Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
The analyses of the conditions for introducing the
National Secondary School Leaving Exam in Croatia
(State Matura)
State Matura
From the perspective of Higher Education
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Proponents of the project
Ministry of Education and Sports - Republic of Croatia
Ministry of Science and Technology - Republic of Croatia (Project
no: 0100502)
Implementation of the project
Institute of Social Research in Zagreb:
Centre for Educational Research and Development
Project Leader
dr. sc. Petar Bezinović
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
The project aim
• The analyses of the conditions for implementing
State Matura
• Development of the proposal for the national
approach to the implementation of the State Matura
that will meet the developmental needs of Croatian
• Piloting the proposal – experimental Matura (2004.)
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
What is State Matura?
• State Matura is an exam that tests at what level are the goals
of secondary education achieved - it determines the level of
achieved student competences.
• It is organized centrally and implemented at the same time
for all candidates.
• State Matura is the Secondary school leaving exam.
• It could be used instead of the entrance exams for Higher
education.
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Basic premise
Implementation of State Matura and other external exams
which will ensure
objective, valid, reliable and fair evaluation of school
achievements/ student competences
will provoke important developmental processes which may
significantly improve the quality of education in Croatian
schools.
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
The goals of State Matura
• Valid, reliable, objective and fair measurement of school
achievement.
• Defining of national standards  monitoring the
achievement of programs and goals of secondary
education
• Ensure that education and knowledge have appropriate
value
• Improving the quality of schools - promoting the quality
of teaching and learning.
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
The goals of State Matura – cont.
• Improving the students’ level of motivation for learning
and their desire for achievement.
• Ensuring valid and fair selection of candidates for
enrolment into Higher education.
• Making Croatian High School diploma clear and
comparable on the local and European labour markets as
well as in European education.
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Conceptual frame
Current situation in Croatia
• There is no established system for evaluating the quality of education
• The general level of education of the citizens is low, education and
knowledge are undervalued.
Current situation in EU
• Dynamic changes, technological advancement – greater need for
competent experts that are flexible to adapt to the ever changing
social and technological conditions and effectively solve the most
demanding problems.
• Open borders, wider markets, great competitiveness
• Improving the quality of education is the primary development goal of
the European Union (Lisbon, 2000)
• High educational standards as a necessity and a premise for
development
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Conceptual frame – cont.
Croatian priority tasks
• Achieve high level quality of education
• Ensure equality and accessibility of quality education to all
Key issues concerning external assessment
• What kind of system of external assessment can best promote
the quality of education – stimulate quality learning and
teaching – and ensure unrestricted development of creative
potential of the individuals?
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Research objectives
• Establish what is the attitude of Higher education institutions
on introducing State Matura in Croatian education and
utilizing these results for enrolment into higher education.
• Research what competences should the candidates for further
education have.
• Establish the content which should be assessed on State
Matura.
• Establish what is the opinion of Higher education institutions
on the readiness of students for further education.
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
The higher education institutions
questionnaire
The analyses
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Method
Participants
• 91 questionnaires received from 50 different faculties or other higher
education institutions, 37 departments and 4 subdivisions were analysed.
The questionnaires were completed by the heads of these units following
discussion with their colleagues. 1346 teachers participated in these
discussions.
Methodology
• The higher education institutions received the questionnaire by e-mail with
the introductory letter from the president of the Coordination group for
educational system reform in Republic of Croatia.
• Following the discussion, the completed questionnaires were returned to
the Institute of Social Research for analyses.
Questionnaire
• Examines the attitudes on introducing State Matura and utilizing these
results instead of entrance exams, possible content of the Matura exam,
necessary competences for higher education, readiness of freshmen for
their studies.
Attitudes on introducing SM at the end of secondary
education
regardless to the selection procedures for entrance into Higher
education
50
46.2
41.8
40
30
%
20
7.7
10
1.1
2.2
AGAINST
against
1.1
0
?
for
FOR
no answ er
M=4,27
sd=0,79
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Main arguments for introducing SM
1. Unique assessment criteria
2. Valid, objective and fair measurement of knowledge that will
ensure realistic insight into the quality of achieved knowledge
3. Simplified entrance into Higher education (no entrance
exams), unburden the universities
4. Improved evaluation of schools and teachers
5. Improvement of the quality of education
6. Improvement of preparation for higher education/better
students
Attitudes on introducing SM at the end of
secondary education
instead of existing entrance exams for Higher education
40
34.1
30.8
30
25.3
% 20
10
3.3
4.4
2.2
0
AGAINST
against
?
for
FOR
no answer
M=3,87
sd=1,03
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Arguments FOR using SM instead of
existent entrance exams
1. Greater objectivity, fairness and validity
2. Assessment of school achievement based on standardised
criteria
3. Less stressful for students
4. Simplified procedures, easier rating of the students who satisfy
the criteria.
5. Unburdening of the universities
6. Transparent, no issues with the regularity of entrance exams
7. ! Elimination of entrance exams is possible only if the SM
assesses the relevant content !
8. Cheaper, faster
Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu
Centar za istraživanje i razvoj obrazovanja
Arguments AGAINST the use of SM results
instead of existent entrance exams
1. It is impossible for a unique SM to include the specifics of
each study group and assess the contents for each faculty,
2. It can not assess specific talents and motivation
3. Faculties should have full autonomy, must have full control
of the assessed contents, must establish the criteria for the
selection of their students by themselves.
4. Possibilities for manipulation, doubt in the correct
implementation of SM.
