English Cognates in Various
Indo-European Languages
By Don L. F. Nilsen
And Alleen Pace Nilsen
58
1
Why English Speakers Don’t Learn Other Languages
• The English Channel separates
England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland
from mainland Europe.
• The Atlantic Ocean separates the
United States and Canada from Europe.
• The Pacific Ocean separates Australia
and New Zealand from Europe.
58
2
English as a Global Language
• As a result, English speakers tend not
to learn other languages, but…
• The English Language borrows
extensively from other languages, and
that’s why there are so many English
cognates in the other Indo-European
languages.
58
3
English’s Linguistic Relatives:
A Study in Family Resemblance
• Old English is the “mother” of English.
• The Germanic languages are closely related—let’s
say “cousins.”
• The Romance languages are less-closely related—
let’s say “second cousins.”
• The Celtic languages are more distantly related—
let’s say second cousins once removed.”
• The Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages are
more distantly related—let’s say “third cousins.”
58
4
Languages in Contact:
Borrowings and Migrations
• English has been influenced by French
– During the Middle Ages
– During the 100-year Norman Occupation
– From the Parisian French of “haut
couture.”
– From the Canadian French of exploration.
– From New Orleans French
58
5
• American English has been influenced by
Mexican Spanish in the Southwest and by
Puerto Rican, Canadian, and Caribbean
Spanish in the Southeast.
• American English has been influenced by
Dutch in Holland, Michigan and in New
Amsterdam and Harlem, New York.
• American English has been influenced by
German (Pennsylvania Dutch) in
Pennsylvania.
58
6
English vs. Celtic Names
Anne
Brian
Catherine
Charles
Chloe
Gerard
Ian
James
Jane
John
Mary
Patrick
Peter
Ryan
Thomas
Áine
Brion
Catriona
Cathal
Clodagh
Gearóid
Eóin
Seamus
Soméad
Sean/Ian
Máire/Múire
Padhraig
Peádhar
Rian
Tomás
58
7
English vs. French Names
George
Henry
Jack
John
Paul
Peter
Robert Susan
William
----Stephen Colbert
David Cornwell
Georges
Henri
Jacques
Jean
Paul
Pierre,
Suzanne
Guillaume
----Stephen Colbert
John Le Carré
58
8
French Place Names in U.S.
Baton Rouge
Detroit
De Moines
Lafayette
Louisville
Louisiana
New Orleans
58
Sault Ste. Marie
9
English vs. German
English /sk/
German /šk/
English /sp/
German /šp/
Scaffold
Scale
Scholar
School
Scot
Scotch
Scribble
Scrub
Schafott
Schale
Schüler
Schule
Schotte
Schottish
Schreiber
Schrubben
Spaghetti
Spanish
Speak
Spectrum
Speech
Spin
Spinach
Spool
Sport
Spaghetti
Spanische
Sprechen
Spektrum
Sprache
Spinnen
Spinat
Spule
Sport
58
10
English vs. German Names
John
William
----Frederick Austerlitz
Bernard Schwartz
Gerald Silberman
Larry Ziegler
Johann
Wilhelm
----Fred Astaire
Tony Curtis
Gene Wilder
Larry King
58
11
English vs. German Verbs
Cook, Cooked
Drink, Drank, Drunk
Love, Loved
Swim, Swam, Swum
Write, Wrote, Written
NOTE: In all languages it is the
most frequent verbs that are
irregular. This is because a verb
has to occur frequently for it to
maintain its irregularity. If it doesn’t
occur frequently enough, it will tend
to become regularized.
