Unit 2- The Development of Western Canada After Confederation the country expanded west at an astonishing rate. The changes disrupted the lives of Metis and Aboriginal peoples in the West. Two uprisings occurred, one in 186970 and one in 1885. The North-West Mounted Police (later the RCMP) were created to help keep order. By 1885 the Canadian Pacific Railway ran from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific. And 2 new provinces were created, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Sir John A. Macdonald Trouble at Red River In 1869 the Hudson’s Bay Company sells Rupert’s Land to Canada. The largest group of people in the Red River colony were Metis. The Metis were people of mixed heritage, Aboriginal and European. Their ways were not entirely Aboriginal, nor were they European. Many earned their livings as farmers, while others earned their living hauling goods in carts for the trading companies or as agents of the fur trade. When Rupert’s Land was sold, the Canadian government wasn’t allowed to establish rule until December. For almost a year, the colony had no legal government to protect their rights. But before taking control the Canadian government sent out surveyors to the Red River settlement. The Metis were worried because they had no documents that proved the land was theirs. They were worried of other settlers coming in and taking their land, plus they had heard a rumour the government was planning to create a railway through their land. The Metis of Red River turned for leadership to Louis Riel Resistance at Red River 1869-70 William McDougall National Committee of the Metis created to decide how to protect Metis Land. William McDougall is appointed Lieutenant-Govenor for the North-West Territories. He heads to the colony to establish a Canadian government for the territory. When McDougall arrives at the settlement he is not allowed to enter and is told their will be no governor without Metis consultation. Louis Riel takes over Fort Garry. From this position the Metis can control the colony. Resistance at Red River 1869-70 The Metis set up a Provisional government to replace the Hudson’s Bay Company rule. Sir John A. Macdonald sends a messenger to find out what the people of Red River want. The colony does not belong to Canada until December 1st, 1869. The Metis draw up a Bill of Rights with their requests and send it to Ottawa. Settlers from Ontario protest and are jailed by Riel. Riel and the Provisional Government 1870 Resistance at Red River 1869-70 Thomas Scott threatens to escape and kill Riel. Riel orders Scott brought to trial. The Metis Bill of Rights Major requests; 1) the right to enter Canada’s confederation as a province. Scott is found guilty of disobedience to the lawful government and within 24 hours if brought before a firing squad. Riel’s Provisional government works out an agreement with Ottawa called the Manitoba Act. On July 15th, 1870 Manitoba becomes the fifth province. Fearing for his life, Riel flees to the United States. 2) the right to elect and send four Members of Parliament to Ottawa. 3) control over their own local affairs. 4) the right to use both French and English languages especially in schools and law courts. 5) the right to keep their customs, tradition, and Metis way of life. Depictions of the Execution of Thomas Scott Painting of Fort Garry Fort Garry Chapter 9 The North-West Mounted Police For years people in the North-West were without a real police force to enforce any of the laws. There were numerous outlaws and whiskey traders in the area. Without a police force to stop them, they could do pretty much whatever they wanted. Parliament decided to form the North-West Mounted Police. The duties of the force were to keep peace, prevent crime and catch criminals. It would be a mounted force. A chain of posts would be build from Manitoba to the Rocky Mountains. The troops would wear bright red scarlet jackets. Red was chosen to it was to represent the British empire and also to distinguish the Mounties from the US Calvary which wore the more traditional police blue. Treaties with Aboriginal Peoples A treaty is an agreement between peoples or nations, often for friendship, peace, or the purchase of lands and property. After Confederation the Canadian government wanted to open the western lands form settlement. To make this happen the government had to approach the Aboriginal peoples to give up their lands. The government wanted them to move onto reserves. Reserves were pieces of land set aside for Aboriginal peoples. Other people could not settle, hunt or fish in these areas. North-West Mounted Police Uniform Treaties with Aboriginal Peoples The Government’s View Aboriginal Nations’ View The government thought the people of the plains should farm the land. The Aboriginal peoples did not want to be treated like children. In the government’s view, farming was a good alternative way of life for the plains people. They had little experience of farming and did not want to be farmers. For centuries they had established their own governments and lived by their own laws. They felt they had the right to choose their way of life and to preserve their culture and languages. By teaching the plains people how to farm and by giving them land, the government thought it was doing what was best for the Aboriginal peoples Why did Aboriginal Peoples Sign Treaties? 1) The Disappearance of the Buffalo by the 1870’s Buffalo hunting had become a sport. Farmers and ranchers complained they destroyed pastures and trampled crops. Because of the railway, many Buffalo refused to cross the tracks. By 1879 the Buffalo was almost extinct. The Buffalo Hunt The Buffalo Hunt Why did Aboriginal Peoples Sign Treaties? 2) Increasing Settlement Now that the North-West police were around it was much safer to settle west. The railway also made the west much easier to reach for more settlers. The Aboriginal peoples were worried about losing more land. Maybe the treaties offered a better solution to their problems. Historical Aboriginal Treaties Why did Aboriginal Peoples Sign Treaties? 3) Sickness and Disease Europeans brought with them measles, tuberculosis and smallpox. Aboriginal people had not developed immunity to them. The diseases severely lowered the numbers and spirits of the Aboriginal people. More Pictures Gabriel Dumont -famous Metis buffalo hunter. He was an important player in the 1885 rebellion. North-West Police meet with Aboriginals -he worked for Buffalo Bill’s travelling wild west show as a sharpshooter.