How did we get to D day? -We declare war on Japan December 1941, because they bombed us - Japan’s allies (Germany and Italy *Axis Powers*) declare war on us Leaders› › › › › › › › › Italy ( Bonito Mussolini ) Japan ( Emperor Hirohito) and General Tojo Germany (Adolph Hitler) U.S (President Roosevelt dies and President Truman take over) Vichy France- unoccupied, but controlled by Germany; General Petain( hero of WW1) Northern France- occupied and resist the Germans throughout the war ( Free France); Led by Charles DeGaulle ( Hero of France) Britain (Neville Chamberlin and Winston Churchill) Russia (Josef Stalin) China ( Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek) How Germany tries to not fight a two front war? › Non aggression act, between Germany and Russia to not kill each other › March through two neutral countries , gets to Paris and France has to give up [France builds a series of forts called the Maginot line ( Switzerland to Luxemburg)] So Germany marches around the wall into France Atlantic Wall- a defensive wall to keep the United States out of Europe; built by the Germans ( very effective) Steps that lead to the D Day invasion? › 1. North Africa is our first campaign (1942-1943) › 2. We fight the Germans in Italy to save the Italians; because Italians get sick of war and they hang their leader (1943-1944) › 3. Normandy Invasion Why Normandy? Narrow beach with high cliffs that no one would land at Very dangerous waters Ships cannot come close to shore -Tides and weather have to be perfect for this invasion -General Dwight Eisenhower, soon to be our president, has to coordinate sneaking up on Hitler on this dangerous beach -needs a landing craft to land at Normandy Beaches so - Higgins boat (Invented when Higgins was recovering logs from the Mississippi in New Orleans, *the boat was flat*) - Must be a certain day where the tide is shallow, and when it is cloudy in the morning and clear in the noon -Has to drop 19,000 men from a plane behind enemy eyes ( given a medal clicker) Dropped out of the airplane with explosives, mines, and a flame thrower, hand grenades, ammunition, knives, a clicker, parachutes, shovel, a canteen of water, life preserver, socks, personal items, condoms for rifles, money, first aid kit, and more Definitions: › Appeasement- the policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace; Many who followed this thought Hitler had few demands › Blitzkrieg- A new type of warfare that the Germans used; Also called lightning war. It used large numbers of tanks to break through and quickly circle the enemy’s positions. Why was Hitler able to take over Austria and Czechoslovakia? › Because the seizing of both Czechoslovakia and Austria would gain food supplies, defensible frontiers, and soldiers for Germany. This was all possible because he threatened his own native land, forcing them to unify, but the Chancellor put it to a democratic vote. This put Hitler on ease leaving him no choice but to announce Anschluss ( The unification of Austria and Germany). He then moved on to Czechoslovakia, who shared the same culture and speaking language as Germany. There was a problem though because they also spoke several other languages. Germany then agreed to meet in Munich to discuss Hitler's appeasement, which both France and Britain agreed to. But later on Chamberlain broke the agreement, forcing Germany to attack. How did the Policy of appeasement affect France and Great Britain? It gave them time to prepare for war and they thought it would stop Hitler but they had to join into the war when Hitler attacked Poland Why were the British able to prevent the Germans from invading their country? › Because there new leader Winston Churchill said that they would not give up no matter how hard it was. The British air force would sink the Germans transport ships if they tried to land in England. This caused Hitler to bomb there capital London, which was a big mistake. In response Britain bombed Germanys capital Berlin, which caused Hitler to continue bombing London. But little did he know the British troops were hiding the subway tunnels from the German Bombers. Britain also had the advantage of the radar, which helped them spot the Germans. They also had a great air force (RAF) that was excellent at fighting . The British people refused to give up. Send children to live in the country to avoid the bombing and Londoners went on with the business of living. Hitler finally decided to withdraw and cancel the invasion. Definitions: › Holocaust- the catastrophe that ravaged Europe’s Jews; The Nazis killed nearly six million Jews and also millions of other groups of people that they thought were inferior to them. The Hebrew term for Holocaust is Shoah, meaning “ catastrophe”. › Concentration Camp- Where many Jews were taken and forced to slave labor until they dropped dead from exhaustion, disease, or malnutrition. Many others in the camps, including the elderly and children, were sent to the infirmary or the gas chambers. › Extermination Camp- Where children would be sent to be executed in massive gas chambers. Groups of people persecuted by the Nazis: › Jews: ( the Nazis main victims) Healthy – sent for slave labor until dead Elderly- sent to the infirmary Children- executed in the gas chamber › Poles › Soviet prisoners of war › Gypsies Do you think that other nations could have prevented the Holocaust. Why or Why not? › I think that yes other nations could have because they could have invaded Germany and captured Nazi’s as prisoners of war. Also if they were to step in they could have saved millions of innocent peoples lives, but instead they sat there and watched the murder and injustice happen because they feared that Hitler would do the same to them. What were some factors that attempt to explain the Holocaust? › Hitler's hatred over the Jewish population › He used it to cover up his mistakes › Germanys long history of anti Jewish prejudice › Discrimination in Europe › The Depression in Europe Extermination Methods Chart: Extermination Methods People interned: anyone of Japanese ancestry Thought about Germans and Italians, but there were too many Japanese all live in three states, easy to find, easy to identify, hated WHY? › We are at war with Japan; we are afraid of espionage › Afraid they will come together and attack › Racial ethnic bias What does the government do to hinder/ encourage this? › Government said it was for protection, keep them safe from angry Americans › Government investigated Japanese Americans and there was not one example of espionage › Supreme Court upholds it › Order comes from the president (executive order 9066) › Congress supports this action Conditions: Notice: had twenty-four to forty-eight hours to move to camps Taken in cattle cars to old army camps, inland Some families stayed in horse stalls Considered inhospitable, hot or cold, dusty, small rooms (minimalistic) › Young men volunteered in U.S. army in higher proportion than any other minority in history › › › › Ends: (1976) › Let them out in 1945 › President ford ended the internment, apologized, and offered them twenty thousand dollars a piece › We also have south American counties lock up Japanese or deport them to Japan Axis Powers: › Italy Mussolini’s Fascist Party believed in supreme power of the state Cooperated with Germany from 1936 onward › Germany Hitler’s Nazi party believed in all-powerful state, territorial expansion, and ethnic purity Invaded Poland in 1939, France in 1940m and the USSR in 1941 › Japan Military leaders pushed territorial expansion Attacked Manchuria in 1931 Invaded China in 1937 Attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 Allie Powers: › United States Passed Neutrality Acts in 1935,1937, and 1939 Gave lend-lease aid to Britain, China, and the USSR Declared war on Japan in 1941 › Great Britain Tried to appease Hitler by allowing territorial growth Declared war on Germany in1939 Resisted German attack in 1940 Received U.S. aid through lend-lease program and cash-and-carry provision › France Along with Great Britain, tried to appease Hitler Declared war on Germany in 1939 after Poland was invaded Occupied by Nazis in 1940 No side › USSR Communists, led by harsh dictator Joseph Stalin, created industrial power Signed non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939 Received U.S. aid; eventually fought with Allies to defeat Germany Terms and People: › Benito Mussolini- Dictator of Italy, schoolmaster and journalist, said › › › › › that his country needed a strong leader, Founded Italy’s Fascist Party. Fascism- a kind of aggressive nationalism; fascists believed that the nation was more important than the individual. Vladimir Lenin- led the Bolshevik Party and established Communist governments throughout the Russian Empire. Joseph Stalin- In 1926 became the new Soviet dictator; began a massive effort to industrialize his country. Adolf Hitler- a fervent anticommunist and an admirer of Mussolini; First recruit of the Nazi Party ( National socialist German Workers’ Party). Wrote Mein Kampf, “ My Struggle”, while he was in prison; the book stated the unification of all Germans under one government. He was held responsible for the Holocaust and all the lives that were taken. Manchuria- a rich province in northern China that the Japanese would conquer. Examples of restrictions for Jews before the Final Deal in Germany › › › › Segregated into Ghettos Not allowed to own businesses Forced to wear the yellow star Denied necessities of