Quality Teaching
The NSW model of pedagogy
What does it look like in
A great teacher
Activity 1
Think of a really great teacher you
once had:
What did they do that made them a
great teacher?
The NSW model of
 draws together a range of research.
 identifies eighteen elements that
are indicators of quality teaching
 is not mandatory for schools.
How is the NSW model of
pedagogy useful?
 Provides a tool for teachers to use to
reflect on their teaching practice.
 Can help teachers identify practices they
do well and practices they might
emphasise more.
 Can guide the planning and redesigning
of activities, lessons and units of work.
 Provides a common vocabulary to use to
talk about teaching and learning.
Which students benefit?
Research has demonstrated that:
 all students K-12 benefit
 benefits are not affected by race,
ethnicity, gender or socio economic
Components of the NSW
model of pedagogy
 eighteen elements in three
 the Intellectual Quality dimension is
 the Quality Learning Environment
and Significance dimensions
underpin Intellectual Quality.
The dimensions of
the model
The elements of
the model
Each dimension of the model is made up of
six elements.
Intellectual quality
Deep knowledge
Deep understanding
Problematic knowledge
Higher-order thinking
Substantive Communication
The elements of
the model
Quality learning environment
Explicit quality criteria
High expectations
Social support
Students’ self-regulation
Student direction
The elements of
the model
Background knowledge
Cultural knowledge
Knowledge integration
The elements of the
How many elements in a lesson?
 No expectation that every element
should be seen in a single lesson.
 At least one element from each
dimension should be found in a lesson.
 Across a unit of work all elements should
be found.
The ‘journey’
 developing an understanding of the
 developing an understanding of what the
elements mean in languages
 applying the elements in teaching
 today’s workshop may be your first step
on the journey.
Intellectual quality
Intellectual quality
Focuses on how students interact with the
concepts, skills and ideas of the subject
Intellectual quality
The elements
Deep knowledge
Deep understanding
Problematic knowledge
Higher-order thinking
Substantive communication
Deep knowledge
Lessons and tasks focus on:
 a small number of key concepts
 the relationships among the
Deep knowledge
Knowledge in Languages
K-10 Languages syllabuses describe the
knowledge (content) of Languages in terms of
the objectives:
 Using Language
(communication and grammatical concepts)
 Making Linguistic Connections
(literacy and grammatical concepts)
 Moving Between Cultures
(social, cultural and intercultural concepts)
Deep knowledge
What is a ‘concept’?
 An idea or principle.
Concepts can be identified by completing
the sentence:
A key concept for the lesson is that…
E.g. A key concept for the lesson is that
the choice to use ‘tu’ or ‘vous’ is
influenced by the nature of the
relationship between the people. (French)
Relationships between
key concepts
Teaching in topics makes it easier to
look at the relationships between
communication, literacy and cultural
Deep understanding
 Students demonstrate that they
have grasped key concepts.
 Deep understanding: learning that
students demonstrate
 Deep knowledge: teacher focusing
lessons on key concepts
Deep understanding
 If the topic is ‘Greetings and
introductions’, students who show that
they can manipulate language and
incorporate nonverbal communication
appropriately to greet someone and
introduce themselves are demonstrating
deep understanding.
 Treating knowledge as ‘problematic’
I.e. something that can vary
according to social, cultural and
political influences
 The opposite is treating knowledge
as ‘given’ I.e. as facts
Problematic knowledge
Discussing how:
 the relationship between people
affects the way the language is
 in any language there are a number
ways to express the same idea
Problematic knowledge
Examples continued
 the etiquette associated with meal
times varies between cultures and
 different cultures may celebrate
different things.
thinking (HOT)
 Students are regularly engaged in
thinking that requires them to do things
Higher-order thinking
 The language content does not need
to be complex to engage higherorder thinking. The nature of the
question or task determines
whether or not higher-order
thinking is required.
Higher-order thinking
 “What is the French word for ‘to eat’?”
engages lower-order thinking (knowing).
 “In this passage, highlight any words
that are relevant to the topic ‘Eating and
drinking’?” engages higher-order thinking
Higher-order thinking
Using the communicative approach and
maximising use of the target language in
lessons engages higher-order thinking.
