Quality Teaching The NSW model of pedagogy What does it look like in Languages? A great teacher Activity 1 Think of a really great teacher you once had: What did they do that made them a great teacher? The NSW model of pedagogy draws together a range of research. identifies eighteen elements that are indicators of quality teaching practice. is not mandatory for schools. How is the NSW model of pedagogy useful? Provides a tool for teachers to use to reflect on their teaching practice. Can help teachers identify practices they do well and practices they might emphasise more. Can guide the planning and redesigning of activities, lessons and units of work. Provides a common vocabulary to use to talk about teaching and learning. Which students benefit? Research has demonstrated that: all students K-12 benefit benefits are not affected by race, ethnicity, gender or socio economic status. Components of the NSW model of pedagogy eighteen elements in three dimensions the Intellectual Quality dimension is central the Quality Learning Environment and Significance dimensions underpin Intellectual Quality. The dimensions of the model Significance Intellectual Quality Quality Learning Environment The elements of the model Each dimension of the model is made up of six elements. Intellectual quality Deep knowledge Deep understanding Problematic knowledge Higher-order thinking Metalanguage Substantive Communication The elements of the model Quality learning environment Explicit quality criteria Engagement High expectations Social support Students’ self-regulation Student direction The elements of the model Significance Background knowledge Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration Inclusivity Connectedness Narrative The elements of the model How many elements in a lesson? No expectation that every element should be seen in a single lesson. At least one element from each dimension should be found in a lesson. Across a unit of work all elements should be found. The ‘journey’ developing an understanding of the elements developing an understanding of what the elements mean in languages applying the elements in teaching today’s workshop may be your first step on the journey. Intellectual quality Intellectual quality Focuses on how students interact with the concepts, skills and ideas of the subject area. Intellectual quality The elements Deep knowledge Deep understanding Problematic knowledge Higher-order thinking Metalanguage Substantive communication Deep knowledge Lessons and tasks focus on: a small number of key concepts the relationships among the concepts Deep knowledge Knowledge in Languages K-10 Languages syllabuses describe the knowledge (content) of Languages in terms of the objectives: Using Language (communication and grammatical concepts) Making Linguistic Connections (literacy and grammatical concepts) Moving Between Cultures (social, cultural and intercultural concepts) Deep knowledge What is a ‘concept’? An idea or principle. Concepts can be identified by completing the sentence: A key concept for the lesson is that… E.g. A key concept for the lesson is that the choice to use ‘tu’ or ‘vous’ is influenced by the nature of the relationship between the people. (French) Relationships between key concepts Teaching in topics makes it easier to look at the relationships between communication, literacy and cultural concepts. Deep understanding Students demonstrate that they have grasped key concepts. Deep understanding: learning that students demonstrate Deep knowledge: teacher focusing lessons on key concepts Deep understanding Example If the topic is ‘Greetings and introductions’, students who show that they can manipulate language and incorporate nonverbal communication appropriately to greet someone and introduce themselves are demonstrating deep understanding. Problematic knowledge Treating knowledge as ‘problematic’ I.e. something that can vary according to social, cultural and political influences The opposite is treating knowledge as ‘given’ I.e. as facts Problematic knowledge Examples Discussing how: the relationship between people affects the way the language is used in any language there are a number ways to express the same idea Cont… Problematic knowledge Examples continued the etiquette associated with meal times varies between cultures and families different cultures may celebrate different things. Higher-order thinking (HOT) Students are regularly engaged in thinking that requires them to do things like: Evaluate Synthesise Analyse Apply Higher-order thinking The language content does not need to be complex to engage higherorder thinking. The nature of the question or task determines whether or not higher-order thinking is required. Higher-order thinking Examples “What is the French word for ‘to eat’?” engages lower-order thinking (knowing). “In this passage, highlight any words that are relevant to the topic ‘Eating and drinking’?” engages higher-order thinking (evaluating). Higher-order thinking (HOT) Using the communicative approach and maximising use of the target language in lessons engages higher-order thinking. To listen and understand (apply, analyse, hypothesise, evaluate) To respond (apply, evaluate, synthesise) HOT - Evaluating Arriving at a decision about the value of something for a given purpose. Focus words: assess, choose, compare, conclude, decide, defend, discuss, evaluate, give your opinion, judge, justify, prioritise, rank, rate, recommend, select, support, value HOT - Evaluating Examples 1. You have the opportunity to stay with an Indonesian family. Listen to these two teenagers describing their daily routines in Indonesian. Which of the two would you prefer to stay with? Explain why. (respond in English) 2. Look at the clothes in an Italian fashion magazine. Choose at least three items of clothing that you would like to have. Explain to a classmate, why you would like to buy them. (respond in Italian) HOT - Synthesising Combining concepts and ideas to form a new product, plan or communication. Focus words: Change, combine, compose, construct, create, design, imagine, improve, plan, predict, pretend, produce, propose, rearrange, reorganise, suggest, suppose, visualise, write. HOT - Synthesising Examples 1. Create an invitation to a party. (respond in German) 2. With a partner, imagine the conversation you might have with a local who is helping you find your way to a famous landmark in a French town. Prepare the conversation and perform it for the class. (respond in French) HOT - Analysing Breaking things down into parts. Understanding how something is organised. Focus words: Analyse, categorise, classify, compare, contrast, diagram, differentiate, dissect, examine, explain, identify, investigate, separate, specify HOT - Analysing Examples 1. You have received an email from a Chinese keypal. In it she has described her family. Read the email and draw her family tree. (respond in Chinese) 2. You will be staying with a family in Japan for a week. Listen to the phone message telling you what you will be doing during that week. Write an itinerary for your stay. (respond in Japanese) HOT - Applying Using learned material in a new situation. Applying rules and methods. Focus words: Apply, complete, conclude, construct, demonstrate, draw, examine, find out, give an example, illustrate, make, show, solve, use HOT - Applying Example A Japanese class has been learning how to give street directions. So far they have practised as a class with the teacher. 1. Using this map give directions in Japanese to help your classmate get to the places he wants to go to. HOT - Applying Example A Spanish class is doing a unit of work on ‘food and drink’. Previously they have done a unit of work on ‘sport and pastimes’. 2. You have learnt to discuss likes and dislikes about food, now find out your classmate’s likes and dislikes in relation to sport. Metalanguage Metalanguage is the language used to discuss language. The element metalanguage involves discussing how the language works. Metalanguage Example On an OHT the teacher displays a letter in the target language with deliberate mistakes of various kinds. The class works together to identify mistakes and discusses what the problems are. In discussion, students and teacher use the specialist terminology of language. Substantive communication Sustained interaction about the content of the lesson Can be: Teacher student(s) Student(s) student(s) Substantive communication Example A discussion about family including: Family members Ages Interests Pets (in the target language) Substantive communication Purposeful communicative tasks can provide opportunities for substantive communication in the target language Quality learning environment Quality learning environment Focuses on what makes the classroom a place where students and teachers work together productively. The elements Explicit quality criteria Engagement High expectations Social support Students’ self-regulation Student direction Explicit quality criteria Students have a clear understanding of how well the teacher expects them to do something. Students have a reference point to which they can compare the quality of their work. ‘Quality criteria’ tell students what constitutes a good answer or product and how to achieve it. Procedural information tells students what they have to do. Explicit quality criteria Strategies Provide work samples or models. Make statements about the quality of work required often during a lesson. Provide detailed criteria with tasks and explain them clearly. Use the criteria to give feedback on students’ work while they are doing it as well as when it is completed. Engagement Students are interested and on task most of the time. Students are attentive and focused. Students take initiative to raise questions. Students contribute to group tasks. Engagement What are some strategies that you use to engage students? Engagement Strategies Use group work with varied roles for all students so that all will be included. Make the learning meaningful for students by relating it to real life and to issues in which they are interested e.g. youth culture. Provide scaffolding for students who need more support, and open-ended tasks that provide for a range of responses. High expectations Students are given challenging work. Students are encouraged to try hard. Students are encouraged to take risks with the language Students’ work/efforts are