Koch Kochte
Trink, Trank Getrunken
Lieb, Liebt
Schwim, Schwam, Geschwommen
Schreib, Schrieb, Geschrieben
(NOTE English “scribe, scribble,
script, etc)
(Examples provided by Eric Kolb)
58
12
English vs. Italian
English fl-
Italian fi-
English pl-
Italian pi-
Flask
Flower
Florence
Flame
Flat
Fiasco
Fiore
Firenze
Fiamma
Piatto
Plane
Plus
Plume
Planet
Plant
place
Piano
Piu
Piuma
Pianeto
Pianta
piazza
58
13
English vs. Italian Names
Anthony
Catherine
Frank
James
John
Joseph
Leonard
Louis
Mary
Paul
Peter
Robert
----Louise Ciccone
Daniel Michaeli
Dino Crocetti
Antonio
Catarina
Francesco
Giacomo
Giovanni
Giuseppe
Leonardo
Luigi
Maria
Paulo
Pietro
Roberto
----Madonna
Danny DeVito
Dean Martin
58
14
English vs. Spanish & French
English sc- sp- stSchool
Space
Spain
Spanish
Special
Spinach
Spiral
Spirit
Stable
Stigma
State
Stake
Student
Spanish esc- esp- estEscuela
Espacio
España
Español
Especial
Espinacas
Espiral
Espiritu
Estable
Estigma
Estado
Estaca
Estudiante
58
French éc- é(s)p- étÉtudiant
École
Espace
Épinards
Esprit
Étable
État
15
English vs. Spanish Names
English:
Alfred
Alice
Arman
Arthur
Charles
Edward
Frances
Gerald
James
Jesus
John
Joseph
Spanish:
Alfredo
Alicia
Armando
Arturo
Carlos
Eduwado
Francesca
Geraldo
Jaime/Diego/Iago
Jesus
Juan
Jose
English:
Mark
Matthew
Michael
Paul
Peter
Robert
Rose
William
----Carlos Esteves
Jerry Rivers
58
Spanish:
Marco
Mateo
Miguel
Pablo
Pedro
Roberto
Rosa
Guillermo
----Chuck Norris
Geraldo Rivero
16
Spanish Place Names in U.S.
Alamgordo
Amarillo
Colorado
Corpus Christi
El Paso
Florida
Fresno
Laredo
Las Cruces
Las Vegas
Los Alamos
Los Angeles
Merced
Nevada
Rio Salado
River
Sacramento
San Angelo
San Antonio
San Clemente
San Diego
San Francisco
San Juan
San Jose
San Louis Obispo
San Marcos
Santa Fe
58
Santa Maria
San Paulo
San Rafael
Santa Monica
San Rafael
Sierra Madre
Sierra Nevada
Tijuana
17
English vs. German
English /st/
German /št/
Stadium
Stamp
Standard
Star
Stare
State
Steak
Steel
Stadion
Stampfen
Standarte
Stern
Starren
Staat
Steak
Stahl
58
18
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /b/  Germanic /p/
Bursa
Bursar
Bursitis
Labial
Purse
Purse (betting)
Purse one’s lips
Purse Seine
Purse Strings
Lip
58
19
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /d/  Germanic /t/
Dandelion
Dent corn
Dented fender
Dental
Dentated leaves
Dentures
Indented
paragraph
Orthodontist
Gear Tooth
Law with teeth
Saw Tooth
Sweet Tooth
Teeth
Tooth
Doubles (tennis)
Dozen
Dualistic
thinking
Dual Personality
Dubbing
Duel
Duet
Duo
Duplex
Duplicate
58
Between
Twilight
Twin
Twine
Twist
Two
Two-faced
20
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /g/  Germanic /k/
Agribusiness
Agriculture
Agronomy
Acre
Acreage
Acrefoot (of
water)
58
21
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /p/  Germanic /f/
Padres (baseball
team)
Paternal
Paternity
Patternoster
(patter)
Patrilinial
Patriot
Patriotism
Patron
Fatherly
Father
Pyracantha
Pyre
Pyrex Bowl
Pyromania
Pyrosis (heart
burn)
Pyrotechnics
58
Bonfire
Cirfew (cover the
fire)
Fire
Firefighter
Firefly
Firehouse
Fireman
Fireworks
22
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /p/  Germanic /f/
Pentagon
Pentameter
Pentecost
Fifteen
Fifty
Five
Plate
Plateau
Platform
Plato
Platte River
Platypus
58
Flat
23
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /p/  Germanic /f/
Centipede
Expedition
Impediment
Pawn
Pedal
Peddler
Pedestal
Pedestrian
Pedicab
Pedicure
Pedigree
Piedmont
Equal footing
Film footage
Foot
Foot soldier
Football
Foothills
Footlights
Footnote
Footpath
Feet
NOTE: /kw/
Headquarters
Latin Quarter
Living Quarters
Quad(rangle)
Quadraped
Quadraplegic
Quadruplets
Quaranteen
Quarter
Quarterhorse
Quarter pounder
Quartet
58
Four
Four-way stop
Four poster bed
24
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /t/  Germanic /θ/
Triage
Triangle
Triathlon
Tricorn hat
Trident
Trinity
Trio
Triplets
Triplicate
Tripod
Three
Threesome
58
25
Grimm’s Law:
Romance /k/  Germanic /x/ or /h/
Cardiac arrest
Cardiologist
Coeur d’Alene,
Idaho
Cordial
Courage
Encourage
Discouraged
Record
Heart
Heart attack
Heart throb
Heartburn
Heartfelt
Hearts (cards)
Hearty
Disheartened
Learn by heart
Purple Heart
Sweetheart
Canine
Hound
----Capricorn
Corn
Corner
Coronet
Cornucopia
Tricorn hat
Unicorn
----Cape Horn
Car Horn
Horn
Horn in on
someone
Hornet
Horne of Plenty
Toot your own
horn
58
26
Celtic Cardinal Numbers
Irish:
Aon
Dó
Tri
Ceathair
Cúig
Sé
Seacht
Ocht
Naoi
Deich
Céad
Míle
Gaelic:
----Aon
Dhà/Dà/Dithis
Triùir
Ceithir
Cùig/Còig
Sè/sianar
Seichd(nar)
Ochd
Noa(i)dh/Naoi
Deich(near)
Ceud/Ciad
Mile/DeichCeud
58
Welsh:
Sero
Un
Dau/Dwy
Tiar/Tri
Pedair/Pedwar
Pum(p)
Chwech
Saith
Wyth
Naw
De(n)g
Can(tref)
Mil
27
Celtic Ordinal Numbers
Irish:
Triú
Gaelic:
Ceudamh
Cuidich/Cobhair
An Treas
Ceathramh
Cùigeadh
Sèathadh
Seachdamh
Ochdamh
AnNaodhamh
Deicheamh
An Ceudamh
---58
Welsh:
Centaf/Unfed
Amrantiad/Eiliad
Trydydd
Pedwaredd
Pumed
Chweched
Seithfed
Wythfed
Nawfed
Degwm/Degfed
Canfed
----28
Celtic Days of the Week
Irish:
Gaelic:
Welsh:
Dé Luain
Dé Máirt
Dé Céadaoin
Déardaoin
Dé hAoine
Dé Sathairn
Dé Domhnaigh
Di-Laain
Di-Màirt
Di-Ciadain
Diar-Daoin
Di-h-Aoine
Di-Sathuirne
Di-Domhnaich
Dydd Llun
Dydd Mawrth
Dydd Mercher
Dydd Iao/Difiao
Dydd Gwener
(Dydd) Sadwrn
(Dydd) Sul
58
29
Celtic Months of the Year
Irish:
Eanair
Feabhra
Márta
Aibreán
Bealtaine
Meitheamh
Lúil
Lúnasa
Meán Fomhair
Deireadh Famhair
