North-West Rebellion Gabriel Dumont The Return of Riel Battle of Duck Lake Battle of Batoche Execution of Riel The North-West Rebellion The promise of a French-Canadian home in Manitoba was already at an end New settlers had arrived pushing the Metis out The Metis had gone to Saskatchewan as the buffalo were disappearing The Metis had no clear title to the land they settled and the surveyors had moved in The Plains People were also suffering the Cree, Blackfoot and the Sioux The Return of Louis Riel The other settlers were angry as well The harvest was poor and the prices low The worse most settlers had taken land along the northern rail route The railway had taken the southern route By 1884 the North-West was ripe for rebellion “Only one man can help us now Riel!” Gabriel Dumont was sent to get Riel Riel is in Montana Gabriel Dumont legendary hunter and master sharpshooter led the Metis to find Riel Dumont was an expert horseman who spoke 6 different native languages as well as French and some English With the buffalo gone Dumont had settled in Batoche he operated a ferry and ran a general store It was Dumont who asked Riel to return Lead his People to Freedom Louis Riel was now teaching in Montana it had been 15 years since the Red River Rebellion but the Metis still remembered Louis Riel was not the same person he had suffered a series of emotional breakdowns and had spent several years in asylums Louis Riel was convinced he was the “prophet of the grasslands” He had begun to call himself “David” and when the “avenging angel” Gabriel had asked him to return the hand of “God” was present Louis and John Riel sent Macdonald a petition on behalf of the residents of the region asking for provincial status An elected government and control of natural resources “Old Tomorrow” Macdonald delayed Riel and the Metis grew impatient Louis Riel declared a provisional government in the village of Batoch On March 19, 1885 the NorthWest Rebellion began “Fire! In the name of the Father! In the name of the Son! In the name of the Holy Spirit! Fire! At Duck Lake the North-West Mounted Police and the Metis under the command of Gabriel Dumont clashed Dumont won the battle sending the Mounties into retreat 12 officers and men died Dumont wanted to pursue and kill them all but Riel would not let him “If you are going to give them the advantage like that, we cannot win!” Dumont complained By this time Riel’s religious delusions had resurfaced Dumont’s brother Isidore was killed in this battle Poundermaker 2 breakaway bands of Cree warriors along with some Sioux and Assiniboine did join the rebellion Big Bear who had earlier resisted the call to the reserves and Poundmaker the adopted son of Crowfoot lead the revolt Big Bear’s warriors under Wandering Spirit attacked the settlement at Frog Lake and killed 9 settlers Poundmaker attacked Battleford, the settlers fled Big Bear With the buffalo gone, the nomadic Cree were starving The Cree warriors and the Metis did not co-ordinate their attacks In effect they were 2 rebellions 1 of the Metis and the other Cree The settlers who had supported Louis Riel at the beginning left with the rebellion Complain “yes” fight “no” Big Bear wanted no part of the violence, but with his people starving he could not stop events CPR to the Rescue! The reaction to the rebellion was quick In 1870 it had taken the army 3 hard months to get to Manitoba In 1885 the CPR had reached the plains Within 10 days the first troops had arrived within the month more than 5000 soldiers were in place The army Mounties and militia were under the command of General Frederick Middleton Louis Riel saved John A’s CPR General Middleton Before the rebellion the railway had been next to bankruptcy With the outbreak of the rebellion parliament gave the extra money and the troops moved westward General Middleton divided his forces into 3 columns and used the main line of the CPR as their base Column 1 under Major-General Thomas Strange moved north from Calgary against Big Bear Column 3 under General Middleton left Qu’Appelle and headed for Batoche Battle of Batoche Column 2 under Colonel William Otter moved north from Swift Current to relieve Battleford and capture Poundermaker The Metis and the Cree were now on the defensive At Fish Creek south of Batoche General Middleton marched his troops into an ambush A small force of Metis under Gabriel Dumont fought Middleton to a standstill However, the odds were against the Metis “In a minute. I want to kill another Englishman.” last words of Joseph Ouellette Middleton had more men and supplies and the latest in warfare technology, an American Gatling gun Middleton and his men attacked the village of Batoche on May 9, 1885 The fighting lasted for 4 days When the army finally stormed the defenses Gabriel Dumont almost single-handedly held them off for an hour so the others could escape 21 Metis died at Batoche including 93 Joseph Ouellette Death of a Rebellion Dumont and Riel became separated in the escape On May 15, 1885 Louis Riel the “prophet of the grasslands” surrendered to the Canadian Army 11 days later Poundermaker also surrendered Big Bear held out for another month and a half before he too surrendered Gabriel Dumont escaped to the United States were he joined “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show”as “the Hero of the HalfBreed Rebellion” The Trial of the Century Poundermaker and Big Bear were sent to prison 8 Cree warriors including Wandering Spirit were sentenced to public hangings Riel refused to plead insanity He was tried in Regina and found guilty of treason The jury recommended mercy, Quebec warned that if Riel was executed it was “a declaration of war against Quebec” John A refused to intervene Riel Must Die! As John A. said “He will hang, though every dog in Quebec barks in his favour.” John A. refused to pardon Louis Riel, Riel did lead an armed rebellion against the government that caused the death of more than 200 people At this time the penalty for such crimes was death John A. Macdonald had built his political career on an alliance between English and FrenchCanadians “The Old Man, the Old Flag, and the Old Policy” Like John A. Macdonald Louis Riel has become all things to all people, “a prophet, a traitor, a madman, a hero” On November 7, 1885 Donald Smith drove home the last spike for the CPR On November 17, 1885 Louis Riel climbed the steps to the gallows In 1891 John A. Macdonald fought his last campaign and won On June 6, 1891 John A. Macdonald died The End of Riel and Macdonald What now for Canada?