 To listen and understand (apply, analyse,
hypothesise, evaluate)
 To respond (apply, evaluate, synthesise)
HOT - Evaluating
Arriving at a decision about the value
of something for a given purpose.
Focus words:
assess, choose, compare, conclude,
decide, defend, discuss, evaluate,
give your opinion, judge, justify,
prioritise, rank, rate, recommend,
select, support, value
HOT - Evaluating
1. You have the opportunity to stay with
an Indonesian family. Listen to these
two teenagers describing their daily
routines in Indonesian. Which of the two
would you prefer to stay with? Explain
why. (respond in English)
2. Look at the clothes in an Italian fashion
magazine. Choose at least three items
of clothing that you would like to have.
Explain to a classmate, why you would
like to buy them. (respond in Italian)
HOT - Synthesising
Combining concepts and ideas to form a
new product, plan or communication.
Focus words:
Change, combine, compose, construct,
create, design, imagine, improve, plan,
predict, pretend, produce, propose,
rearrange, reorganise, suggest, suppose,
visualise, write.
HOT - Synthesising
1. Create an invitation to a party. (respond
in German)
2. With a partner, imagine the
conversation you might have with a
local who is helping you find your way
to a famous landmark in a French town.
Prepare the conversation and perform it
for the class. (respond in French)
HOT - Analysing
Breaking things down into parts.
Understanding how something is
Focus words:
Analyse, categorise, classify, compare,
contrast, diagram, differentiate, dissect,
examine, explain, identify, investigate,
separate, specify
HOT - Analysing
1. You have received an email from a
Chinese keypal. In it she has described
her family. Read the email and draw her
family tree. (respond in Chinese)
2. You will be staying with a family in
Japan for a week. Listen to the phone
message telling you what you will be
doing during that week. Write an
itinerary for your stay. (respond in
HOT - Applying
Using learned material in a new
situation. Applying rules and
Focus words:
Apply, complete, conclude, construct,
demonstrate, draw, examine, find
out, give an example, illustrate,
make, show, solve, use
HOT - Applying
A Japanese class has been learning how
to give street directions. So far they
have practised as a class with the
1. Using this map give directions in
Japanese to help your classmate get to
the places he wants to go to.
HOT - Applying
A Spanish class is doing a unit of work
on ‘food and drink’. Previously they
have done a unit of work on ‘sport and
2. You have learnt to discuss likes and
dislikes about food, now find out your
classmate’s likes and dislikes in relation
to sport.
 Metalanguage is the language used
to discuss language.
 The element metalanguage involves
discussing how the language works.
On an OHT the teacher displays a letter
in the target language with deliberate
mistakes of various kinds.
The class works together to identify
mistakes and discusses what the
problems are. In discussion, students
and teacher use the specialist
terminology of language.
 Sustained interaction about the
content of the lesson
Can be:
 Teacher  student(s)
 Student(s)  student(s)
A discussion about family including:
 Family members
 Ages
 Interests
 Pets
(in the target language)
Purposeful communicative tasks can
provide opportunities for substantive
communication in the target
Quality learning
Quality learning
Focuses on what makes the
classroom a place where students
and teachers work together
The elements
Explicit quality criteria
High expectations
Social support
Students’ self-regulation
Student direction
Explicit quality
 Students have a clear understanding of
how well the teacher expects them to do
 Students have a reference point to which
they can compare the quality of their
 ‘Quality criteria’ tell students what
constitutes a good answer or product and
how to achieve it.
 Procedural information tells students
what they have to do.
Explicit quality criteria
 Provide work samples or models.
 Make statements about the quality of
work required often during a lesson.
 Provide detailed criteria with tasks and
explain them clearly.
 Use the criteria to give feedback on
students’ work while they are doing it as
well as when it is completed.
 Students are interested and on task
most of the time.
 Students are attentive and focused.
 Students take initiative to raise
 Students contribute to group tasks.
What are some strategies that you
use to engage students?
 Use group work with varied roles for all
students so that all will be included.
 Make the learning meaningful for
students by relating it to real life and to
issues in which they are interested e.g.
youth culture.
