Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany
• Objectives
• Characterize the totalitarian state in
Germany established by Hitler and
the Nazi Party
• Explain why many Germans
accepted the Nazi dictatorship while
other Germans suffered greatly
under Hitler’s rule
I. Hitler and His Views
• Adolf Hitler born in Austria, 4-20-1889
• Racism / Anti-Semitism
• *1919, joined the National Socialist
German Workers’ Party, or Nazi
• SA, Storm Troops or the Brownshirts
• Staged an uprising against the
government, “Beer Hall Putsch”
Adolf Hitler
I. Hitler and His Views
• Failed, sentenced to prison
• *Mein Kampf, “My Struggle”
• Nationalism, Anti-Semitism & AntiCommunism, Linked together with Social
• Search for “living space”
II. Rise of Nazism
• Hitler will attain power by legal means
• By 1931, Hitler & the Nazi party dominated
the Reichstag – the German parliament
• Hitler promised to create a new Germany
• Appealed to national pride, honor & militarism
III. Victory of Nazism
• With help from the Right-wing elites, Hitler
becomes chancellor & creates a new
• In 1933, with his “legal seizure” of power
came the Enabling Act which gave him the
power to ignore the constitution for 4 years
• Hitler became a dictator appointed by the
parliamentary body itself
III. Victory of Nazism
• Civil Service purged of Jews & democratic
• Large prison camps called *concentration
camps where set up for those who opposed
the regime
• Trade unions were dissolved
• All political parties except the Nazis were
III. Victory of Nazism
• By late 1933, Hitler had established a
totalitarian state
• Public officials & soldiers took a personal oath
of loyalty to Hitler as their Fuhrer, or “Leader”
Adolf Hitler, 1936
IV. The Nazi State, 1933 - 1939
• Totalitarian state
• Aryan, ancient Greeks & Romans
• Term misused by Hitler, (people
speaking Indo-European languages)
• The Third Reich
• Economic policies, mass spectacles,
organizations & terror
• Policies towards women & Jews
A. The State of Terror
• *Schutzstaffeln, “Guard Squadrons” or SS
• *Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS
A. The State of Terror
• Two principles of the SS
• 1. Terror used repression & murder
• Secret police, criminal police,
concentration camps, & later execution
squads & death camps
• 2. ideology
B. Economic Policies
• Public works projects & grants to private
construction firms
• Massive rearmament program
• Unemployment dropped from 6 million in
1932 to 500,000 in 1937
• Many Germans accept Hitler & the Nazis
C. Spectacles and Organization
Mass demonstrations and spectalces
Nuremberg party rallies
Evoke mass enthusiasm & excitement
Churches, schools & universities were
brought under the control of the Nazi
totalitarian state
• Organizations & leagues of civil servants,
women, farmers, doctors, teachers and
• Youth organizations taught Nazi ideals
Nazi Germany
In setting up a totalitarian
state, the Nazis recognized
the importance of winning
young people over to their
ideas. The Hitler Youth, an
organization for young
people between the ages
of 10 and 18, was formed
in 1926 for that purpose.
D. Women and Nazism
Crucial role as bearers of children
Based on the Aryan race
Men – warriors & political leaders
Women – wives & mothers
Limited employment, social work & nursing
“Get a hold of pots & pans & broom &
you’ll sooner find a groom”
E. Anti-Semitic Policies
• Sept. 1935, *Nuremberg laws excluded
Jews from German citizenship & forbade
marriages between Jews & German citizens
• In 1941, Jews required to wear the yellow
star of David & carry identification cards
• *Kristallnacht, “night of shattered glass”
• Destructive rampage against Jews
synagogues & Jewish businesses
• A teacher explains
racial definitions
according to the
Nuremberg Laws
• A Hitler Youth
instructor teaching
the definitions of
race laid down by
the Nuremberg
Laws, September
E. Anti-Semitic Policies
• 30,000 Jewish males were rounded up &
sent to concentration camps
• Further steps, Jews barred from public
transportation, all public buildings including
schools & hospitals
• Prohibited from owning, managing or
working in any retail store
• Encourage to “emigrate from Germany”
.63 DM
They were
probably fearful,
growing poorer,
and losing
the ability to buy
basic necessities.
Section 4: Cultural and Intellectual
• Objectives
• Relate how radios and movies were
popular forms of entertainment that
were used to spread political messages
• Summarize the new artistic and
intellectual trends that reflected the
despair created by World War I and the
Great Depression
I. Mass Culture: Radio and Movies
• Marconi’s discovery of wireless radio
• First Movie, Birth of a Nation
• *Joseph Goebbels , the propaganda
minister of Nazi Germany
• *The Triumph of the Will , Nazi
propaganda documentary of the
Nuremberg Rally
Joseph Goebbels
I. Mass Culture: Radio and Movies
Q. Why was the radio an important
propaganda tool for the Nazis?
- Radio offered great opportunities to
reach the masses, & Hitler’s fiery
speeches were just as effective over
the radio as in person.
II. Mass Leisure
• Kraft durch Freude, “Strength through Joy”
• It provided a new way to control the people through leisure.
through Joy”
III. Artistic and Literary Trends
Sense of despair
Horrors of WWI
Questioning Western values
Humans beings were violent animals who
were incapable of creating a sane & rational
• The Great Depression
• Violent Fascist Movement
A. Art: Nightmares and New
*Photomontage, a picture
made of a combination of
A. Art: Nightmares and New
*Surrealism, a artistic
movement that sought a
reality beyond the material
world & found it in the world
of the unconscious
A. Art: Nightmares and New
*Salvador Dali,
Spanish surrealist
artist, painted
everyday objects
but separated them
from their normal
The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali, 1931
List the qualities that the
Nazis wanted German art to
glorify. Why do you think Hitler
was concerned with issues
such as the content & style of
art? Supposed to glorify the
strong, the healthy & the
B. Literature: The search for
*James Joyce, Irish writer who
published Ulysses in 1922, tells
the story of one day in the life of
ordinary people in Dublin by
following the flow of their inner
B. Literature: The search for
Hermann Hesse, German
writer, Siddhartha &
Steppenwolf, reflect the
influence of both Freud’s
psychology & Asian religions
B. Literature: The search for
Q. Why were artists & writers after
World War I attracted to Freud’s theory
of the unconscious?
- A fascination with Freud’s theory of the
unconscious content of the mind began
before the war, but it seemed even more
appropriate in light of the nightmare
landscapes of the World War I
IV. The Heroic Age of Physics
• German physicist Werner Heisenberg*
• Studied atoms and subatomic particles
• *Uncertainty principle, all physical laws are
based on uncertainty
• Randomness challenges Newtonian physics
• Fits in well with the uncertainties of the
interwar years
Uncertainty principle, the idea
put forth by Heisenberg in 1927
that the behavior of subatomic
particles is uncertain, suggesting
that all of the physical laws
governing the universe are
based in uncertainty
IV. The Heroic Age of Physics
Q. How did Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principle challenge
the Newtonian world view?
- Newton’s physics had been
based on certainty & natural
laws, while Heisenberg’s theory
emphasizes randomness
Chapter Summary

Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany