Practical Education
Chapter 4 Regulations
and
Academic Standards
Testimony
before
Pennsylvania State Board of Education
February 24, 1998
by
Parents and Business Owners in the Norwin School District
Practical Education and
Academic Standards
• What is a “Practical Education”?
• Do Academic Standards provide this
direction?
• Does the Chapter 4 regulation address core
academics?
• Can they be measured?
• Who are the consumers of the educational
product?
Practical Education
Practical Education proponents believe that there exists a
core body of academics, represented by nationalized
testing, such as SAT and the Iowa Basic tests, a set of
clearly defined and measurable knowledge and skills. This
would include reading and writing instruction based on a
phonetic intensive program; practical mathematics;
Western Literature, as a means to both inspire and
instruct; practical and exact sciences, unencumbered by
popular politics or the most recent of contrivance of social
engineers.
What We
Were Lead
to Believe
Pittsburgh Post Gazette, June 17, 1997
New
Standards
will replace
Chapter 5
Or will
they?
What
Chapter 4
is really
doing
Chapter 5 versus Chapter 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Communications
Mathematics
Science & Technology
Environment & Ecology
Citizenship
Arts & Humanities
Career Education &
Work
• Wellness & Fitness
• Home Economics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reading & Writing
Mathematics
Science & Technology
Environment & Ecology
Social Studies
Arts & Humanities
Career Education &
Work
• Wellness & Fitness
• Family & Consumer
Sciences
• World Languages
Why the need for change
• Pennsylvania ranked 45th on SAT’s *
• No early intervention for reading and
math problems
• Inability to test standards in non-core
areas
• Limiting local control of the education
• Accountability
*American Legislative Exchange council, Report Card on American Education 1994, pp 12-13.
SAT Scores
• Verbal
• Math
Reading
and
Math
Problems
Is this early
intervention?
The Purpose
of Public
Education
(6) Honesty, responsibility and tolerance. Public
schools should convey to students the need for
honesty, integrity, individual responsibility and
tolerance.
Chapter 5 Regulation
Our elementary program enrolls students in kindergarten through fifth
grade. This program concerns itself with character development,
attitudes, knowledge, fundamental skills and health habits that make a
well-integrated, useful youngster.
Norwin School District
What
Educators are
being taught
Text book from
California University
of PA’s Education
Department
The struggle over Standards
Humanism
Social
Academic
Social
Efficiency
Standards
Meliorism
Developmentalism
Social Efficiency
“The social-efficiency curriculum has the greatest influence
in America schools. Backed by those who want the schools
primarily to serve the needs of the economy, it is designed to
prepare students for the work force. Often, social efficiency
curricula emphasizes vocational subjects and is associated
with the educational goals of human capital…”
Spring, Joel. “American Education”,eighth edition(1998), pp. 240-241
School to Work?
Humanism
“...the humanist wants the curriculum to introduce students
to the cultural traditions of society. A humanist spurns the
idea of a vocational curriculum and favors the development
of general intellectual skills. Often the humanist wants the
curriculum to be organized around standard academics
subjects like literature, history, foreign languages, the arts,
and science.”
Spring, Joel. “American Education”,eighth edition(1998), pp. 240-241
Social Meliorism
“The social meliorist wants the curriculum to cause social
improvement and change. Social meliorism reflects the
reform element in American education. At the most extreme,
the social meliorist will ask for courses to solve each new
social problem. Sometimes this means the education of
students to cause general political and economic changes.”
Spring, Joel. “American Education”,eighth edition(1998), pp. 240-241
Developmentalism
“...developmentalism is the most radical of the four
curriculum types. The developmentalist wants the curriculum
organized around the psychological development of the child.
This means a curriculum focused on the needs of the
individual child as opposed to the focus of social-efficiency
educators, humanists, and social meliorists, respectively, on
economic needs, the passing on of culture, and social
reform.”
Spring, Joel. “American Education”,eighth edition(1998), pp. 240-241
The struggle over Standards
Humanism
Social
Academic
Social
Efficiency
Standards
Meliorism
Educational
Parents
Students
Developmentalism
Employers
Consumer
Norwin’s
Science
(vii) All students
evaluate advantages,
disadvantages, and
ethical implications
associated with the
impact of science
and technology on
current and future
life.
Chapter 5 Outcome
“Social Meliorism”
Norwin’s
Math
Do
Standards
remove this
from the
classroom?
“Developmentalism”
Norwin’s English
“Developmentalism”
Norwin’s
Career Days
Partner’s
in
Progress
“Social Efficiency”
Practical Education
Practical Education proponents believe that there exists a
core body of academics, represented by nationalized
testing, such as SAT and the Iowa Basic tests, a set of
clearly defined and measurable knowledge and skills. This
would include reading and writing instruction based on a
phonetic intensive program; practical mathematics;
Western Literature, as a means to both inspire and
instruct; practical and exact sciences, unencumbered by
popular politics or the most recent of contrivance of social
engineers.
State Educational Direction
• Stick with the basics and only
the basics
• Intervention at any early age
(not grade 4)
• More local control
• Test only measurable standards
• Everyone accountable
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Practical Education