Samhain
Nollaig
Scots Gaelic:
Ceud Mhìos no bliadhna
Ceud Mhìos an earraich
Am Màrt
An Giblean
Am Màigh
An Òg Mhìos
An Seachd- Mhìos
Ceud Mhìos an Fhoghair
Welsh:
Ionawr/Ionor
Chwefror/Mis Bach
Mis Mawrth
Ebrill
Mei
Mehefin
Gorffennaf
Awst
Mios Meadhonach an Fhogahair Medi
Mios Deareannach an Fhoghair Hydref
Ceud- Mhìos a’ Gheamhraidh
Tachwedd
Mios Meadhonach a’ Gheamhraidh
Rhaqfyr
58
30
Celtic Relatives
Irish:
Gaelic:
Welsh:
Athair
Máthair
Deartháir
Deirfiúr
Seánathair
Seánmháthair
Uncail
Aintin
Mac dearthár/Deirfiúr
Tuisti/Thuismitheoirí
(Parents)
Athair
Màthair
Bràthair
Piuthar
Seanair
Seanamhair
Brathair-Athair/Màthar
Piuthar-Athair/Màthar
Mac Peathar/Bràthar
-----
Tad
Mam
Brawd
Chwaer
Tad-cu/Hendad
Mam-qu/Nain
Ewythr
Bopa/Modryb
Cefnder/Cyfyrder
Nai
58
31
Celtic Subject Pronouns
Irish:
Gaelic:
Welsh:
Mé/Mise
Tú(sa)
Sé(sean)
Sí
----
Mì/Mise
Thu(sa)
È/Se/Esan
I/Ise/Si
-----
I/Mi/Myfi
Ti
E(f)(e)/Efo
Hi/Hyhi
-----
Muid(e)
Thú(sa)
Siad/San
Sinn(e)
Sibh(se)
Iad(san)
Ni/Nyni
Ch(w)I
Hwy(nt)
58
32
Germanic Cardinal Numbers
Dutch:
Nul
Een
Twee
Drie
Vier
Vijf
Zes
Zeven
Acht
Negen
Tien
Honderd
Duizend
English:
Zero
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
Nine
Ten
Hundred
Thousand
Old English:
----An
Twegen
ðrie
Feower
Fif
Siex
Seofun
Eahta
Nigun
Tien
Hund(red)
ðusend
58
German:
Null
Ein(s)
Zwei
Drei
Vier
Fünf
Sechs
Sieben
Acht
Neun
Zehn
Hundert
Tausend
Norwegian:
Null
En
To
Tre
Fire
Fem
Seks
Syv
Åtte
Ni
Ti
Hundre
Tusen
33
Germanic Ordinal Numbers
Dutch:
Eerste
Tweede
Derde
Vierde
Vujfde
Zesde
Zevende
Achtste
Negende
Tiende
Honderdste
Duizendste
English:
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
Eighth
Ninth
Tenth
Hundredth
Thousandth
Old English:
Forma/Fyrmesta
Æfterrra/Oðer
ðridda
Feo(we)rða
Fifta
Siexta
Seoffoða
Eahta
Nigoða
------------58
German:
Erste
Zweite
Drittens
Vierte
Fünfte
Sechst
Siebent
Acht
Neunt
Zehnt
Hundert
Tausent
Norwegian:
Fǿrste
Annen
Tredje
Fjerde
Femte
Sjette
Syvende
Åttende
Niende
Tiende
Hundrede
Tusende
34
Germanic Days of the Week
Dutch:
English:
Maandag
Dinsdag
Woensdag
Donderdag
Vrijdag
Zaterdag
Zondag
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Old English:
Monandæg
Tiwesdæg
Wodnesdæg
Thursdæg
Frigedæg
Sæterndæg
Sunnandæg
58
German:
Norwegian:
Montag
Dienstag
Mittwoch
Donnerstag
Freitag
Samstag
Sonntag
Mandag
Tirsdag
Onsdag
Torsdag
Fredag
Lǿrdag
Sǿndag
35
Germanic Months of the Year
Dutch:
Januari
Februari
Maart
April
Mei
Juni
Juli
Augustus
September
Oktober
November
December
English:
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Old English:
------------------------------------------------58
German:
Januar
Februar
März
April
Mai
Juni
Juli
August
September
