
"when she smiles, cracks the size of the Grand
Canyon form in the surface."
"when she takes it off she loses 30 pounds!"
"she could pass as a clown at the circus."
"you could scrape off just the outer layer and put it
on five other girls."
Familiar Hyperboles
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These books weigh a ton. (These books are
heavy.)
I could sleep for a year. (I could sleep for a
long time.)
He beat him into a pulp. (He beat him up
very harshly.)
I'm so hungry, I could eat a horse. (I'm very
hungry)
I'm doing a million things right now. (I'm
busy.)
Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would
Not Take The Garbage Out by Shel
Silverstein
Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout
Would not take the garbage out!
She’d scour the pots and scrape the pans,
Candy the yams and spice the hams,
And though her daddy would scream and shout,
She simply would not take the garbage out.
And so it piled up to the ceilings:
Coffee grounds, potato peelings,
Brown bananas, rotten peas,
Chunks of sour cottage cheese.
It filled the can, it covered the floor,
It cracked the window, it blocked the door
With bacon rinds and chicken bones,
Drippy ends of ice cream cones,
Prune pits, peach pits, orange peel,
Gloppy glumps of cold oatmeal,
Pizza crests and withered greens,
Soggy beans and tangerines,
Crusts of black burned buttered toast,
Gristly bits of beefy roasts. . .
The garbage rolled down the hall,
It raised the roof, it broke the wall. . .
Greasy napkins, cookie crumbs,
Globs of gooey bubble gum,
Cellophane from green baloney,
Rubbery blubbery macaroni,
Peanut butter, caked and dry,
Curdled milk and crusts of pie,
Moldy melons, dried up mustard,
Eggshells mixed with lemon custard,
Cold french fries and rancid meat,
Yellow lumps of Cream of Wheat.
At last the garbage reached so high
That finally it touched the sky.
And all the neighbors moved away,
And none of her friends would come out to play.
And finally Sarah Cynthia Stout said,
“OK, I’ll take the garbage out!”
But then, of course, it was too late. . .
The garbage reached across the state,
From New York to the Golden Gate.
And there, in the garbage she did hate,
Poor Sarah met an awful fate,
That I cannot right now relate
Because the hour is much too late.
But children, remember Sarah Stout
And always take the garbage out!
Hyperbole Assignment
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My teacher is so old…
Our new house is so big…
That movie was so boring…
Her hair was so long…
His muscles were so big…
Compare

Placing together characters, situations,
or ideas to show common or differing
features in literary selections
COMPARE/CONTRAST
Golden Eagles are more apt to hunt
for prey, while Bald Eagles are more
likely to take an easy meal.
Compare – Paragraph

My hometown and my college town have several things in
common. First, both are small rural communities. For
example, my hometown, Gridlock, has a population of only
about 10,000 people. Similarly, my college town, Subnormal,
consists of about 11,000 local residents. This population
swells to 15,000 people when the college students are
attending classes. A second way in which these two towns are
similar is that they are both located in rural areas. Gridlock is
surrounded by many acres of farmland which is devoted
mainly to growing corn and soybeans. In the same way,
Subnormal lies in the center of farmland which is used to raise
hogs and cattle . . . .
Compare/Contrast Chart

Compare/Contrast –
Venn Diagram
Conflict

A struggle or clash between opposing
characters, forces, or emotions
Man vs. Himself Examples

Madame Loisel vs. her worry of losing
the necklace

Rainsford vs. his fear of being killed

Fortunato vs. his drunkeness
Man vs. Man Examples
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Rainsford vs. General Zaroff
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Fortunato vs. Montressor
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Achilles vs. Hector
Man vs. Nature Examples
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Lizzy vs. the Marigolds
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Crew of the Satori vs. the Storm
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The Perfect Storm

Jack London's short story "To Build a Fire".