acknowledged. High expectations Strategies Identify the prior learning of the students so that the work is appropriately challenging. Challenge your own assumptions – teachers’ expectations for students tend to be self-fulfilling. Encourage students to aim high, not just get by. Always recognise the efforts of students. One-to-one feedback Social support Students feel safe and accepted. Students are encouraged to try hard and take risks in a climate of mutual respect. Effort, participation and the expression of points of view are valued. Social support Strategies Use a variety of collaborative activities. Design flexible learning tasks so that all students can experience success. Always respect, value and incorporate the ideas and opinions of all class members. This is particularly relevant in tasks with an intercultural focus. Allow all students to contribute and collaborate through activities such as think-pair-share and jigsaw. Student self-regulation Students demonstrate self-control and initiative in relation to their behaviour. Students understand and have internalised the standards of behaviour required in the class. Student self-regulation Strategies Ensure activities are purposeful and interesting with clear goals that students perceive to be worthwhile. Encourage students to evaluate their own progress and achievement. Negotiate a shared understanding of classroom behaviour and responsibilities. Student direction Student direction is about students assuming responsibility for class activities by exercising some control over: choice of activities time spent on activities pace of the lesson criteria by which they will be assessed. Student direction Strategies Colour code workbook exercises with points associated with a colour. Students accrue a set number of points. Allow students to choose: how they go about a task e.g. independently, as a pair, as a group how they present their work. Negotiate with students how much time is required to complete their work Let students participate in determining the criteria by which they will be assessed. Significance Significance Making what we do more meaningful for our students. The elements Background knowledge Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration Inclusivity Connectedness Narrative Background knowledge Knowledge gathered in: previous lessons personal lives. Background knowledge Examples Before reading a menu in the target language, ask students what information they would expect to see on a menu. On the topic of ‘School’ ask students what language they think they will need to talk about the school day (e.g. time, subjects, days of the week etc.) then brainstorm the vocabulary and structures they already know and could use. Cultural knowledge Linking the lesson content to one or more specific social groups. Cultural knowledge Examples When teaching a unit on birthday celebrations, discuss how different students celebrate their birthdays at home, or if there are other celebrations of greater importance. When teaching food and drink, find out what the typical food items on the table are at dinner time at the students’ homes, and how/when they are eaten. Knowledge integration Taking the pieces of the puzzle and fitting them together to form a bigger picture, by: linking to other subjects/KLAs linking to other topics within the language. Knowledge integration Examples Across KLAs/subjects: Designing a brochure (literacy) Using the food pyramid to understand healthy eating (PD/H/PE and/or Food Technology) Teaching a unit on the environment (HSIE). Within the language: Grammar, e.g. learning likes and dislikes within the topic of animals and then using the similar structures when shopping for clothes Vocabulary, e.g. numbers are revisited when teaching time and/or dates. Inclusivity Key questions: Are all students of all social groups included in the public work of the class? Are the contributions of all students taken seriously and valued by their classmates and the teacher? Inclusivity Examples Vary the grouping, e.g. individual work, pairwork, friendship groups, ability groups, class surveys (as oral work) Questioning techniques, e.g. teacher to student and student to student, group responses and individual responses, moving from closed questioning to openended questioning. Positive feedback to students, including clarification, e.g. “Your pronunciation was spot-on that time”. When correcting a student’s answer, involve the class in practice/feedback. Connectedness SCHOOL REAL WORLD Connectedness Examples The use of realia such as menus, timetables, brochures. Incorporating skills such as numeracy and literacy. Real world skills and tools such as mapreading and the use of ICT play a vital role in connecting what happens in the classroom to the world beyond. Narrative The use of stories or anecdotes to contextualise the learning, making it more meaningful. Personal stories are better remembered by students. Narrative Examples The “When I was in Japan/Germany/France…” story. Reading out sample biographies of real people for a “Who am I?” game, e.g. I am 25 years old. I come from America. I’m a woman. I’m very thin and have long blonde hair. I love shopping, flirting and parties.