Niccolo` Machiavelli
• Born 1469 in Florence
• Died in 1527 in exile just outside Florence
in San Casciano
Tuscany
The Medici
• Cosimo’s reign (1434–1464)
• Piero the Gouty (1464–1469)
• Lorenzo “the Magnificent” (1469–1492)
– After the Pazzi Conspiracy of 1478, a war
followed between Florence and the Pope.
• Piero “the Unfortunate” (1492–1494)
1494-1497 - Girolamo Savonarola and the republic
•Bonfire of the Vanities
•War with Pisa
•Excommunication of
Savonarola
Machiavelli’s works
• Florentine Histories
or Istorie Florentine
• The Art of War
• The Prince
• The Mandragola
Florence: Santa Maria del Fiore
• Construcion begun
in 1296 under
Pope Boniface VIII
• Consacrated in
1436 by Pope
Eugenius IV
What Florence and New Orleans
have in common:
giglio – symbol of Florence
The Renaissance and Machiavelli
• Video
Machiavelli’ s bad reputation
• Machiavellian – deceitful, crafty
• ..\My Videos\RealPlayer
Downloads\Engl401 - External links.flv
The Prince by Niccolo`
Machiavelli
Chapter 1
How Many Kinds Of Principalities There Are, And
By What Means They Are Acquired
• A state can be
– a republic
– or a principality
• hereditary
• new
Chapter 2
Concerning Hereditary Principalities
• An hereditary principality is stable because
the natural prince has less reason and
need to give offence
• and unless extraordinary vices cause him
to be hated, it is reasonable to expect that
his subjects will be naturally well disposed
towards him.
Chapter 3
Composite principalities
Difficulties occur in a new principality. A new
prince is always compelled to injure those
who have made him the new ruler,
subjecting them to the troops and
imposing the endless other hardships
which his new conquest entails.
To enter a new territory one needs the
goodwill of the inhabitants.
• If the states share the same language and
culture, it is easy to hold them securely after
destroying the line of the former ruling prince.
The new prince should not change laws nor
taxes.
• If they have different languages, one must go
live there in person, or establish settlements.
• The new prince should also protect small
neighbouring powers and weaken those which
are strong.
• The prudent ruler anticipates political disorders.
Chapter 4
Why The Kingdom Of Darius, Conquered By
Alexander, Did Not Rebel Against The Successors
Of Alexander At His Death
Principalities can be governed in two
different ways: either by a prince, with a
body of servants, who assist him to govern
the kingdom as ministers by his favour and
permission; or by a prince and barons,
who hold that dignity by antiquity of blood
and not by the grace of the prince.In states
governed by a prince and his servants, the
prince has more authority.
CHAPTER 5
Concerning The Way To Govern Cities Or
Principalities Which Lived Under Their Own Laws
Before They Were Annexed
There are three courses for those who wish
to hold states newly acquired: the first is to
ruin them, the next is to reside there in
person, the third is to permit them to live
under their own laws, drawing a tribute,
and establishing within it an oligarchy
which will keep it friendly to you.
Chapter 6
•
•
•
•
New Principalities Acquired by one’s own Arms
and Prowess
Prudent men should follow the example of great
men and they should aim higher than their
objective.
Opportunities provided by fortune allow private
citizens to become princes, but their abilities
enable them to seize the opportunities.
Changes in a state’s constitution is dangerous
and difficult.
The new prince must be armed.
Chapter 7
New Pricipalities Acquired with the Help of Fortune
and Foreign Armies
• Cesare Borgia acquired political power by
fortune, eliminated all the families of the
rulers he had displaced, used diplomacy to
maintain his power by placing a cruel man
in control of some of the territories, and
then blamed him for the cruelties.
• Men do you harm because they fear you
or because they hate you.
Chapter 8
Those who come to Power by Crime
• To kill fellow citizens, to betray friends, toi
be treacherous, pitiless, irreligious can win
a prince power but not glory.
• Cruelty is used well when it is employed
once for all. Benefits should be granted
gradually.
• Cruelty is used badly if it grows in intensity
rather than disappearing.
Chapter 9
The Constitutional Principality
• When a private citizen becomes a ruler, by the
favor of his fellow citizens, it is a constitutional
principality.
• Power can be kept if the prince is a man of
courage, who does not despair in adversity, who
does not fail to take precautions, and who wins
general allegiance by his personal qualities and
the institutions he establishes.
• A wise prince must devise ways by which his
citizens are always dependent on him. Then
they will be faithful.
Chapter 10
How the Power of each Principality should
measured
• A prince who has a well-fortified city and does
not make himself hated cannot be attacked.
• A powerful, courageous, prince will always be
able to overcome all such difficulties (siege),
inspiring his subjects now with hope […], now
with fear.
• The prince can easily inspire his subjects with
determination during a siege, if he has adequate
provisions and means of defense.
Chapter 10
Ecclesiastic Principalities
• Ecclesiastical principalities are maintained
by religious institutions, of such a poweful
kind that, no matter how the ruler acts and
lives, they safeguard his government.
• The Church has attained great temporal
power with Pope Alexander VI.
Chapter 12
Military Organization and
mercenary troops
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Niccolo` Machiavelli