Glens Colman Director of Curriculum Carroll Lower School May 2013 May, 2013 Carroll School Belief Statement Smart children with language learning disabilities become successful students given proper instruction within a positive environment. Agenda 1. What is assessment? 2. Why do we assess? 3. How does Carroll assess its students? 4. How is assessment information used at Carroll? What is Assessment? Assessment is the process of collecting data for the purpose of: (1) Specifying and verifying problems (2) Making decisions about students Testing ≠ Assessment School personnel sometimes equate testing and assessment. Testing consists of administering a particular set of questions to an individual or group of individuals to obtain a score. That score is the end product of testing. A test is only one of several assessment techniques or procedures for gathering information. During the process of assessment, data from observations, recollections, tests, and professional judgments all come into play. Assessment in Special and Inclusive Education, 11th Edition, p. 13 To Consider: The Whole Child Cognition Language Attention Executive Functioning Memory Visual-Spatial Visual-Motor Logic Speech Content-Area Achievement Background Experience/Educational Opportunity Motivation/Interests/Social/Emotional Characteristics of Assessments Standardized: A test in which the administration, scoring, and interpretation procedures are standard or set; usually norm-referenced meaning that norms have been established so scores can be interpreted in terms of validated referent. Criterion Referenced: A test linked to predefined content and designed to measure student achievement of that content. Measures that are used to determine if a student can demonstrate their knowledge by reaching a specified performance level (i.e criteria) on a task. Give a picture of whether a student does or doesn’t have a particular skill Types of Assessments Screening Diagnostic Progress Monitoring Outcomes Adapted from Pamela E. Hook, Ph.D. SCREENING Purpose: To identify children in need of extra instructional supports Often given to a large number of individuals-needs to be efficient Examples: Pre-Literacy Skills Screening Adapted from Pamela E. Hook, Ph.D. DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT Purpose: To determine student’s specific instructional needs Often involves in-depth individual assessment Examples: CELF-4, CTOPP Adapted from Pamela E. Hook, Ph.D. PROGRESS MONITORING Purpose: Ensure that adequate progress is achieved throughout the year - also called Formative or Dynamic Assessment Involves repeated assessment Examples: Fry Words, DIBELS, Benchmarker, MAP Adapted from Pamela E. Hook, Ph.D. OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT Purpose: To evaluate overall outcomes - also called Summative Assessment Examples: MCAS, GRADE, SAT Adapted from Pamela E. Hook, Ph.D. Assessment at Carroll Diagnostic Testing Carroll Assessment Battery Carroll CurriculumBased Assessments Teacher Observation and Classroom Assessments Review of Scoring: Definitions Raw Score: The number of correct responses or any original data obtained by a student on a test. Standard Scores (SS) A score derived from comparing a raw score to scores of children of the same age (based on the normal curve – often has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15) Scaled Scores A derived score similar to a standard score (often has a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3) Adapted from Pamela E. Hook, Ph.D. and http://www.wrightslaw.com/links/glossary.assessment.htm Testing Terms Percentile Ranks (PR) How the student scored when compared to other children who are the same age or grade. Percentage of scores that fall below a point on a score distribution; for example, a score at the 75th percentile indicates that 75% of students obtained that score or lower Stanines A standard score between 1 and 9, with a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 2. The first stanine is the lowest scoring group and the 9th stanine is the highest scoring group. Age and Grade Equivalents* The age or grade for which a raw score is the average score Composite Scores* Total score made up of sum of scores on two or more subtests *Interpret with caution Adapted from Pamela E. Hook, Ph.D. Adapted from GRADE Test by Isabel B. Phillips, Ed.D. Level 1 Diagnostic Testing In order to admit a student to the Carroll School, our Admissions Department must receive important diagnostic information about that student. That information may include (but is not limited to); - Cognitive Testing (WISC-4) Academic Testing (ex. WIAT-III or Woodcock-Johnson) Memory Testing(WRAML2, Rey-Osterrieth) Speech and Language Testing: (PPVT-4, CELF-4) Motor Testing: (VMI) Executive Functioning (BRIEF, NEPSY-II, Delis-Kaplan) Social-Emotional: (BASC-2, CBCL) Level 2: Carroll Annual Assessments Purposes: To assess outcomes in achievement relative to the baseline performance