Received Pronunciation(RP)
Introduction
 Received Pronunciation (RP) is the standard accent of Standard
English in Great Britain, with a relationship to regional accents
similar to the relationship in other European languages between
their standard varieties and their regional forms.
 RP is defined in the Concise Oxford Dictionary as "the standard
accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although some
have argued that it can be heard from native speakers throughout
England and Wales.
 Although there is nothing intrinsic about RP that
marks it as superior to any other variety,
sociolinguistic factors have given Received
Pronunciation particular prestige in parts of Britain.
 It has thus been the accent of those with power,
money and influence since the early to mid 20th
century, though it has more recently been criticised
as a symbol of undeserved privilege.
 However, since the 1960s, a greater permissiveness
towards allowing regional English varieties has taken
hold in education[7]and the media in Britain; in some
contexts conservative RP is now perceived negatively.
 It is important not to confuse the notion of Received
Pronunciation, as a standard accent, with the
standard variety of the English language used in
England that is given names such as "Standard
English", "the Queen's English", "Oxford English" or
"BBC English".
 The study of RP is concerned exclusively with
pronunciation, while study of the standard language
is also concerned with matters such as grammar,
vocabulary and style.
History
 The introduction of the term Received Pronunciation
is usually credited to Daniel Jones (a London-born
British phonetician ).
 In the first edition of the English Pronouncing
Dictionary (1917) he named the accent "Public
School Pronunciation", but for the second edition in
1926 he wrote "In what follows I call it Received
Pronunciation (abbreviation RP), for want of a better
term."
 However, the expression had actually been used much
earlier by Alexander Ellis in 1869 and Peter
DuPonceau in 1818 (the term used by Henry C. K.
Wyld in 1927 was "received standard“).
 According to Fowler's Modern English Usage (1965),
the correct term is "the Received Pronunciation".
 The word received conveys its original meaning of
accepted or approved – as in "received wisdom".
 The reference to this pronunciation as Oxford English
is because it was traditionally the common speech of
Oxford University; the production of dictionaries gave
Oxford University prestige in matters of language.
 The extended versions of the Oxford English
Dictionary give Received Pronunciation guidelines for
each word.
 RP is an accent (a form of pronunciation) and a
register, rather than a dialect (a form of vocabulary
and grammar as well as pronunciation).
 It may show a great deal about the social and
educational background of a person who uses English.
 RP is often believed to be based on the Southern
accents of England, but it actually has most in
common with the Early Modern English dialects of the
East Midlands.
 This was the most populated and most prosperous
area of England during the 14th and 15th centuries.
 By the end of the 15th century, "Standard English"
was established in the City of London.
 A mixture of London speech with elements from East
Midlands, Middlesex and Essex, became known as
Received Pronunciation.
Comparison with other varieties of English
 Like most other varieties of English outside Northern England, RP has undergone the
foot–strut split: pairs like put/putt are pronounced differently.
 RP is a non-rhotic accent, so /r/ does not occur unless followed immediately by a vowel.
Pairs such as father/farther, pawn/porn, caught/court and formally/formerly are
homophones.
 RP has undergone the wine–whine merger so the sequence /hw/ is not present except
among those who have acquired this distinction as the result of speech training.The
Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, based in London, still teaches these two sounds as
distinct phonemes. They are also distinct from one another in most of Scotland and
Ireland, in the northeast of England, and in the southeastern United States.
 Unlike many other varieties of English language in England, there is no h-dropping in
words like head or horse.[69]
 Unlike most Southern Hemisphere English accents, RP has not undergone the weakvowel merger, meaning that pairs such as Lenin/Lennon are distinct.
 Unlike most North American accents of English, RP has not undergone the Mary–
marry–merry, nearer–mirror, or hurry–furry mergers: all these words are distinct from
each other.

Unlike many North American accents, RP has not undergone the father-bother or cot–caught
mergers.

RP does not have yod-dropping after /n/, /t/, /d/, /z/ and /θ/ and has only variable yod-dropping
after /s/ and /l/. Hence, for example, new, tune, dune, resume and enthusiasm are pronounced
/njuː/, /tjuːn/, /djuːn/, /rɪˈzjuːm/ and /ɪnˈθjuːziæzm/ rather than /nuː/, /tuːn/, /duːn/, /rɪˈzuːm/
and /ɪnˈθuːziæzm/. This contrasts with many East Anglian and East Midland varieties of English
language in England and with many forms of American English, including General American. In
words such as pursuit and evolution, both pronunciations (with and without /j/) are heard in RP.
There are, however, several words where a yod has been lost with the passage of time: for example,
the word suit originally had a yod in RP but this is now extremely rare.

The flapped variant of /t/ and /d/ (as in much of the West Country, Ulster, most North American
varieties including General American, and the Cape Coloured dialect of South Africa) is not used very
often. In traditional RP [ɾ] is an allophone of /r/ (used only intervocalically).
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Received Pronunciation(RP) - Universiti Putra Malaysia