A Separate Peace is a good example with Leper not wanting
to jump out of the tree.
Man vs. Fate Examples
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Oedipus Rex
Romeo and Juliet
Beowulf
Man vs. Society Examples

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Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë
The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton
Holden Caulfield's struggle in The
Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger.
Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
Man vs. Supernatural
Examples
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Bram Stoker's Dracula
Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
"Christabel" by Samuel Coleridge
Comic books
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Ghostbusters
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Author’s Purpose

An author’s intent, either to inform or
teach someone about something, to
entertain people, or to persuade or
convince the audience to do or not to
do something
To Entertain
Once
.
upon a time there was a little
boy who loved to play soccer. He
would run as fast as he could to the
ball, but every time he got there and
tried to kick it he would miss. He
started to think he wasn't very good
at soccer, but he didn't give up. His
hard work paid off and one day he
scored the winning goal for his team.
To Persuade
Art class should be longer than all
.
other specials. There never seems to
be enough time to get our pictures
done. If we had more time in art class
everyone would do a better job on their
pictures and we would learn more. Art
is very important and we should have
the time we need to finish a project.
To Inform/Explain
Making a peanut butter and jelly
.
sandwich is really easy. First, gather
your ingredients (bread, peanut
butter, jelly) and two knives. Spread
the peanut butter on one slice of
bread and your jelly on the other. Put
the bread together and enjoy!
To Inform/Describe
The
ocean water glitters for as far as
.
the eye can see. The soft crash of
waves and smell of salt water have a
calming affect. Paradise Beach is a
quiet place where you can watch
wildlife and relax.
X We have a new playground at our school.
We had to raise a lot of money to build our
new playground. We sold candy bars,
coupon books, and wrapping paper. The
class who raised the most money was the
first to play on the playground.
ENTERTAIN
PERSUADE
EXPLAIN
DESCRIBE
X One day a beautiful princess was walking
down the street hoping to find her prince. She
looked high and low and finally gave up. On
her way home she found a lonely little
frog. She picked him up and began to talk to
him telling him all her problems. When she
was done she said good-bye to the frog and
gave him a kiss on top of his head. Before her
very eyes appeared the man of her dreams and
they lived happily ever after.
ENTERTAIN
PERSUADE
EXPLAIN
DESCRIBE
X The old house smelled musty and decayed as
I went inside. It obviously hadn’t been cared for
in quite a while. The wallpaper was faded and
peeling. Even though it was a beautiful sunny
day outside, it was hard to see inside the house
because of all the dirt that covered the
windows.
ENTERTAIN
INFORM
PERSUADE
DESCRIBE
X Every child should play a sport. When
you are on a team you learn to get along
with everyone and work together for a
common goal. Team work is the best
lesson anyone can learn. This is why I
believe every child should be on a team.
ENTERTAIN
PERSUADE
EXPLAIN
DESCRIBE
Practice

http://edujourney.net/Powerpoint%20
Templates/Author's%20Purpose/Autho
rs%20Purpose.ppt
Descriptive Text

Allows a reader to picture the scene or
setting in which the story takes place
Description
Think about how you would…
 Create a verbal picture of a friend
 Create a verbal picture of Arrowhead
Stadium during a Chief’s game
 Summarize the main theme of a movie
and how that theme was maintained
 Which do you like best? Football or
Basketball? Why?
Description

Questions
What is the main idea?
What are the supporting details?
Who or What is this about?
What is the least important information
about the who or what?
What is the dominant impression?
What are the sensory impressions?
Descriptive Text
Golden Eagles are powerful raptors with
large dark brown bodies and small
heads with golden crowns. Their wings
are strong and can span 78 inches.
They have a short, dark, hooked beak
and when they pierce their prey with
their long, slender talons, they not
only break the skin, they break the
bones as well.
Descriptive Text –
The Blond Guitar

My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped
blond guitar--the first instrument I taught myself how to
play. It's nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar, all
scuffed and scratched and finger-printed. At the top is a
bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked
through the eye of a silver tuning key. The strings are
stretched down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the
wood worn by years of fingers pressing chords and
picking notes. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an
enormous yellow pear, one that was slightly damaged in
shipping. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged
to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years
ago. No, it's not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets
me make music, and for that I will always treasure it.
Descriptive Text –
A Friendly Clown