in the instructionally relevant dimensions of phonological skills, decoding accuracy and speed. To monitor progress and inform instructional group/planning from year-to year. To understand how well a child is applying newly learned skills. To analyze errors and determine appropriate intervention strategies. To understand how an individual performs relative to same-age peers across the nation (percentile rank). To evaluate our curriculum and make sure we are effectively teaching students what they need to know to be effective learners. Facts: Carroll Annual Assessment The CAA is a battery of standardized assessments that, in combination, take a close look at the skills required to be an effective learner. The battery has been developed in response to findings from the National Reading Panel The battery represents a combination of individual and group administered assessments. The battery is administered during the spring to all students at Carroll * * Subtests administered may vary by the age and testing history of a student National Reading Panel Findings Reading Fluency Phonics Phonemic Awareness Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Components of Reading Phonemic Awareness • Awareness and understanding of sounds. Phonics • Correspondence between sounds and letters. Reading Fluency • Reading aloud with speed, accuracy, and proper expressions Vocabulary • Knowledge of words. Comprehension • Understanding discourse and text. Carroll Annual Assessments Comprehensi ve Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) NorthWest Evaluation Associaton (NWEA) Group Mathematical Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GMADE ) Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) CARROLL ASSESSMENTS Rapid Automatic Naming/Rapi d Alternating Stimulus (RAN/RAS) Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Assesses phonological awareness (the awareness and access to the phonological structure of oral language) and phonological memory (the ability to code information phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory). Elison: measures the ability to delete individual phonemes from words presented orally and to reintegrate the remaining sounds into a new word. Highly correlated to early reading and spelling skill acquisition. Say /clump/. Now say /clump/ without the /k/ Segmenting Words: measures the ability to isolate and separate all of the phonemes in a spoken word by pronouncing the isolated phonemes in sequence after hearing and pronouncing the whole word. This skill highly correlates with word analysis skills or “sounding-out.” Rapid Automatic Naming/Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAN/RAS) Measures how quickly and efficiently a student is able to retrieve phonological information from long-term or permanent memory. Rapid naming is highly correlated with acquisition of reading fluency and comprehension skills. Colors Numbers, Objects, Letters, 2-Set (letters and numbers) Woodcock Reading Mastery TestRevised (WRMT) An untimed test that assesses the student’s accuracy and range of sophistication in pronouncing complex real words and nonsense words. The Word Identification (WI) tests requires a natural sounding reading of a list of progressively difficult real words. This untimed task measures the accuracy of a student’s recognition of both decodable words and sight words. The Word Attack (WA) test requires the student to produce a natural sounding reading of a list of progressively pseudo words that follow predictable English spelling patterns. This untimed task measures how well a student had learned and can apply phonetic and structural analysis strategies to unknown words. Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) This timed test is an efficient way of monitoring the two kinds of word reading skills that are critical in overall reading ability: the ability to accurately recognize familiar words in whole units (sight words) quickly, and the ability to “sound out” words quickly. The Sight Word Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest, taps not only the accuracy, but also automaticity of real word recognition and speed of retrieval. The Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) subtest, taps not only the accuracy, but also the automaticity in applying phonetic and structural analysis strategies to unknown words. Parent Report (Word Reading) Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) Group administered reading assessment Vocabulary & Word Meaning, Sentence Comprehension, Passage Comprehension, Listening Comprehension Parent Report(GRADE) Carroll Math Assessments Group Mathematical Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GMADE) Group administered math assessment Concepts & Communication, Operations & Computation, Process &Applications Symphony Benchmarker/Track My Progress The Symphony Math Benchmarker is an untimed, computer adaptive assessment which provides a benchmark measure of