life ( travel, education, political parties, the right to assemble) Why didn’t they get out? The truth was not disclosed Countries would not let Jews immigrate; no one wanted them Didn’t want to leave there families It had been there home forever; they did not want to leave They were used to oppression in Europe, but didn’t dream it go that far › Countries they fled to were invaded by Hitler and were turned in › › › › › Science of Racism › 1920-Certain Races we capable of certain things ( Eugenics) › 1930- Wanted to alter genetics to make people healthier › People who thought it was a good idea, didn’t know how far it was going to go Lead to the changing of twins, and the removal of breasts ( in film) Evian Conference (July 1938) › Meeting of 32 countries, to answer the question about who will take the Jews › Britain said they had no room and closed immigration to Palestine, Largest offer that was made by the Dominican Republic, the U.S. and Canada closed emigration › Some Jews emigrated to Western China › No one wanted them Wannsee Conference (1942) › Meeting to see what to do about the Jewish question › This is where they decided the final solution; to eliminate all Jews › Where they planned how to get rid of them Killing squads› Used early in the war, when Hitler entered Poland and Hungry › Would shoot people in their own community that they disliked and not tell anyone about it › One of the first methods of getting rid of the Jewish Death Marches› A march to empty the concentration camps that would soon be invaded by the Allies › Took all death camps, and marched there prisoners back to Germany › Winter of 1944-1945 were left out and led to a forced march to be laborers in Germany or to die Where are Europe and the United States after hearing of Hitler’s plans? › If you bombed the camps, it would kill the Jews anyways › Too dangerous to fly over Germany to get to Poland › They don’t want to get killed themselves › Exception: Denmark, had almost no Jewish people, but in fact many moved into Denmark and when Hitler invaded, they moved all the Jews to Neutral Sweden by fishing boat, knowing it was a risk, they also stored all their possessions and returned them to them after the war at no cost; only 54 died in the death camp. Raoul Wallenberg› Spoiled rich kid; his countries neutral in the war › He asked what was going to happen to all the Jews in Hungry; so he went there and stopped there deportation to gas chambers in Germany. › He said he was a Swedish official and that they were Swedish citizens › He handed out fake Swedish papers to the Jews and the Germans let them go › He saved over 40,000 people’s lives › 2 days after the war, the Russians arrested him saying he was a spy, and they said he wasn’t there. › Died there Irena Sendler – Polish nurse who saved 2500 children from the Warsaw ghetto Promised parents to return children to them after the war was over, tortured and imprisoned by the Germans, lived and contacted all who lived about who had adopted their children Dr. Seuss Story; Growth of fascist dictators › When one person comes along and tells the people what they need, people line up, but in the end it is terrible Technologies: › Airplanes and bombs very effective › Fire bombs › Tied bombs to bats › Atomic bomb Made in the Manhattan Project Albert Einstein- theory behind it ( Germany ) Robert Oppenheimer Drop it on Nagasaki and Hiroshima ( civilian cities); after second one, they unconditionally surrender Incinerated people › Paratroopers › Planes fly off of carriers Over 3,000 soldiers on it Land planes and helicopters, protects smaller ships, send torpedoes › The tank ( really works in this war) Hitler’s Blitzkrieg- lightning fast attack by air and land Hitler practices it in Spain during their civil war Spain’s Fascist Dictator- General Franco Hitler made an agreement with him, to use his ideas and knowledge so in 1942, he will know it would work What’s going on in the war in the Pacific? › Island hopping; attacking one island at a time › We couldn’t fly over them, because the Japanese would shoot at you o Why did they attack in Pearl Harbor and why didn’t we know it was going to happen? It was as close as they could get without us knowing Huge naval base there They just chose this base To get us before we were prepared Why do they attack us in the first place? › › › Because they were allies with the Germans Trying to expand their empire around the sea We quit selling them oil and scrap iron that they needed for their armies and navies What was successful/ unsuccessful about Pearl Harbor? › Didn’t get all our ships › Did destroy eight battleships and kill 1100 sailors › Missed our carriers › They ticked us off › We are ruthless in our attacks Scrap metal drives, victory