The P Process
Presentation Objectives
By the end of this session you should be able to:
• explain the rationale for conducting a
situation analysis;
• identify key steps in conducting a situation
and problem analysis.
Analysis is the first step in developing effective communication
programs. This step does not need to be long and detailed if
the program is built upon well-documented past
Program staff need to understand the problem, the people, their
culture, existing policies and programs, active organizations,
and available communication channels.
Review existing programs, policies, resources, strengths and
Understand what people want to happen, what is happening and
why there is a difference.
Assess potential audiences and communication resources.
ting programs,
Components of Analysis
Shared Vision
Current Situation
Key Steps in Analysis
Determine the problems, their severity and
Identify factors inhibiting or facilitating
desired changes.
Develop a problem statement.
Carry out formative research or needs
Types of Analysis
• Situation Analysis
• Program Analysis/Needs
Assessment Assessment
• Audience/Behavioral Analysis
Situation Analysis - What is the
communication problem?
Situation Analysis - What is the
communication problem?
• Shared vision - What do people want to happen or
• Current situation or problem statement- What is
happening now? What are the core problems?
• Current destination- What would happen if
everything remained the same (or got worse)
• Difference statement- Why is there a difference
between the shared vision and current situation?
What is the root cause?
Situation Analysis - What is the
communication problem?
Shared vision - What do people want to
happen or create?
Current situation - What is happening now?
Communication problem!
Main Idea
To communicate effectively, we need to put
ourselves in our audience’s shoes and see
things from their point of view.
Audience Analysis
How to Analyze Audiences
Step 1 - Audience selection
Select a segment based on your vision and
assessment of the communication situation.
Step 2 - Change Desired
Describe the change you wish your audience
will make.
Step 3- Audience Profile
Describe the audience segment that you
Audience Analysis
• Learn baseline information about
• Help to determine which populations to
•Need to identify and clarify your
audience’s perceptions, misconceptions and
Audience Needs and Solutions
Audience Situation
Type of campaign needed
Low knowledge
Low approval
Low individual incentive to act
Knowledge campaign
Persuasion campaign
Individual behavior change
Group behavior change campaign
Behavior reinforcement or
maintenance campaign
Client support/advocacy campaigns
Low group incentive to act
Low reinforcement
( high dropout rates)
Low client support
What is audience segmentation?
Audience segmentation categorizes
audiences into logical groups to enhance a
better fit among:
• Audiences
• Messages
• Media
• Service or products
Service or products
Why do we need to segment
We need to segment our audiences
We may lack resources.
The trade-off between reach and
Different people may have different
Various ways of audience
Socioeconomic variables
Socio-political geographical units
Access to media
Behavior and needs
In summary
There are two types of analyses which need to
be done:
Situation analysis
Audience communication analysis
Usually much of the situation analysis is
available from:
demographic data;
epidemiological data;
sociological and economic studies.
In summary
In order to conduct a situation analysis, you need to:
• determine the severity and causes of
• review existing health and demographic data,
survey results;
• study findings, and any other information
available on the problem;
• identify factors inhibiting or facilitating desired
• consider the basic social, cultural, and
economic challenges facing the people the
programme would like to reach;
In summary con’t
• develop a problem statement;
• develop a clear statement that sums up the
problems to be addressed;
• conduct formative research;
• listen to understand the audiences’ needs
and priorities;
• conduct baseline research, both quantitative
and qualitative, to establish the current
status and accurately measure the
programme’s progress and final impact;
• assess communication and training needs.
In summary con’t
There are two types of audience/communication analysis that
should be done.
Participation Analysis
At the national and international level, identify partners and
allies to help initiate policy change and strengthen
communication interventions. At the community level,
segment the primary,secondary, and tertiary audiences.
Identify field workers/change agents.
Social and Behavioral Analysis
Assess knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors of
participants at the individual level using data from
formative research and additional in-depth studies, if
required. Identify social networks, socio-cultural norms,
collective efficacy, and community dynamics (including
leadership patterns) at the community level.

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