overall mathematics learning against the Common Core State Standards. CCSS fluency standards. Parent Report- GMADE Symphony Benchmarker/ Track My Progress 2012-2013 Fall Winter Spring 2012-2013 Fall Winter Spring Standard Score Percentile Level 3 Curriculum-Based Assessments Measure how a student is responding to the curriculum. Aligned with curriculum in that students are being tested specifically on what and how they are being taught. Help to provide diagnostic data, monitor progress and make educational decisions Is usually criterion-referenced Help teachers to understand trends in a student’s learning. Language CBA Form Phonemic Awareness Rhyme Words PsuedoWord Decoding Sight Words (Fry) Sept‘12 Dec. ‘12 March ‘13 June ‘13 /35: (%) /35: (%) /35: (%) /35: (%) /10: (%) /10: (%) /10: (%) /10: (%) L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) (report in bundles of 50) (report in bundles of 50) (report in bundles of 50) (report in bundles of 50) L1 = /15 L2 = /15 L3 = /15 L4 = /15 L1 = /15 L2 = /15 L3 = /15 L4 = /15 Morphologi c Awareness L1 = /15 L2 = /15 L3 = /15 L4 = /15 Fluency: Read Naturally Read Naturally Gr. Benchmark: wcpm Read Naturally Gr. Benchmark: wcpm Read Naturally Gr. Benchmark: wcpm L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) Spelling L1 = /15 L2 = /15 L3 = /15 L4 = /15 Read Naturally Gr. Benchmark: wcpm L1: /20 (%) L2: /20 (%) L3: /20 (%) Language CBA Descriptions Phonemic Awareness and Rhyme: Measures the ability to identify and manipulate sound. Skills include; syllable blending, initial sound, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, rhyme Decoding/Encoding: Measures the ability for students to use patterns and rules to identify words in reading and create words through spelling. Carroll School OG levels include: L1: Base + AS prefixes or inflected suffix (runner) L2: Base + AS, most common Latin prefix and suffix (precooked) L3: assimilated prefixes and up to 2 suffixes, some incongruent syllable boundaries (artistic) L4: Base + stress shifts ( vowel change), “unfair Latinate endings” (magician) Language CBA Descriptions (Cont.) Fry words: measures the ability to quickly identify “sight” or known words that occur frequently in reading. Words are bundled in group s of 50 by level of frequency used in English. Student must make less than 5 errors to master a bundle. Morphological Awareness: measures the ability to break down words by their parts (i.e suffixes, roots and prefixes). 4 bundles of 15 each with increasing difficulty Fluency: Measures the ability to read quickly and accurately. Read Naturally benchmarks used to calibrate oral reading progress against a grade level standard. Writing: Assessments that use rubrics to score Progress Monitoring 2013-2014 Progress monitoring tools will continue to include both standardized and criterion-references forms. Pilot NWEA MAP testing which is a computerized set of assessments, similar to the Symphony Benchmarker, that measure individual progress in the areas of reading, language and math. Improve efficiency of assessment Provide mechanism for assessment to inspire instruction Move away from paper/pencil/bubble sheets Preserve teaching time Improve communication with parents Report with greater detail. Team Collaboration The Carroll School has many mechanisms for gathering and sharing information about students. Robust Student Information System Team-to-Team Transfers Teacher-Tutor Meetings Weekly Team Meetings Regular Coaching Meetings Child Study Case Study JOHNNY Admissions When Johnny first enters Carroll, our Admissions Department does a thorough review of a Johnny’s “file” which includes…. Parent Questionnaire Previous School Reports Diagnostic Testing * Admissions Testing * Diagnostic Testing Information gathered from diagnostic evaluations may include (but is not limited to…) background information review cognitive profile academic skills memory skills speech and language skills motor skills executive functioning skills social-emotional skills Johnny’s File Read- Cognitive Testing COGNITIVE WISC IV Verbal Comprehension Similarities Vocabulary Information Perceptual Reasoning Block Design Picture Concepts Matrix Reasoning Working Memory Digit Span Letter-# seq. Processing Coding Symbol Search ACHIEVEMENT WIAT Basic Reading Composite Early reading Word Reading Pseudo- Word Alphabet Writing Fluency SS=118 PR=73%ile SS=108 PR=70%ile 11@63%ile 12@75%ile 12@75%ile SS=121 PR=91%ile 14@91%ile 15 @ 95%ile 11@63%ile SS=94 PR= 34%ile 8@25%ile 10@50%ile 100 @ 50%ile 10 @ 50%ile 10@50%ile SS=88 PR=21%ile 98@45%ile 83@13%ile 94@34%ile 90@25%ile Johnny’s File Read-Memory Testing MEMORY WRAML-II Sentence Memory Story memory- recall Story MemoryDelayed Recall Story MemoryRecognition Verbal LearningImmediate Recall Verbal LearningDelayed Recall Verbal LearningRecognition Picture Memory RCFT (Rey) Immediate Recall Delayed Recall Identify component pieces of test 12@75%ile 11@63%ile 11@63%ile 5@5%ile 10@50%ile 38%ile 