Oktober
November
Dezember
Norwegian:
Januar
Februar
Mars
April
Mai
Juni
Juli
August
September
Oktober
November
Desember
36
Germanic Relatives
Dutch:
Vader/Pater
Moeder
Zoon
Dochter
Broer/Broeder
Zuster/Zus
Grootvader
Grootmoeder
Oom
Tante
Neef/Nicht
Neef/Nicht
English:
Old English:
Father
Fæder
Mother
Modor
Son
Byre
Daughter
----Brother
Broðor
Sister
(Ge)Swoestor
Grandfather ----Grandmother----Uncle
Fædera/Eam
Aunt
----Cousin
Suhterga
Nephew/Niece Nefa
58
German:
Vater
Mutter
Sohn
Tochter
Bruder
Schwester
Grossvater
Grossmama
Onkel
Tante
Vetter
Neffe/Nichte
Norwegian:
Pater
Mor
Sønn
Datter
Bror
Sǿster
Farfar
Farmor
Onkel
Tante
Kuisine
Nevø/Niese
37
Germanic Signs of the Zodiac
Dutch:
-------------------------------------------------
English:
Aries
Taurus
Gemini
Cancer
Leo
Virgo
Libra
Scorpio
Sagittarius
Capricorn
Aquarius
Pisces
Old English:
------------------------------------------------58
German:
Widder
Stier
Zwillinge
Krebs
Löwe
Jungfrau
Waage
Scorpion
Schütze
Steinbock
Wassermann
Fische
Norwegian:
------------------------------------------------38
Germanic Subject Pronouns
Dutch:
English: OE:
German:
Norwegian:
Ik
Jij/U
Hij
Zij
Het
I
You
He
She
It
Ic
ðū
Hē
Hēo
Hit
Ich
Du
Er
Sie
Es/Das
Jeg
Du
Han
Hun
Den/Det
Wij
Jullie
Zij
We
You
They
Wē
Ēow
Hie
Wir
Sie
Sie
Vi
Dere
De
58
39
Germanic Object Pronouns
Dutch:
English: OE:
German:
Norwegian:
Mij
Jou/U
Hem
Haar
Het
Me
You
Him
Her
It
Mē
ðē
Him
Hiere
Hit
Mich/Mir
Dich/Ihr/Euch
Ihn/Im
Sie/Ihr
Es/Das
Meg
Deg
Ham/Han
Henne
Den/Det
Ons
Julie
Hen
Us
You
Them
Ūs
Ēow
Hie
Uns
Sie
Ihnen
Oss
Dere
Dem
58
40
Indo-Iranian Cardinal Numbers
Hindi:
Sunya
Ek
Do
Tin
Cār
PāNc
Chah/Che
Sāt
Āţh
Nau
Das
Sau
Hazār
Pashto:
----Yo/Yak
Dwah/Dwe
Dre/Dri
Tsalor
Pīndza
Shpag
Owah
Atah
Nuh
Las
Sal/Sil
Zar
Persian/Farsi:
Sefr
Yek
Do
Se
Chahar
Panj
Shesh
Haft
Hasht
Noh
Dah
Sad
Hezar
58
Urdu:
Sifar
Ek
Do
Tin
Cār
Pāńc
Che
Sāt
Āţh
No
Das
Ek/So
Hazār
41
Indo-Iranian Ordinal Numbers
Hindi:
Pashto:
Persian/Farsi:
Urdu:
Pehalā
Dūsrā
Tīsrā
Cauthā
PāNcvāN
Chaţhā
SātvāN
ĀţhvāN
navāN
dasvāN
Annal
Dwayam
Driyam
Tsaloram
Pīndzam
Shpagam
Owam
Atam
Nuham
Lasam
Avvalin
Dovvom
Sevvom
Chaharom
Panjomi
Yeksheshomin
Haftomin
Yek-Hashtom
Nohom
Sadomin
Pehlā
Dūsrā
Tīsrā
Cauthā
Pāńcvāń
Chaţţā
Sātvān
Āţhvān
Navvān
Dasvāń
58
42
Indo-Iranian Days of the Week
Hindi:
Pashto:
Persian/Farsi:
Urdu:
Somvār
Mangalvār
Budhvār
Guruvār
Śukravār
Śanivār
Ravivār
Pir/Gul
Sih Shamba
Chār Shamba
Pān Shamba
Jum’a
Khāli Shamba
Yak Shamba
Doshanbe
Seshanbe
Chaharshanbe
Panjshanbe
Jomee
Shanbe
Yekshanbe
Pir
Mangal
Budh
Jumerāt
Jumā
Hafta
Itvār
58
43
Indo-Iranian Months of the Year
Hindi:
Janvarī
Farvarī
Mārc
Aprail
Maī
Jūn
Julāī
Agast
Sitambar
Aktūbar
Navambar
