Evaluating E-commerce:
An Aesthetic Perspective
Johnny Snyder
Mesa State College
Outline
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Definition and Key Terms
The Idea and Underpinnings
Beginning the Study
Ideas from the E-commerce Class
A Pilot Study
Conclusions
Aesthetic
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Webster’s defines aesthetic as:
“a philosophical theory or idea of what is
aesthetically valid at a given time and
place”
Aesthetics – The science of beauty.
Key terms
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Valid – what is acceptable
- what is normal
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Time – past/present/ future
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Place – cyberspace/the Web
Current areas of interest
in e-commerce
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Trust
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Privacy
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Credibility
Levels of e-commerce
The Levels of E-Commerce
Properties of each Level
4th Level
Satisfaction Level
Satisfaction with e-mail contact
Satisfaction with product
Time to receive product
Satisfaction with e-service
3rd Level
Acquisition level
Opt in/opt out choices
Select shipping options
Share financial information with company
Share personal information with company
Product selection
2nd Level
Faith Level
Trust in web site
Credibility in web site
Privacy protection by web site
1st Level
Impression Level
Usability/Utility
Layout
Aesthetic appeal
0th Level
Acceptance Level
Accept e-commerce on the Internet
Faith in e-commerce
Credibility/Usability/Trust
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Fogg (2002)
– 39.4% ~ 54.6% of users give credibility based
on visual appeal
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Ben-Bassat et al. (2004)
– Found that usability and aesthetics are positively
correlated
Negative
feedback
The Levels of ECommerce
Properties of each Level
4th Level
Satisfaction Level
Satisfaction with e-mail contact
Satisfaction with product
Time to receive product
Satisfaction with e-service
3rd Level
Acquisition level
Opt in/opt out choices
Select shipping options
Share financial information with
company
Share personal information with
company
Product selection
2nd Level
Faith Level
Trust in web site
Credibility in web site
Privacy protection by web site
1st Level
Impression Level
Usability/Utility
Layout
Aesthetic appeal
0th Level
Acceptance Level
Accept e-commerce on the Internet
Faith in e-commerce
Positive
feedback
Negative
feedback
Positive
feedback
The Levels of ECommerce
Properties of each Level
4th Level
Satisfaction Level
Satisfaction with e-mail contact
Satisfaction with product
Time to receive product
Satisfaction with e-service
3rd Level
Acquisition level
Opt in/opt out choices
Select shipping options
Share financial information with company
Share personal information with company
Product selection
2nd Level
Faith Level
Trust in web site
Credibility in web site
Privacy protection by web site
1st Level
Impression Level
Usability/Utility
Layout
Aesthetic appeal
0th Level
Acceptance Level
Accept e-commerce on the Internet
Faith in e-commerce
Begin the study
Nielsen (1993)
Additions to Nielsen
The study
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How these elements fit together (as axioms)
to form more complete statements
(theorems or norms) in cyberspace and/or
Web design for groups of sites with a
shared purpose.
I.e. what is accepted, normal, familiar…
“The visual design should match the sites
purpose” (Fogg, 2004, p.19)
The study (3)
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E-commerce class, fall 2005
– Idea papers
– Web site evaluations
Idea paper
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The most important elements of Web
design:
– Color
- 100%
– Simplicity/complexity
- 68%
– Navigation/location/layout
- 58%
– Familiarity
- 26%
Web site analysis
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Add in student interests
Pilot study
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Airline sites
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Purpose: To sell flight tickets
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How: Flight search engine
Pilot study (2)
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Determine the average or normal:
– Colors used on airline sites
– Complexity of flight search engine
– Location of flight search engine
Airlines - worldwide
90
85
80
Blue
70
Red
Percentage
60
Green
50
Gold
40
Yellow
30
20
Orange
23
Purple
21
Pink
13
9
10
0
1
colors
8
4
2
US airlines - large
120
100
100
Percentage
80
80
Blue
60
Red
40
Gold
20
20
0
1
Colors
US airlines small
100
92
90
80
Percentage
70
60
Blue
50
50
Gold
40
Red
30
20
8
10
0
1
Colors
Collectivist countries airlines
80
74
70
Percentage
60
Blue
Green
50
40
Yellow
Purple
35
Red
30
20
10
Orange
17
Pink
9
4
0
1
Colors
4
4
Individualistic countries airlines
100
92
90
80
Percentage
70
Blue
60
50
Red
46
Green
Orange
40
30
23
Yellow
23
20
8
10
0
1
Colors
Hofstede (1997)
H  log 2 ( n  1)
Complexity
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Number of words
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Number of hyperlinks
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Number of text boxes
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Hick’s Law:
H  log 2 ( n  1)
Complexity (hyperlinks, text boxes, menus, radio buttons)
4.5
4
Complexity
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Year
2003
2004
2005
2006
Metrics
Qualitative Domain
Quantitative Domain
Conclusions
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Patterns are emerging in e-commerce
over time – evolving conventions.
Patterns are emerging in e-commerce
over space – Hofstede’s dimensions
used to analyze Web design.
Questions Arise!
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As usual, the pilot study has given rise
to numerous questions.
– Questions of time and evolution
– Questions of metrics for complexity
– Questions of culture in a global medium
– Use of color
– Use of language
Aristotle
“What is not measurable….
make measurable”
Thanks!
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…for coming
…to the reviewer for many helpful
comments
…for the questions?
References
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Ben-Bassat, T., Meyer, J. & Tractinsky, N. (2004). Using monetary
incentives and auctions to elicit user preferences between usability
and aesthetics. CHI ’04 extended abstracts on Human factors in
computing systems, 1569-1569.
Fogg, B. (2002). How do people evaluate a web site’s credibility?
Results from a large study. Retrieved May 18, 2005 from:
http://www.consumerwebwatch.org/dynamic/web-credibility-reportsevaluate-abstract.cfm
Fogg, B. (2004). What makes a website credible? PowerPoint slides
available by request at: http://credibility.stanford.edu/
Hofstede, G. & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations
software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
References (2)
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Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability Engineering. New York, NY: Morgan
Kaufmann.
Webster’s (1996). Encyclopedic unabridged dictionary of the English
language. New York, NY: Gramercy Books.
Collectivist Countries
Airlines
Mexicana/2005
LAN (Chile)
Aeromexico/2005
Indian Airlines
Lineas Aereas Azteca
Jet Airways (India)
Philippine Airlines
Sri Lankan Air (India)
Cebu Airlines (Philippine)
IranAir
Aerolineas Argentinas
Malaysia Airlines
Korean Air
Royal Brunei (Malaysia)
Asiana Airlines (korea)
Air Jamaica
Gol Linhas Aereas (Brazil)
Varig (Brazil)
Copa Panama
TAP Air Portgual
EVA Air (Taiwan)
Thai Airways
Aeropostal (Venezuela)
Individualistic Countries
Airlines
Austrian Airlines
Air France
Lufthansa
Qantas
Alitalia
SNBrussels Airlines
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
Air Canada
Air New Zealand
Westjet (Canada)
Swiss Air
Finnair
British Airways
Comparison of means
Navigation/Location/Layout
US Airlines Large
Foreign Airlines - Individualistic
Navigation/Location/Layout
US Airlines - Small
Navigation/Location/Layout
Foreign Airlines - Collectivist
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