42%ile 7%ile (not crossing midline and using a fragmented approach when required to demonstrate an intersecting diagonal. Johnny’s File Read- Achievement Testing ACHIEVEMENT WIAT Basic Reading Composite SS=88 PR=21%ile Early reading Word Reading Pseudo- Word Alphabet Writing Fluency 98@45%ile 83@13%ile 94@34%ile 90@25%ile WIAT- Written Expression Composite SS=94 PR=14% ile Spelling WIAT Math Composite 84@14%ile SS=9 PR= 47%ile Numerical Operations Math Reasoning 99@ 47%ile Math Problem Solving GORT Rate Accuracy Fluency Comprehension CTOPP Phonological Awareness Composite 96 @39%ile Discontinued Phonological Memory Composite SS=10 PR= 50%ile Rapid Naming Composite SS=88 PR= 21%ile Alternate Phonological Awareness 124 @ 95%ile Alternate Rapid Naming 82 @ 12%ile Elison Blending Memory for Digits Rapid Digit Naming Nonword Repetition Rapid Letter Naming Rapid Color Naming Phoneme Reversal Rapid Object Naming Blending Nonwords Segmenting Words Segmenting Nonwords 15@95%ile 15@95%ile 9@37%ile 9@25%ile 11@63%ile 8@25%ile 5@5%ile 9 9 15 9 13 96 @ 39ile SS=130 PR=98%ile Johnny’s File Read-Phonological Testing CTOPP Phonological Awareness Composite Phonological Memory Composite Rapid Naming Composite Alternate Phonological Awareness Alternate Rapid Naming Elison Blending Memory for Digits Rapid Digit Naming Nonword Repetition Rapid Letter Naming Rapid Color Naming Phoneme Reversal Rapid Object Naming Blending Nonwords Segmenting Words Segmenting Nonwords NEPSY II Comprehension of Instructions SS=130 PR=98%ile SS=100 PR=50%ile SS=88 PR=21%ile 124 @ 95%ile 82 @ 12%ile 15@95%ile 15@95%ile 9@37%ile 9@25%ile 11@63%ile 8@25%ile 5@5%ile 9 9 15 9 13 8 @ 25%ile Johnny’s File Read-Speech and Language Testing SPEECH AND LANGUAGE CELF-4 (Receptive) Understanding Spoken Paragraphs EOWPVT-IV (expressive) SS= 12 PR= 75%ile 12 @75%ile 94@34%ile Johnny’s File Read-Motor Testing MOTOR VMI 93@32%ile Johnny’s File Read- Executive Functioning Testing EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING BRIEF Shifting Behavior Planning and organizing Inhibiting behavior Emotional Control Working Memory 98%ile 98%ile 93%ile 83%ile 96%ile Johnny’s File Read-SocialEmotional Testing SOCIALEMOTIONAL BASC Hyperactivity 84%ile Anxiety Depression Somatization 91%ile 76%ile 82%ile Johnny’s Admissions Testing What do we know about Johnny? • Show intellectual strengths in in visual processing, visuospatial reasoning and construction, and vocabulary knowledge. • Shows solidly average verbal and visual memory skills; however, his failure to recognize words that he had just recalled verbally may suggest that he did not fully attend to this task. • Relative weaknesses with working memory and processing speed • Has knowledge of phonological decoding rules and letter-sound correspondence, but has difficulty applying his knowledge to the task of reading. Lack of automaticity is present. • Spelling is a noted weakness and the presence of many letter reversals in words (not in single letters) may be a result of attention. Not automatic with high frequency words. Johnny • Math skills are in the average range but still slightly below where we would expect him to perform given his intellectual capabilities. Has a good understanding of number sense but needs additional support with place value and regrouping.. • Speech and language skills are average with relative weakness in following complex directions. • Fine motor skills are intact • Testing performance also indicates difficulty in ability to maintain attention to task. Impulsive approach to testing. • Johnny has significant issues with executive functioning planning/organizing, shifting and inhibition. • Johnny’s learning issues have had an impact on his confidence and self-concept. Grouping Once Johnny is accepted, a team of faculty members, including the division head, the educational director, department heads, counselors and teachers meet to review student information and make appropriate classroom groups. Cognitive profile Reading levels Math levels Executive Functioning Social Skills Recommendations for Johnny’s Program Focus on building and applying decoding/encoding skills Continued work with fluency. Focused work on place value and operations. Targeted intervention with working memory and processing. Considerations for challenges with attention(sensory breaks, information in smaller chunks, active work) and executive functioning weaknesses (pre-teaching, re-teaching, templates) Integrate strategies for building self-esteem. Progress Monitoring A student’s progress is monitored continuously by teachers, department heads and other administrators. Daily/Weekly- OG lessons, teacher observations, classroom assignments and work samples Quarterly: All the above and CBA’s Yearly: All of the above and annual assessment results Every Three Years: All of the above and updated diagnostic testing. Longitudinal Annual Assessment Longitudinal GRADE Assessment Longitudinal GMADE Assessment THANK YOU!!!!