gardens, meatless days - all designed to help the war effort Rationing of important materials Women in the work force Draft Boards controversial Blackouts and air raid drills Nye Committee- documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war. Neutrality Act of 1935- the act passed because people were worried that German and Italian aggression would grow; the act made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war. General Francisco Franco- led the rebellion in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. Spanish Civil War- began in 1936 Anti-Comintern Pact- the pact signed when Japan aligned itself with Germany and Italy; the pact required the two countries to exchange information about Communist groups. Axis Powers- Germany, Italy, and Japan Internationalism- the idea that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war; Internationalists believed the United States should try to preserve peace in the world. Chamberlain- British Prime Minister who publicly promised to support France, Britain’s ally; Broke the agreement of appeasement after the meeting in Munich with Hitler. Appeasement- the policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace. Blitzkrieg- the Germans new type of warfare; lightning war using massive tanks to encircle enemy positions. Maginot Line- concrete bunkers and fortifications along the German border built by the French; it failed. Dunkirk- the one port Germany hadn’t captured; a small town in northern France near the Belgian border where the French troops were trapped. Winston Churchill- replaced Chamberlain as prime minister; gave a speech at parliament stating that Britain would not give up. Battle of Britain- the air battle between Germany and Britain the lasted into the fall of 1940. Holocaust- the catastrophe that ravaged Europe’s Jews, the Nazi’s killed six million Jews and millions of others. Nuremburg Laws- took citizenship away from Jewish Germans and banned marriage between Jews and other Germans. Kristallnacht- the anti-Jewish violence throughout Austria and Germany that erupted, “ night of broken glass", broken glass littered the streets; ninety Jews lay dead, hundreds badly injured, and thousands were terrorized. Gestapo- the governments secret police; arrested twenty thousand healthy Jews, releasing them only if they agreed to emigrate and surrender all their possessions. Anne Frank- daughter of Otto Frank, whom would later keep a diary of her families life in hiding after the Nazi’s over ran the Netherlands. SS St. Louis-entered the harbor in Havana, Cuba with 930 Jewish refugees. Wannsee Confrence- held in a Berlin suburb, to determine the “ final solution of the Jewish question”. Concentration Camp- Where many Jews were taken and forced to slave labor until they dropped dead from exhaustion, disease, or malnutrition. Many others in the camps, including the elderly and children, were sent to the infirmary or the gas chambers. Extermination Camp- Where children would be sent to be executed in massive gas chambers. Auschwitz- a camp that housed about one hundred thousand people, three hundred in prison barrack; it’s gas chambers were built to kill two thousand people at a time; sometimes gassed twelve thousand a day; one million six thousand people estimated died at Auschwitz. American First Committee- a staunchly isolationist group that firmly opposed any American intervention or aid to the Allies. Lend-Lease Act- the United States would be able to lend or lease arms to any country considered “ vital to the defense of the United States. It meant that the U.S. could send weapons to Britain if they promised to return pay rent for them after the war. Hemispheric Defense Zone- the idea that the entire Western half of the Atlantic was part of the Western Hemisphere and there fore it was neutral. Strategic Materials- materials important for fighting a war. Cost-plus- the government agreed to pay a company whatever it cost to make a product plus a guaranteed percentage of the costs as profit. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)- a government agency set up during the Depression, that was now permitted to make loans to companies to help them cover the cost of converting to war production. Liberty ship- the basic cargo ship used during the war. War Production Board (WBP)- had the authority to set priorities and production goals and to control the distribution of raw materials and supplies after Pearl Harbor. Office of War Mobilization (OWM)- established to settle arguments between different agencies. Selective Service and Training Act- a plan for the first peacetime draft in American history. Disfranchised- meaning African Americans were often denied their right to vote. Double V Campaign- meaning that African Americans should join the war in order to get a double victory. Benjamin O. Davis- the highest ranking African American officer in the U.S. Army, to rank of brigadier general. Tuskegee Airmen- what the African American fighter pilots were named. Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC)- established May 1942, allowing women in the Army. Oveta Culp Hobby- official of the war department , who was appointed to serve as the WAAC’s first director. Women’s Army Corps (WAC)- replaced the WAAC a year later, where director Hobby was appointed rank colonel. Chester Nimitz- Admiral who began planning operations against the Japanese navy. Douglas MacArthur- General who decided to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula; evacuated to Australia. Bataan Death March- where thousands of died, many surrendered, and seventy-eight became war prisoners at Bataan. Corregidor- where a small troop held out in Manila bay after what happened in Bataan; they eventually surrendered. James Doolittle- Colonel that was in charge of the raid to attack Japan. Periphery- edges of the German Empire , that Churchill wanted to attack. George Patton- General who led forces in Morocco, who quickly captured Casablanca. Battle of Kasserine Pass- America was outmaneuvered and out fought; seven thousand five hundred killed and two hundred tanks lost. Eisenhower fired the General who led them and hired Patton. Convoy System- cargo ships would travel in groups and were escorted by navy warships; it improved the situation dramatically. Rosie the Riveter- a character from a popular song by Four Vagabonds.; the song told of a women who worked in the factory while her boy friend was a marine. A. Philip Randolph- the head of the Brotherhood of sleeping car porters, a major union for African American railroad workers, decided to take action because factories would not hire them. Bracero Program- the federal government arranged for Mexican farm workers to help in the harvest. Victory suit- a suit with no vest, no cuffs, a short jacket, and narrow lapels. Regimental Combat Team- the most highly decorated unit in WW2. Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)- After the war they tried to help Japanese Americans who had lost property during the relocation. Office of Price Administration (OPA) and Office of Economic Stabilization (OES)- established to stabilize wages and prices; farm products; able to keep inflation under control. Rationing- limiting the availability of, many products to make sure enough were available for military use. Victory Gardens- gardens planted to produce more food for the war effort. E bonds- most common bonds that sold for eighteen dollars and seventy-five cents and could be redeemed for twenty-five dollars; Americans bough fifty billion worth of war bonds. Casablanca Conference- Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to step up the bombing of Germany. DUKW- an amphibious truck, proved very effective in bringing supplies and artillery to the soldiers on the beach. Cassino and Anzio- two of Germany’s lines, that the Allies tried to break through for five months. Operation Overlord- the code name for the planned invasion in France. D-Day- the date for the invasion, which has heavy cloud cover, strong winds, and high waves. Omar Bradley- the commander of the American forces landing in Omaha and Utah, grimly watched the carnage, made plans to evacuate Omaha. Amphtrac- An amphibious tractor, invented in the late 1930s to rescue people in Florida swamps. Guadalcanal- where MacArthur’s troops captured enough islands to surround Rabaul, the main Japanese base in the region. Kamikaze- “divine wind”; type of attack the Japanese used. Hedgerows- dirt walls, several feet thick, covered in shrubbery. Battle of the Bulge- named when the Germans raced west , their lines bulged outward. V-E Day- “Victory in Europe” Iwo Jima- where the American military decided to invade because it was perfectly located, roughly halfway between Marians and Japan. Curtis LeMay- Commander of the B-29s based in the Marians, who decided to change strategy. Napalm- a kind of jellied gasoline. Manhattan Project- the American program to build an atomic bomb. V-J Day- August 15, 1945, the day Japan surrendered. United Nations ( UN)- 39 countries met to discuss this new organization. Charter- constitution. International Military Tribunal (IMT)- created by the Soviet Union, U.S., Britain, and France. Nuremburg Trials- where the IMT tried German leaders suspected of committing war crimes. Appleby, J., Brinkley, A., Broussard, A., McPherson, J., & Ritchie, D. (2005). The American Vision. New York, NY. The McGraw- Hill Dr. Crihfield.”Public Lectures”. Retrieved the weeks December 2009 through January 2010.