On one corner of my dresser sits a smiling toy clown on a tiny
unicycle--a gift I received last Christmas from a close friend. The
clown's short yellow hair, made of yarn, covers its ears but is
parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with
thin, dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has cherry-red
cheeks, nose, and lips, and its broad grin disappears into the
wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, twotone nylon costume. The left side of the outfit is light blue, and
the right side is red. The two colors merge in a dark line that
runs down the center of the small outfit. Surrounding its ankles
and disguising its long black shoes are big pink bows. The white
spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in the center and
expand to the black tire so that the wheel somewhat resembles
the inner half of a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together
stand about a foot high. As a cherished gift from my good friend
Tran, this colorful figure greets me with a smile every time I
enter my room.
Fairy Tale

Short narratives featuring mythical
beings such as fairies, elves, and
sprites; originally belonged to the
folklore of a particular region or nation
Fairy Tales

Snow White and
the Seven Dwarfs
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Sleeping Beauty
Fairy Tales
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Rumplestiltskin
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The Princess and
the Pea
Fairy Tales
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Hansel and Gretel
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Cinderella
Informational Text

Comprise a majority of printed
materials – nonfiction, written
primarily to convey factual information
Informational Text
Examples
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Chronological/Sequential Order: A main
idea is supported by details that must be in
a particular sequence.
Enumeration/Description: A major idea is
supported by a list of details or examples.
Comparison/Contrast: The supporting
details of two or more main ideas indicate
how those concepts are similar or different.
Cause/Effect: The supporting details give
the causes of a main idea or the supporting
details are the results produced by the main
idea.
Main Idea

The author’s central thought; the chief
topic expressed or implied in a word or
phrase; the topic sentence of a
paragraph
Main Idea Example

Summer is a wonderful time to spend
at West Beach. It is a beach with lightcolored, soft sand. The coastline goes
on for a long way and many people
enjoy walking along it. Children like to
play in the surf and walk along the
rocks that are visible at low tide. This
is a fun beach for people of all ages.
Main Idea Examples

The movie Apollo 13 was a blockbuster for
the summer of 1995. It is an exciting story
about space exploration. In the movie, the
astronauts get in trouble while they are
trying to return to Earth. People in the
audience are on the edge of their seats
waiting to see what happens. What makes it
even more exciting is that it is a true story.
Main Idea Examples
Most teenagers and young adults do not know what
they want to do for the rest of their lives. It is a big
decision. There are a number of things you can do to
narrow the choices. For example you can take an
interest test, do some research on your own about a
career, try volunteer work in the field in which you
are interested, or "job-shadow", in which you spend a
day with a person who is working in a field that
interests you. These are just a few helpful ideas as
you begin to choose a career.

Point of View

The way in which an author reveals
characters, events, and ideas in telling
a story; the vantage point from which
a story is told
First-person POV

I was sure there was someone
following me. I walked faster, but the
sense of foreboding closed in around
me like a cold hand clenching around
my spine. When I turned to look
behind me, the street was deserted.
Second-person POV

You are walking down the street. You
know there is someone behind you;
you feel the cold hand of fear grip
your spine. When you turn to look
behind you, the street is deserted.
Third-person Limited POV

She was sure there was someone
following her. She walked faster, but
the sense of foreboding closed in
around her like a cold hand clenching
around her spine. When she turned to
look behind her, the street was
deserted.
Third-person Limited
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Glaspell's A Jury of Her Peers
Freeman's The Revolt of Mother
Cather's Paul's Case
Faulkner's Barn Burning
Porter's The Grave and The Jilting of
Granny Weatherall
Third-person Omniscient

From sixteen-year-old Otis Ormonde, who has two
more years at Hill School, to G. Reece Stoddard,
over whose bureau at home hangs a Harvard law
diploma; from little Madeleine Hogue, whose hair
still feels strange and uncomfortable on top of her
head, to Bessie MacRae, who has been the life of
the party a little too long--more than ten years--the
medley is not only the centre of the stage but
contains the only people capable of getting an unobstructed view of it.
Third-person Omniscient