Disambar
Pashto:
Māh
Pāganr
Chetar
Baisāk
Jet
Hār
Pashakal
Bādro
Asū
Kātak
Magar
Po(h)
Persian/Farsi:
Zhanviye
Fevriye
Mars
Avril
Meh
Zhoan
Zhuiye
Aot
Septambr
Oktobr
Novambr
Desambr
58
Urdu:
Janvari
Farvari
Mārc
Aprel
Mā’ī
Jūn
Julā’ī
Sitambar
Aktūbar
Navambar
Disambar
44
Indo-Iranian Relatives
Hindi:
Pashto:
Persian/Farsi:
Urdu:
Pitā
Mātā
Bhāī
Behn
Dādā
Nānī
Phūphā
Bua
Phūpherā Bhāī
Bhanja/Bhanji
Plār
Mor
Wror
Khor
--------Kākā/Māmā
Tror/Tandor
Tarbūr/Dzoe
-----
Pedar
Mador
Baradar
Khahar
Pedar Bozorg
Madar Bozorg
Dayi
Ameh/Khale
----------
Abbā
Māń
Bhā’ī
Behen
Dādā
Dādī
Cacā/Māmūń
Phūpī/xālā
---------
58
45
Indo-Iranian Subject Pronouns
Hindi:
Pashto:
Persian/Farsi:
Urdu:
MaiN
Āp
Voh/Yeh
Voh/Yeh
-----
Mā
Tāsū
Haghah/Dā
Hagha/Dā
Haghah/Dā
Man
Shoma
U
U
An
Maiń
Āp
Vo
Vo
Vo
Ham
Voh/Yeh
Ve/Ye
Mūng/Mū(g)
Mo
-----
Ma
Shoma
Anha
Ham
Log
Vo
58
46
Romance Cardinal Numbers
Latin:
Nihil
Unus
Duo
Tres
Quattour
Quinque
Sex
Septum
Octum
Novem
Decem
Centum
Mille
Romanian:
Zero
Unu/Una
Doi/Douǎ
Trei
Patru
Cinci
Şase
Şapte
Opt
Nouǎ
Zece
O sutǎ
I mie
Italian:
Zero
Uno
Due
Tre
Quattro
Cinque
Sei
Sette
Otto
Nove
Dieci
Cento
Mille
Spanish:
Cero
Uno
Dos
Tres
Cuatro
Cinco
Sies
Siete
Ocho
Nueve
Diez
Ciento
Mil
58
French:
Zéro
Un/une
Deux
Trois
Quatre
Cinq
Six
Sept
Huit
Neuf
Dix
Cent
Mille
Portuguese:
Zero/Cipher
Um
Dois
Tres
Quatro
Cinco
Seis
Sete
Oito
Nove
Dez
Cento
Milhar
47
Romance & Helenic Ordinal Numbers
Latin:
Primus
Secundus
Tertius
Quartus
Quintus
Sextus
Septimus
Octavus
Nonus
Decimus
Italian:
Primo
Secondo
Terzo
Quarto
Quinto
Sesto
Settimo
Ottavo
Nono
Decimo
Romanian:
Primul
Al doilea
Al treilea
Al patruela
Al cincielea
Al şaselea
Al şaptelea
Al Optulea
Al Nouǎlea
Al zecelea
Spanish:
Primero
Segundo
Tercer(ra)
Cuarto(ta)
Quinto(ta)
Sexto(ta)
French:
Premier
Deuxième
Troisième
Quatrième
Cinquième
Sixième
Septimo(ma)
Septième
Octavo(va) Huitième
Noveno(na)
Neuvième
Decimo(ma)
Dizième
58
Portuguese:
Primeiro
Segundo
Terceiro
Quarto
Quinto
Sexto
Setimo
Oitavo
Nono
Decimo
48
Romance Days of the Week
Latin:
Italian:
Romanian: Spanish:
French:
------------------------Dominica
Lunedi
Martedi
Mercoledi
Giovedi
Venerdi
Sabato
Domenica
Luni
Marţi
----Joi
Vineri
----Dominicǎ
Lundi
Mardi
Mercredi
Jeudi
Vendredi
Samedi
Dimanche
Lunes
Martes
Miercoles
Jeuves
Viernes
Sabado
Domingo
58
Portuguese:
Segunda-fiera
Terça-fiera
Quarta-fiera
Quinta-fiera
Sexta-fiera
Sábado
Domingo
49
Romance Months of the Year
Latin:
Ianuarius
Februarius
Martius
Aprilis
Maius
Iunius
Iulius
Augustus
September
October
Novembris
December
Italian:
Gennaio
Febbraio
Marzo
Aprile
Maggio
Giugno
Iuglio
Agosto
Settembre
Ottobre
Novembre
Dicembre
Romanian:
Ianuarie
Februarie
Martie
Aprilie
