Jennie Kwok
Ed 703.22
Spring 2009
Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Statement of the Problem
 Review of Related Literature
 Statement of Hypothesis
 Method
 Participants
 Instruments
 Experimental Design
 Procedure
 Results
 Discussion
 Implications
Statement of the Problem
Due to an increase number of parents entering the work force,
there is a great need to place children in after-school programs
that enrich their academic and social development. Afterschool programs can focus on academics or recreational.
However, it is not clear which after-school program promotes
academic achievement. This study will focus on the following
question: Which type of after-school program is beneficial to
students’ academic achievement?
Review of Related Literature
Pros of After-school Programs
 Participation in after-school programs are associated with higher grades and test scores.
(Coie & Krehbiel, 1984; Posner & Lowe, 1994; Dryfoos, 1999; Larner et al., 1999; Pierce,
Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Cosden et
al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Munoz, 2002; Valentine, Cooper, & Bettencourt, 2002; Junge et al.,
2003; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Mahoney et al., 2005; AfterSchoolAlliance, 2007;
Jenner, E. & Jenner, L.W., 2007; Viadero, 2007)
 Low-income students gain the most from after-school programs. (Posner & Lowe, 1994;
Larner et al., 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Miller, 2001;
Miller, 2003; Mahoney et al., 2005)
 Participation in after-school programs gave students greater confidence in their
academic abilities and provides an opportunity to develop positive, school-related, adult
attachments. ( Posner & Lowe, 1994; Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Cosden, Morrison,
Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Miller, 2001; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Viadero, 2007)
 After-school participation is also linked with lower involvement in risky behaviors like
violence, drugs, sex, etc. (Larner et al., 1999; Cosden et al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Jenner, E. &
Jenner, L.W., 2007)
 Research concludes the following regarding after-school programs: youth benefit from
consistent participation in quality after-school programs, after-school programs can
increase engagement in learning, can also increase educational equity (which provides
disadvantaged youth opportunities and experiences that are available to middle and
upper class students), and after-school programs build key skills (teamwork, problem
solving, communication) necessary for success in today's world. (Miller, 2003)
Review of Related Literature
Cons of After-school Programs
 However, after-school programs can interfere with a child’s
commitment to their family and community. It can also reduce
parental involvement in their child’s academic process. (Cosden,
Morrison, Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Cosden, Morrison, Gutierrez,
& Brown, 2004)
 A study by Vandell & Corasaniti reported middle class children who
attended after-school had poorer grades and test scores and were
more likely to be rejected by their classmates. (Pierce, Hamm, &
Vandell, 1999 )
 Another study reported that children in after-school showed more
problems socially, emotionally, and academically when compared to
those in mother care or self-care after-school. (Posner & Lowe, 1994)
Review of Related Literature
Pros of Academic After-school Programs
 The Gevirtz Homework Project (2001) that provided homework assistance
had a positive impact on 4th grade English Language Learners. (Cosden
et al., 2001; Cosden et al., 2004)
 Homework completion plays an important role in supporting academic
achievement. It develops good work habits and job management skills.
(Corno & Xu, 2004)
Pros of Recreational After-school Programs
 The Ecological Study of After-school Care found 3rd graders who spent
time in enrichment activities (music, organized sports, dance, etc.) had
better work habits, better relationships with peers, and better emotional
adjustment. (Vandell & Shumow, 1999)
 Physical activity and sport participation are linked directly and indirectly
with better cognitive functioning, higher academic achievement, reduced
school dropout and greater odds of going to college full time. (Coatsworth
& Conroy, 2007)
Statement of Hypothesis
(HR1)
 In comparing academic and recreational after-school
programs, 17 third-graders attending an academic afterschool program in Brooklyn, N.Y. will yield better
reading results than 17 third-graders attending a
recreational after-school program in Brooklyn, N.Y.
Participants
 17 – 3rd graders attending an academic after-school program in P.S. X
 17 – 3rd graders attending a recreational after-school program in P.S. X
Instruments


Reading Comprehension Exams (3)
Consent Forms
o
o
o

Principal
After-school Coordinators
Parents
Surveys
o
o
I like going to after-school.
1
2
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
I spend
1.
2.
3.
4.
time doing homework.
Less than 30 minutes.
30 minutes
1 hour
1½ hours
3
Agree
4
Strongly
Agree
Research Design
 Pre-Experimental Design
 Static-Group Comparison




Individuals are not randomly assigned. They are in pre-existing
groups.
Two Groups: Control Group (X1) experience one treatment
(academic after-school program) and Experimental Group (X2)
experience a different treatment (recreational after-school
program).
Both groups (X1 and X2) are posttested (O) and their results are
compared.
Symbolic Design:

X1 O

X2
O
Threats to Internal/External
Validity
 Threats to Internal Validity
 History – Classroom teacher came into the room and the phone rang when
participants were filling out their attitude survey.
 Instrumentation – Questionnaires were self-created by researcher.
 Selection-Maturation Interaction – Participants may mature differently
than others.
 Threats to External Validity
 Selection-Treatment Interaction – Participants weren’t individually
selected.
 Experimenter Effects (Passive Elements) – Participants were intimidated by
researcher because she is not their daily after-school counselor.
 Hawthorne Effect – Participants respond differently because they know
they are in an experiment.
Procedure
 Study implemented between March 2009 – April 2009. Prior to the
study, participants have been exposed to academic assistance
(homework help/tutoring) and recreational activities (dancing,
organized sports, arts & crafts) for five months in their after-school
programs.
 Parental consent forms distributed in March 2009 and April 2009.
 Three different sets of reading comprehension exams were distributed
for three consecutive days (one for each day). Attitude and
demographic survey distributed on the fourth day.
 Exams and surveys were graded and analyzed.
Test Results
(Academic and Recreational )
Student
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
Mean
Mode
Median
Test #1
95
100
95
79
74
58
63
79
84
89
95
74
79
100
68
53
95
81
95
79
Test #2
89
89
63
68
79
63
68
79
79
68
68
58
84
89
47
42
95
72
68
68
Test #3
79
89
79
37
53
11
58
74
63
74
53
74
58
74
21
37
95
60
74
63
Mean of all
3 tests
87
92
79
61
68
44
63
77
75
77
72
68
73
87
45
44
95
71
87
73
The mean of all three exams of 17 third-grade
students in the academic after-school
program is 71.
Student
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
Mean
Mode
Median
Test #1
74
95
74
58
84
100
79
84
84
89
95
95
89
95
84
33
89
82
95
84
Test #2
95
95
84
53
79
95
58
68
63
58
89
95
79
100
47
17
74
74
95
79
Test #3
84
58
63
47
63
84
79
100
53
33
95
89
84
74
11
22
84
66
84
74
Mean of all
3 tests
84
83
74
53
75
93
72
84
67
60
93
93
84
90
47
24
82
74
93
82
The mean of all three exams of 17 third-grade
students in the recreational after-school
program is 74.
Correlation
Rxy = 0.05
There is no correlation between
the amount of time spent reading
and test scores in the academic
after-school program.
Average Test Scores
Amt of time reading and Test Scores
(Academic After-school Program)
100
80
Average
60
Linear (Average)
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
Note: The question regarding the amount of
time a student spent on reading was specified
to a specific setting, whether it was during
after-school, school hours, or at home.
Amount of Time Reading (Mins)
Amt of time reading and Test Scores
(Recreational After-school Program)
Average Test Scores
Average time spent reading = 37
minutes
100
80
Average
60
Linear (Average)
40
Rxy = 0.6
There is a correlation between the
amount of time spent reading and
test scores in the recreational
after-school program.
20
0
0
20
40
60
Amount of Time Reading (Mins)
80
Average time spent reading = 47
minutes.
Correlation
Student
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Mean
88
93
79
61
69
44
63
77
75
77
72
69
74
88
45
44
Finish HW after-school
4
4
3
2
3
1
1
3
2
3
3
4
4
3
4
3
X amt of time on HW
15 mins
60 mins
30 mins
15 mins
15 mins
15 mins
30 mins
60 mins
90 mins
90 mins
30 mins
60 mins
60 mins
15 mins
90 mins
15 mins
Q
95
3
30 mins
Rxy = 0.4
There is no correlation between homework
completion and reading test scores.
Average amount of time spent on HW = 42
minutes out of total 3 hr span in afterschool
Complete HW after-school and Test scores
100
Average Test Scores
Attitude of HW completion
recorded to numerical value:
1 = Strongly Disagree
2 = Disagree
3 = Agree
4 = Strongly Agree
80
60
Average
40
Linear (Average)
20
0
0
1
2
3
Homework Completion
(Academic After-school Program)
4
5
Correlation
Mean
Have fun in after-school
A
84
4
B
83
4
C
74
4
D
53
4
E
75
1
F
93
4
G
72
4
H
84
4
I
67
3
J
60
2
K
93
4
L
93
4
M
84
4
N
90
4
O
47
3
P
24
1
Q
82
3
Attitude of having fun in after-school
recorded to numerical value:
1 = Strongly Disagree
2 = Disagree
3 = Agree
4 = Strongly Agree
Rxy = 0.6
There is a correlation between
having fun in recreational afterschool and reading test scores.
Students who have fun in afterschool will produce better reading
scores.
Have fun in After-school and Test Scores
Average Test Scores
Student
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Average
Linear (Average)
0
1
2
3
Have fun in after-school
4
5
Discussion
 The results of this study does not support the original hypothesis: 17 thirdgraders attending an academic after-school program in Brooklyn, N.Y. will yield
better reading results than 17 third-graders attending a recreational after-school
program in Brooklyn, N.Y.
 Results consistent with the following viewpoints and findings:
 After-school programs that focus on recreational activities will promote academic
achievement (Dryfoos, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Valentine, Cooper, &
Bettencourt, 2002; Coatsworth & Conry, 2007)
 Too much emphasis on work is negatively related to achievement (Warren, LePore, &
Mare, 2000)
 Results inconsistent with the following viewpoints and findings:
 After-school programs that focus primarily on academics provide higher academic
performance (Cosden, Morrison, Albanese, & Macias, 2001; Corno & Xu, 2004;
Cosden, Morrison, Gutierrez, & Brown, 2004)
 Homework plays an important role in supporting academic achievement (Corno &
Xu, 2004)
Implications
 Results of this study cannot be generalized to
the general population since 100% of the
participants in this study were Asian.
 Need for a larger sample size
 Need for long-term study
 More research is needed especially regarding
recreational after-school programs and their
effects on academic achievement.
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