Bernice Bobs Her Hair
Parker Adderson
Philosopher
Third-person Objective

The children assembled first, of course. School was recently
over for the summer, and the feeling of liberty sat uneasily on
most of them; they tended to gather together quietly for a
while before they broke into boisterous play. and their talk
was still of the classroom and the teacher, of books and
reprimands. Bobby Martin had already stuffed his pockets full
of stones, and the other boys soon followed his example,
selecting the smoothest and roundest stones; Bobby and
Harry Jones and Dickie Delacroix-- the villagers pronounced
this name "Dellacroy"--eventually made a great pile of stones
in one corner of the square and guarded it against the raids of
the other boys. The girls stood aside, talking among
themselves, looking over their shoulders at the boys. and the
very small children rolled in the dust or clung to the hands of
their older brothers or sisters.
Third-person Objective



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Crane's The Blue Hotel
Jackson's The Lottery
Lardner's The Greatest Man in the
World
Hemingway's Hills Like White
Elephants
Reading Rate

The speed at which a person reads,
usually silently
Factors that Reduce
Reading Rate
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
1. Limited perceptual span (word-by-word reading)
2. Vocalization (reading aloud)
3. Faulty habits of attention and concentration
(including simple inattention during the reading act
and faulty processes of retention)
4. Lack of practice in reading—use it or lose it!
5. Fear of losing comprehension, causing the
person to deliberately read more slowly
6. Poor evaluation of which aspects are important
and which are unimportant
7. The effort to remember everything rather than to
remember selectively
When to decrease speed..
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1. Unfamiliar terminology
2. Difficult sentence and paragraph
structure.
3. Unfamiliar or abstract concepts.
4. Detailed, technical material.
5. Material on which you want detailed
retention.
When to increase speed…




1. Simple material with few ideas which are
new to you.
2. Unnecessary examples and illustrations.
3. Detailed explanation and idea elaboration
4. Broad, generalized ideas and ideas which
are restatements of previous ones.
Words Per Minute
Grade 1
Early Rate
50
End Rate
70
Grade 2
70
100
Grade 3
100
130
Grade 4
130
140
Grade 5
140
160
Grade 6
160
170
Where Are You?

http://www.mindbluff.com/askread.ht
m
Summarize

To capture all of the most important
parts of the original text, but express
them in a much shorter space in the
reader’s own words
Summaries


http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/do
cuments/standsum/index.cfm
http://www.kfmaas.de/sum_shas.html
GIST Summary

http://www.readwritethink.org/lesson_
images/lesson290/Template.pdf
Summarizing Strategies

http://its.guilford.k12.nc.us/act/strate
gies/summary.htm
Target Words

Words that students are supposed to
know (like these)
Genetics

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phenotype
genotype
homozygous
heterozygous
selective breeding

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Punnett squares
dominant
recessive
hybrid
Algebra


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
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
function
factor
FOIL
inverse functions
linear equations
quadratic equations
Music



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
beat
chord
harmony
rhythm
discord

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melody
score
tempo
accompaniment
improvise
X

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accuracy
control group
distribution
mean
median
variation

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mode
mean deviation
population
range
standard deviation
standard error
X

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noun
plural
possessive
antecedent
relative pronoun
interrogative

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
direct object
gerund
modifier
transitive
passive voice
Past tense
X

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


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
archetypes
birth data
degree
dogma
houses
planet
sign
X





baste
al dente
bouillon
broil
chop

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


cream
cure
garnish
grill
marinade
Research

A systematic inquiry into a subject or
problem in order to discover, verify, or
revise relevant facts or principles
having to do with the subject or
problem
Research – Napster

Your focused research question: Am I
infringing on musicians' rights when I use
Napster?
Your thesis statement: Napster is at the
center of the current Internet copyright
controversy. Individuals wanting to share
the music they love are at legal odds with
the music industry wanting to be paid for
the music it produces.
Research – Degas

Your focused research question:
What was the impact of New Orleans
on the painting of Edgar Degas?
Your thesis statement: Edgar
Degas' visits to his uncle's plantation
in Louisiana influenced his later
painting.
Research –
Sports/violence

Your focused research question:
Are professional athletes more violent
than the average male?
Your thesis statement: Many
factors contribute to a higher than
average rate of violence among
professional athletes.
Research – Lake Powell