------------August
Septembrie
-------------
Spanish:
Enero
Febrero
Marzo
Abril
Mayo
Junio
Julio
Agosto
Septiembre
Octubre
Noviembre
Diciembre
58
French:
Janvier
Février
Mars
Avril
Mai
Juin
Juillet
Aôut
Septembre
Octobre
Novembre
Décembre
Portuguese:
Janiero
Feveriero
Março
Abril
Maio
Junho
Julho
Agosto
Setembro
Outubro
Noviembro
Dezembro
50
Romance Relatives
Latin:
Italian:
Romanian: Spanish:
French:
Pater
Mater
Frater
Soror
Padre
Madre
Fratello
Sorella
Figlio/a
Nonno
Nipote
Zio
Zia
Cugino/a
Tatǎ
Mamǎ
Frate
Sorǎ
Bunic
Bunicǎ
Unchi
Mǎtuşǎ
Verişourǎ
Père
Mère
Frère
Soeur
Fils/Fille
Filiolus/Filiola
Avus
Nepos
Patruus/Avunculus
Amita/Matertera
Patruelis/Sobrinus
Padre
Madre
Hermano
Hermana
Hijo/Hija
Abuelo/a
Nieto
Tio
Tia
Primo/a
58
Grand-père
Petit-fils
Oncle
Tante
Cousin(e)
Neto/aPortu
guese:
Pai
Mãi
Irmão
Freira
Filho/a
Neto/a
Tio
Tia
Primo/a
51
Romance Signs of the Zodiac
Latin:
-------------------------------------------------
Italian:
Ariete
Toro
Gemelli
Cancro
Leone
Vergine
Bilancia
Scorpione
Sagittario
Capricorno
Acquario
Pesci
Romanian:
-------------------------------------------------
Spanish:
Aries
Tauro
Géminis
Cáncer
Leo
Virgo
Libra
Escorpión
Sagitario
Capricornio
Acuario
Piscis
58
French:
-------------------------------------------------
Portuguese:
------------------------------------------------52
Romance Subject Pronouns
Latin:
Italian:
Romanian:
Spanish:
French:
Portuguese:
Ego
Tu/Te
Hic/Ille/Is(te)
Illa/Ea/Ista/Haec
Hic/Haec/Hoc
Io
Tu
Lui
Lei
-----
----Tu
----Ea/dínsa
-----
Yo
Tu
Él
Ella
Él/Ella
Je
Tu
Il
Elle
Il/Elle
Eu
Tu/Te/Ti
Ele
Ela
Ele/Ela
Nos
Vos
Is/Ea/Id
Noi
Vui
Lo/La
Noi
Dumneata
Ei/Ele
Nosotros
Vos
Ellos/Ellas
Nous
Vous
Ils/Elles
Nós
Vos(e)(s)
Eles/Elas
58
53
Romance Object Pronouns
Latin:
Romanian:
Italian:
Spanish:
French:
Portuguese:
----Tu/Te
Hic/ille/is(te)
Eius/Illius/Huis
----Tu
-------------
Mi
Ti
Lo/Lui
La/Lei
-----
Me
----Lo/Le
La/Elle
-----
Me
Te
Le
La
Le/La
Me/Mim
----Ihe/Ele
Ihe/Ela
-----
----Vos
Illes/Illas/
----Dumneata
-----
Ce
Vi
Li/Le
Nos
----Los/Las
Nous
Vous
Elles/Les/Leur
Nós
----Ihes/Eles
58
54
Slavic Cardinal Numbers
Bosnian:
Nula
Jedan
Dva
Tri
Četiri
Pet
Šest
Sedam
Osam
Devet
Deset
Stotinu
Hiljadu
Czech:
Nula
Jeden
Dvě/Dva
Tři
Čtyři
Pět
Šest
Sedm
Osm
Devět
Deset
Sto
Tisíc
Croation:
Nula
Jedan/Jedna
Dva/Dvije
Tri/Troje
Četiri
Pet-ero
Šest-ero
Sedam
Osam
Devet
Deset
Sto(tina)
Tisuća
Polish:
Zero
Jeden
Dwa/dwie
Trzy
Cztery
Pięć
Sześź
Siedem
Osiem
Dziewięć
Dziesięć
Sto
Tysiąc
58
Russian:
Nol’
Odin
Dva
Tri
Chyetyrye
Pyat’
Shyest’
Syem’
Vosyem’
Dyevyat’
Dyesyat’
Sto
Tysyacha
Serbian:
Nula
Jedan
Dva/Dve
Tri
----------------------------Sto
Hiljada
55
Slavic Ordinal Numbers
Bosnian:
Prvi
Drugi
