The P Process Analysis Presentation Objectives By the end of this session you should be able to: • explain the rationale for conducting a situation analysis; • identify key steps in conducting a situation and problem analysis. Analysis Analysis is the first step in developing effective communication programs. This step does not need to be long and detailed if the program is built upon well-documented past experiences. Program staff need to understand the problem, the people, their culture, existing policies and programs, active organizations, and available communication channels. Review existing programs, policies, resources, strengths and weaknesses. Understand what people want to happen, what is happening and why there is a difference. Assess potential audiences and communication resources. ting programs, Components of Analysis Shared Vision Situation Analysis Current Situation Program Analysis Audience Analysis Key Steps in Analysis Determine the problems, their severity and causes. Identify factors inhibiting or facilitating desired changes. Develop a problem statement. Carry out formative research or needs assessment. Types of Analysis • Situation Analysis • Program Analysis/Needs Assessment Assessment • Audience/Behavioral Analysis Situation Analysis - What is the communication problem? Situation Analysis - What is the communication problem? • Shared vision - What do people want to happen or create? • Current situation or problem statement- What is happening now? What are the core problems? • Current destination- What would happen if everything remained the same (or got worse) • Difference statement- Why is there a difference between the shared vision and current situation? What is the root cause? Situation Analysis - What is the communication problem? Shared vision - What do people want to happen or create? Minus Current situation - What is happening now? Equals Communication problem! Main Idea To communicate effectively, we need to put ourselves in our audience’s shoes and see things from their point of view. Audience Analysis How to Analyze Audiences Step 1 - Audience selection Select a segment based on your vision and assessment of the communication situation. Step 2 - Change Desired Describe the change you wish your audience will make. Step 3- Audience Profile Describe the audience segment that you selected. Audience Analysis • Learn baseline information about audience • Help to determine which populations to target •Need to identify and clarify your audience’s perceptions, misconceptions and attitudes Audience Needs and Solutions Audience Situation Type of campaign needed Low knowledge Low approval Low individual incentive to act Knowledge campaign Persuasion campaign Individual behavior change campaign Group behavior change campaign Behavior reinforcement or maintenance campaign Client support/advocacy campaigns Low group incentive to act Low reinforcement ( high dropout rates) Low client support What is audience segmentation? Audience segmentation categorizes audiences into logical groups to enhance a better fit among: • Audiences • Messages • Media • Service or products Service or products Why do we need to segment audiences? We need to segment our audiences because: • • • We may lack resources. The trade-off between reach and intensity. Different people may have different needs. Various ways of audience segmentation • • • • Socioeconomic variables Socio-political geographical units Access to media Behavior and needs In summary There are two types of analyses which need to be done: Situation analysis Audience communication analysis Usually much of the situation analysis is available from: demographic data; epidemiological data; sociological and economic studies. In summary In order to conduct a situation analysis, you need to: • determine the severity and causes of problems; • review existing health and demographic data, survey results; • study findings, and any other information available on the problem; • identify factors inhibiting or facilitating desired changes; • consider the basic social, cultural, and economic challenges facing the people the programme would like to reach; In summary con’t • develop a problem statement; • develop a clear statement that sums up the problems to be addressed; • conduct formative research; • listen to understand the audiences’ needs and priorities; • conduct baseline research, both quantitative and qualitative, to establish the current status and accurately measure the programme’s progress and final impact; • assess communication and training needs. In summary con’t There are two types of audience/communication analysis that should be done. Participation Analysis At the national and international level, identify partners and allies to help initiate policy change and strengthen communication interventions. At the community level, segment the primary,secondary, and tertiary audiences. Identify field workers/change agents. Social and Behavioral Analysis Assess knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors of participants at the individual level using data from formative research and additional in-depth studies, if required. Identify social networks, socio-cultural norms, collective efficacy, and community dynamics (including leadership patterns) at the community level.