Your focused research question:
Should Lake Powell be drained?
Your thesis statement: Draining
Lake Powell would affect the
environment, economy, and electricity
supply.
Research – Parental
involvement in schools

Your focused research question:
How can parental involvement
improve a child's learning?
Your thesis statement: Parental
involvement brings academic success.
Retell

A child is asked to recount, in his/her
own words, a story that’s just been
read
Retelling Ring for
Nonfiction – K. Haag









1. What was the book mostly about?
2. Summarize what you learned from reading this
book.
3. What did you learn that you didn't already know?
4. Tell the main ideas in order.
5. What features of text did you notice the author
used?
6. Explain the author's purpose for writing this
book?
7. What is the most important idea you learned?
8. How has reading this book changed what you
believe?
9. How has reading this book changed how you will
act?
Retelling Narratives

READ only as much as your hand can
cover.*

COVER the words with your hand.

REMEMBER what you have just read. (It is
okay to take another look).

RETELL what you just read inside your
head or to a partner.
Mathematics Retelling








1. Tell when to use this procedure?
2. Define the concept or procedure?
3. Identify the main steps in this concept?
4. Make sense to the learner?
5. Sound organized?
6. Keep the sequence of the procedure?
7. Tell how this could be applied to real world
situations?
8. Answer the question presented by the problem?
History Retelling









1. Have a good beginning telling when and where
the situation takes place?
2. Name the person(s) involved?
3. Tell the main points of the situation?
4. Tell some supporting details?
5. Make sense to the reader?
6. Sound organized?
7. Keep the sequence of the situation?
8. Tell what the main problem was in the situation?
9. Was the situation solved and how did it come
about?
Science Retelling









1. State the problem presented?
2. Tell what outcome is expected?
3. Identify the main points of the concept/procedure?
4. Tell some variables of the concept/procedure?
5. Follow the process/steps?
6. Sound organized?
7. Keep the sequence of the procedure?
8. Tell how this could be applied to real world situations?
9. Tell whether the outcome of the procedure was expected
or not and why?
Root Word

A word to which prefixes and suffixes
can be added to form different words
Greek/Latin Roots
arch
chief; primary; archetype
first
bio
life
biology
gen
birth
generate
manu
hand
manual
Greek/Latin Roots
path
feeling
empathy
proto
first
prototype
sect
cut
dissect
vac
empty
vacant
Simile

A comparison of two unlike things
using, like, as or resembles
Common Similes

As alike as two peas in a pod
As annoying as nails scratching
against a chalkboard.
As bald as a baby's backside
As big as a bus
As blind as a bat
As bold as brass
As brave as a lion
As bright as the sun
As busy as a beaver
As busy as a bee
As busy as a cat on a hot tin
roof
As clean as a whistle

As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
As
dry as a bone
dry as dust
dull as dishwater
easy as A.B.C.
easy as pie
fit as a fiddle
flat as a pancake
hairy as an ape
happy as a clown
hard as nails
hard as rock
cold as ice
cool as a cucumber
crazy as a loon
cunning as a fox
cute as a button
Similes in Poetry
What happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a soreAnd then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar overlike a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.
Or does it explode?
Similes in Prose


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“Jimmy Smith was moving through the room
like an enormous trained mole collecting the
empty cans.” Suttree by Cormac McCarthy.
“Elderly American ladies leaning on their
canes listed toward me like towers of Pisa.”
Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov.
“Lithe brown arms encircled him like a
legion of snakes.” The Sea-Hawk by Rafael
Sabatini.
Style

How an author writes; an author’s use
of language – its effects and
appropriateness to the author’s intent
and theme
Robinson Crusoe

I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise,
and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and from whom I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption
of words in England, we are now called - nay we
call ourselves and write our name - Crusoe; and so
my companions always called me.
A Farewell to Arms