 Provide scaffolding for students who
need more support, and open-ended
tasks that provide for a range of
High expectations
 Students are given challenging
 Students are encouraged to try
 Students are encouraged to take
risks with the language
 Students’ work/efforts are
High expectations
 Identify the prior learning of the students
so that the work is appropriately
 Challenge your own assumptions –
teachers’ expectations for students tend
to be self-fulfilling.
 Encourage students to aim high, not just
get by.
 Always recognise the efforts of students.
 One-to-one feedback
Social support
 Students feel safe and accepted.
 Students are encouraged to try hard and
take risks in a climate of mutual respect.
 Effort, participation and the expression of
points of view are valued.
Social support
 Use a variety of collaborative activities.
 Design flexible learning tasks so that all
students can experience success.
 Always respect, value and incorporate
the ideas and opinions of all class
members. This is particularly relevant in
tasks with an intercultural focus.
 Allow all students to contribute and
collaborate through activities such as
think-pair-share and jigsaw.
 Students demonstrate self-control
and initiative in relation to their
 Students understand and have
internalised the standards of
behaviour required in the class.
Student self-regulation
 Ensure activities are purposeful and
interesting with clear goals that students
perceive to be worthwhile.
 Encourage students to evaluate their own
progress and achievement.
 Negotiate a shared understanding of
classroom behaviour and responsibilities.
Student direction
Student direction is about students
assuming responsibility for class
activities by exercising some control
choice of activities
time spent on activities
pace of the lesson
criteria by which they will be assessed.
Student direction
 Colour code workbook exercises with
points associated with a colour. Students
accrue a set number of points.
 Allow students to choose:
 how they go about a task e.g. independently,
as a pair, as a group
 how they present their work.
 Negotiate with students how much time
is required to complete their work
 Let students participate in determining
the criteria by which they will be
Making what we do more
meaningful for our students.
The elements
Background knowledge
Cultural knowledge
Knowledge integration
Background knowledge
Knowledge gathered in:
 previous lessons
 personal lives.
Background knowledge
 Before reading a menu in the target
language, ask students what information
they would expect to see on a menu.
 On the topic of ‘School’ ask students
what language they think they will need
to talk about the school day (e.g. time,
subjects, days of the week etc.) then
brainstorm the vocabulary and structures
they already know and could use.
Cultural knowledge
Linking the lesson content to one or
more specific social groups.
Cultural knowledge
 When teaching a unit on birthday
celebrations, discuss how different
students celebrate their birthdays at
home, or if there are other celebrations
of greater importance.
 When teaching food and drink, find out
what the typical food items on the table
are at dinner time at the students’
homes, and how/when they are eaten.
Knowledge integration
Taking the pieces of the puzzle and
fitting them together to form a bigger
picture, by:
 linking to other subjects/KLAs
 linking to other topics within the
Knowledge integration
Across KLAs/subjects:
 Designing a brochure (literacy)
 Using the food pyramid to understand healthy
eating (PD/H/PE and/or Food Technology)
 Teaching a unit on the environment (HSIE).
Within the language:
 Grammar, e.g. learning likes and dislikes within
the topic of animals and then using the similar
structures when shopping for clothes
 Vocabulary, e.g. numbers are revisited when
teaching time and/or dates.
Key questions:
 Are all students of all social groups
included in the public work of the
 Are the contributions of all students
taken seriously and valued by
their classmates and the
 Vary the grouping, e.g. individual work,
pairwork, friendship groups, ability
groups, class surveys (as oral work)
 Questioning techniques, e.g. teacher to
student and student to student, group
responses and individual responses,
moving from closed questioning to openended questioning.
 Positive feedback to students, including
clarification, e.g. “Your pronunciation was
spot-on that time”. When correcting a
student’s answer, involve the class in
 The use of realia such as menus,
timetables, brochures.
 Incorporating skills such as numeracy
and literacy.
 Real world skills and tools such as mapreading and the use of ICT play a vital
role in connecting what happens in the
classroom to the world beyond.
The use of stories or anecdotes to
contextualise the learning, making it
more meaningful.
Personal stories are better
remembered by students.
 The “When I was in
Japan/Germany/France…” story.
 Reading out sample biographies of
real people for a “Who am I?”
game, e.g. I am 25 years old. I
come from America. I’m a woman.
I’m very thin and have long blonde
hair. I love shopping, flirting and

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