Attitudes on the utilization of SM results instead of the
existing entrance exams
(mean scores according to the type of institution)
economics, law
4,67
polytechnics
4,29
teacher
4,2
technological
3,8
technical
3,71
social sc.
3,71
natural sc. -math.
3,67
medicine, veterinary
3,44
art
3
2
3
4
5
Possible content of SM
Croatian
95.6
1. Foreign lang.
93.3
Maths
81.1
Computer studies
71.1
Physics
47.8
Chemistry
36.7
Biology
32.2
History
32.2
Geography
26.7
Ethics
22.2
Psychology
21.1
Logic
21.1
Sociology
20
Politics
17.8
Philosophy
15.6
Art
14.4
Latin
14.4
2. Foreign lang.
12.2
Music
8.9
PE
8.9
Religious Studies
4.4
Greek
3.3
0
20
40
%
60
80
100
Content of entrance exam for 2003/04
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CROATIAN
Economics,management, tourism
Law
Teacher colleges
Croatian language and literature
Faculty of philosophy Zagreb
Logaoedics
Political sciences, journalism
Catholic theology faculty
Some foreign language
History
Social sciences collage
Academy of dramatic arts
Police academy
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MATHEMATICS
Economics,management, tourism
Mathematics and physics
Teacher maths, physics, computer
studies, chemistry, geology,
technical
Electro-technical / technical
Mechanical engineering
Architectures, civil engineering
Geology, mining, geological
Forestry, agronomics
Chemical engineering
Pharmacology-biochemistry
Food Technology and Biotechnology
Textile technology
Faculty of Transport
Maritime studies
Faculty of Metallurgy
Faculty of Graphics
Teachers colleges
Content of entrance exam for 2003/04 – cont.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Foreign languages
Teachers college
Management, business, tourism
Maritime studies
Faculty of transport – aeronautics
Academy of dramatic arts
Educational-rehabilitation faculty
ICT
•
•
•
•
Economics
Mathematics
Teacher maths computer studies
Information Technology
Readiness of freshmen for studying
light – secondary school estimates
dark – Higher education institutions estimates
68,9
70
60,4
60
50
40
%
30
26,4
21,1
20
8,8
10
2,2
1,1
0
0
1
7,8
2
2,2 1,1
0
3
4
5
no answer
Readiness of students for higher education
Sources of satisfaction
• High motivation for studies
• Individual knowledge and readiness
• Good general education, quality of students from some schools
(gymnasiums)
• Readiness to acquire new knowledge
• Openness and good communication skills
• Willingness for independent and creative study
Readiness of students for higher education
Sources of dissatisfaction
• Inadequate level of knowledge in the subjects important for the field of
study
• General lack of knowledge, lack of general knowledge
• Unequal readiness of students from different schools, unequal prior
knowledge
• Lack of motivation for studies, lack of curiosity, interest, lack of motivation
for high academic achievements
• Undeveloped work habits, not knowing how to learn, undeveloped learning
strategies
• Not independent in studying
• Negative attitude towards learning, unsystematic, bad time management
• Illiteracy, low level of oral and written expression, low language
competence
• Acquiring knowledge by mechanical memorizing, reproductive attitude to
knowledge
• Insufficient application of knowledge, little practical knowledge and skills
• Low level of responsibility and maturity
• Insufficient creativity
• Insufficiently active, do not discuss, passive listeners
• Do not know how to use reading resources
Average estimate of the developed
characteristics of freshmen
Curiosity, interest for the field of study
3.05
efficiant communication in Croatian
3.01
ICT
2.92
key knowledge in the subjects important for the field of study
2.69
motivation for high academic achievement
2.63
unrestricted articulation of one's own ideas
2.56
practical application of existing knowledge in new situations
2.49
ability to solve problems in inovative or creative way
2.47
efficiantcommunication in a foreign language
2.45
utilizing higher cognitive processes
2.4
learning skills
2.27
1
2
3
4
5
Important competencies for higher
education
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Key knowledge in the subjects important for the field of study
Motivation for studying
Good communication skills in Croatian , literacy
Knowledge of foreign language
Creativeness in problem solving
Computer literacy
Good work ethics and learning skills
Practical application of knowledge
Curiosity
Diligence, persistence
Ability to use higher cognitive processes, intellectual abilities
Inclination for research
Good general education (for social sciences, polytechnics)
Ethics (for medical, teacher)
Talent for art (for artistic, teacher)
Recommendation for introduction of SM
• Passing of the State Matura exam is a condition for
further education at the Higher Education Institution in
the Republic of Croatia
• The results of the State Matura may be used in place
of entrance exam for Higher Education Institution
• The faculties/polytechnics that use the SM results in
place of entrance exams determine the content that is
relevant for them, the candidate selection
Determining the candidate rank for entrance
• Rank of candidates for entrance into Higher education
Institutions is determined by a unique list for all the
Universities at the National Exam Centre which
implements the State Matura
• Except for the results received on SM the candidate rank
is also determined in high proportion by the grade
average received throughout secondary education
• The candidate rank is determined for all higher
education institutions according to the candidate
registration, according to the results received at SM and
grade average for secondary education
Quality of exam materials
• The exam materials are based on the existing
curriculum, but contain only the content important for
further education and are the bases of lifelong learning
• The test used on the SM must be such that they test the
candidates ability to solve complex problems and not to
reproduce the memorized facts
• The exam results must be standardized and unique for
all school regardless of the schools course
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