If people bring so much courage to this
world the world has to kill them to break
them, so of course it kills them. The world
breaks every one and afterward many are
strong at the broken places. But those that
will not break it kills. It kills the very good
and the very gentle and the very brave
impartially. If you are none of these you can
be sure it will kill you too but there will be
no special hurry.
Of Mice and Men
They took places opposite each other at the table under the
light, but George did not shuffle the cards. He rippled the edge
of the deck nervously, and the little snapping noise drew the
eyes of all the men in the room, so that he stopped doing it. The
silence fell on the room again. A minute passed, and another
minute. Candy lay still, staring at the ceiling. Slim gazed at him
for a moment and then looked down at his hands; he subdued
one hand with the other, and held it down. There came a little
gnawing sound from under the floor and all the men looked
down toward it gratefully. Only Candy continued to stare at the
ceiling.
Meter

The repetition of stressed and
unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
Meter Examples

iambic pentameter (5 iambs, 10 syllables)
– That time | of year | thou mayst | in me |
behold

trochaic tetrameter (4 trochees, 8 syllables)
– Tell me | not in | mournful | numbers

anapestic trimeter (3 anapests, 9 syllables)
– And the sound | of a voice | that is still

dactylic hexameter (6 dactyls, 17 syllables;
a trochee replaces the last dactyl)
– This is the | forest pri | meval, the |
murmuring | pine and the | hemlocks
Nursery rhymes

A short, rhymed poem or tale for
children
Nursery Rhymes







Mary, Mary Quite Contrary
Hickory, Dickory Dock
Humpty Dumpty
Old Mother Hubbard
One Two Buckle My Shoe
There Was an Old Woman…
Goosey, Goosey Gander
Riddles

http://www.apples4theteacher.com/m
other-goose-nurseryrhymes/riddles.html
Multiple-Meaning Words

Words that have several meanings
depending on how they are used in
sentences
Multiple-meaning Words
in Sentences





crash: I had a car crash. Tom will try not to
crash into the pole.
pet: I have a golden lab for a pet. Sara and
Jenna like to pet dogs.
dance: The middle school will have a
dance. I will dance the jitterbug.
cut: Bill has a cut on his finger. Tam will
cut out the pictures.
paw: My dog's paw is big. The horse will
paw at the snow to find grass.
Multiple-meaning Words
in Sentences





dread: My dread of birds causes me
problems. Marla dreads taking tests.
post: Gary pounded the post into the
dirt. The teacher will post the grades.
string: The guitar string broke. He has to
string beads in preschool.
smell: Kids sweating have a smell. Sue can
smell a skunk.
fire: We will build a fire and roast
marshmallows. The boss will fire him.
Multiple-meaning Words
Assignment: Choose 10








trap
camp
bomb
shop
place
cover
swing
name







staple
shout
float
station
plan
talk
fence
Onomatopoeia

The use of words whose sounds
express or suggest their meaning
Onomatopoeia Examples
achoo
ahem
baa
bah
bam
bang
bark
bash
cluck
fizz
bonk
boo
boom
bubble
bump
buzz
chatter
cheep
chirp
clang
Plot

The sequence in which the author
arranges events in a story
The Great Gatsby

Nick Carraway is a young man from Minnesota goes
to New York to learn bond business. He is very
attracted to the rich people and their culture and so
rents a house in the West Egg district in Long
Island. Though the area is wealthy and only rich
people live there, they are not really civilized
people. While the West Egg has unfashionable
people, the East Egg which is just opposite the bay
has fashionable and high society people. Nick has
few relatives in the East Egg…
The Canterbury Tales
There is no prologue or introduction to the
Tale, which is only 286 lines long.
Despite the shortness of the Tale, the Physician
spends a long time introducing us to one of the
characters, the 14-year-old daughter of Virginius, a
knight. The girl is a paragon of virtue, beautiful,
modest, with perfect manners, and everything a
parent would want a daughter to be. Indeed, the
physician goes on to tells us that all children should
be brought up with the same degree of care as this
"lordes doghtre". More than 100 lines have been
spoken before anything happens at all!
The Giver

People in the community take special care to avoid doing or
saying anything different. In the community, one must not
say anything that causes discomfort to others, and one must
use language precisely. Husbands and wives are matched as
couples by a Committee of Elders who reviews each individual
to see if a person's characteristics will be compatible with
those of his mate. Exactly two children-one male and one
female-are assigned to each family unit. The elderly live at the
House of the Old. Those whose children have grown to have
families of their own live with other Childless Adults. Newborn
infants are nurtured at the Nurturing Center until they
become Ones and are assigned to family units…
Figurative Language

Language that cannot be taken
literally since it was written to create a
special effect or feeling
Alliteration/Assignment

"Fly away, my fine feathered friend!"