Treći
Četvrti
Peti
Šesti
Sedmi
Osmi
Deveti
Deseti
Stoti
Hiljaditi
Czech:
První
Druhý
-----------------------------------------
Croation:
Prvi/a/o
Drugi/a/o
Treći
Četvrti
Peti
Šesti
Sedmi
Osmi
Deveti
Deseti
Stoti
Tisući
Polish:
Pierwszy
Drugi
Trzeci
Czwarty
Piąty
Szósty
Siodmy
Ósmy
Dziewiąty
Dziesiąty
Setny
Tysięczny
58
Russian:
Pyervyj
Vtoroj
Tryetij
Chyetvyertyj
Pyatyj
Shyestoj
Syed’moj
Vos’moj
Dyevyatyj
Dyesyatyj
---------
Serbian:
Prvi
Drugi
Treći
-------------------------------------
56
Slavic Days of the Week
Bosnian:
Czech:
Croation:
Polish:
Russian:
Serbian:
Ponedeljak
Utorak
Srijeda
Četvrtak
Petak
Subota
Nedelja
Pondělí
Úterý
Středa
Čtvrtek
Pátek
Sobota
Neděle
Ponedjeljak
Utorak
Srijeda
Četvrtak
Petak
Subota
Nedjelja
Pieniądze
Wtorek
Środa
Czwartek
Piątek
Sobota
Niedziela
Ponyedyel’nik
Vtornik
Sryeda
Chyetvyerg
Pyatnitsa
Subbota
Voskryesyen’ye
Ponedeljak
Utorak
Sreda
Četvrtak
Petak
Subota
Nedelja
58
57
Slavic Months of the Year
Bosnian:
Januar
Februar
Marš
April
Maj
Juni
Juli
Avgust
Septembar
Oktobar
Novembar
Decembar
Czech:
Leden
Únor
Březen
Duben
Máj
Červen
Červenec
Srpen
Září
Říjen
Listopad
Prosinec
Croation:
Sječanj
Veljača
Ožujak
Travanj
Svibanj
Lipanj
Srpanj
Kolovoz
Rujan
Listopad
Studeni
Prosinac
Polish:
Styczeń
Luty
Marzec
Kwiecień
Maj
Czerwiec
Lipiec
Sierpień
Wrzesień
Październik
Listopad
Grudzień
58
Russian:
Yanvar’
Fyevral’
Mart
Apryel’
Maj
Iyun’
Iyul’
Avgust
Syentyabr’
Oktyabr’
Noyabr’
Dyekabr’
Serbian:
Januar
Februar
Mart
April
Maj
Jun
Jul
Avgust
Septembar
Oktobar
Novembar
Decembar
58
!Slavic Relatives
Bosnian:
Czech:
Croation:
Polish:
Russian:
Serbian:
Babo
Majka
Brat
Sestra
Djed/Deda
Baba/Baka
Ujak/Dajdja
Tetka
Rodjak/srodnik
Otec
Matka
Bratr
Sestra
Grænmadzer
Grænfádzer
Strýc
Teta
Synovec/Neteř
Mater/Majka
Otak
Brat
Sestra
Djed
Baka/Baba
Stric/Ujak
Tet(k)a
Rodak/Rodica
Ojciec
Matka
Brat
Siostra
Dziadek
Babcia
Wuj(ek)
Ciotka
Kuzyn(ka)
Otyets
Mat’
Brat
Syestra
Dyedushka
Babushka
Dyadya
Tyotya
Kuzyen(a)
Otac
Majka
Brat
----Deda
Baka/Baba
Stric/Teča/Ujak
---------
58
59
!!Slavic Subject Pronouns
Bosnian: Czech:
Croation:
Polish:
Russian:
Serbian:
Ja
Ti
On
Ona
Ono
Já
Ty
On
Ona
Ono/To
Ja
Ti
On
Ona
Ono
Ja
Ty
On
Ona
Ono
Ya
Ty
On
On
On
Ja
Ti
On
Ona
Ono
Mi
Vi
Oni
My
Vy
Oni/Ony/Ona
Mi
Vi
Oni
My
Wy
Oni
My
Vy
Oni
Mi
Vi
Oni
58
60
!!!Slavic Object Pronouns
Bosnian:
Czech:
Croation:
Polish:
Russian:
Serbian:
Mene/Me
Ti
Njemu/Njega
Njen/Njezen
Ono
Mne/Mě/Mně
Ty
Ho/Jemu
Její
Ono/To
Meni/Mi
Ti
On
Nju
Ono
Mnie/mi
Ty
(Je)mu
Jej/Niej
Ono
Myenya
Tyebye
(N)Yemu
(N)Yemu
(N)Yemu
----Ti
----------
Mi
Vi
Oni
Nás/Nám
Vy
Jim/Je
Mi
Vi
Oni
Nas/Nam(i)
Wy
Ich
Nas
Vam
(N)ikh
---Vi
----
58
61
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