1. The two turtles...

2. A horrible house...

3. The dirty dog...
Idioms

Idiom
Actual Meaning

Cross that bridge when you come
to it.
Don't worry about problems
until they actually happen.

hit the hay
go to bed

raining cats and dogs
raining hard

on cloud nine
very happy; joyous

once in a blue moon
often
almost never; not very
Idioms Assignment
1. If you don't hand in your report, you will miss the boat for an "A".
2. Tomorrow is Jack's surprise party, so don't let the cat out of the bag when
you see him.
3. When Erin didn't do her homework and failed the quiz, her mom hit the roof.
4. Joe is down in the dumps since his friend moved away.
5. Mary wasn't paying attention and seemed out in left field when the teacher
called on her.
6. George said I would lose, but since I didn't, he will have to eat his words.
7. You shouldn't spend an arm and a leg on a foolish video game!
8. He went out on a limb and asked the principal if he could miss class to go to
the party.
9. All I said was I didn't feel like doing my work and the teacher jumped down
my throat.
10. When Sara didn't turn in her project, her "A" went down the drain.
Metaphor






Her teeth are pearls.
"The fog comes in on little cat feet"
"Men's words are bullets, that their enemies take
up and make use of against them."
"A man may break a word with you, sir, and words
are but wind.“
"The rain came down in long knitting needles.“
"Memory is a crazy woman that hoards colored rags
and throws away food."
Metaphor Assignment

Autumn is a season of dust. Into the dust
crumble memories of powerful ocean tides
hitting a sea of sand, early morning walks
on a white crescent of beach, and sun
scorched hills where the beauty of the
summer slowly unfolds. But autumn, too,
will bring her own memories. The foliage is
a painting come to life and the music of the
falling leaves will serenade us into winter.
Personification

"Summer Grass" by Carl Sandburg
Summer grass aches and whispers
It wants something: it calls and sings; it pours
out wishes to the overhead stars.
The rain hears; the rain answers; the rain is slow
coming; the rain wets the face of the grass.
Personification
Assignment

Underline the non-human thing and circle the human quality.
1. The winter wrapped its icy claws around Northeast Pennsylvania.
2. The alarm clock screeched that it was time to get up.
3. Fear grabbed me as I heard footsteps behind me.
4. The washer sputtered and groaned as it removed the mud from the knees of my old
jeans.
5. The printer spit out more copies than I needed.
6. The branches of the tree pointed to the old dirt road.
7. The flood waters swallowed the trees in one big gulp.
8. The stars winked at us from the night sky.
9. Listening to the piano sing its happy tune made me want to dance.
10. That carrot cake with the cream cheese icing is calling my name.
Simile


"Simile: Willow and Ginkgo" by Eve Merrriam
The willow is like an etching,
Fine-lined against the sky.
The ginkgo is like a crude sketch,
Hardly worthy to be signed.
The willow's music is like a soprano
Delicate and thin.
The ginkgo's tune is like a chorus
With everyone joining in.
Simile Assignment
1. pearls as big as
6. The class was wild like
2. The kids are as busy as
a/n
7. He was big like
3. The light is as bright as
4. skin as smooth as
5. rocks sharp as
8. The fish was small as
9. I am hungry like a
10. Her face was round as
Genre

A category used to classify literary
works, usually by form, technique, or
content
Genre Wheel
Graphic Organizer

A diagram or pictorial device that
shows relationships
Character Diagram
.
Concept Map
Timeline
Pie Chart
Bar Graph
Scatterplots
Line Graph
Graphic Organizer
Essay Web
Semantic Web
Problem/Solution
Plot Diagram
Story Map
Venn Diagram
Vocabulary Mapping
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Literary Terms